London University, founded by charter of 1836, was not a teaching but an examining body granting degrees in arts, science, medicine, law, and music. The Act of 1898, with the royal sanction of its statutes in 1900, reconstituted it as a teaching body, comprising numerous 'schools' in or near London - University College and King's College in all their faculties; in theology, five Nonconformist colleges; in arts, science, or agriculture, Holloway College, Bedford College, Westfield College, the Royal College of Science, the Agricultural College at Wye; in medicine, the schools attached to Bartholomew's, Guy's, St Thomas's, and eight other London hospitals; in engineering, the Central Technical College and the City and Guilds Institute; and in economics, the London School of Economics and Political Science. In all the University thus constituted reckons eight faculties - theology, arts, laws, music, medicine, science, engineering, and economics and political science; and the headquarters are now in the Imperial Institute at South Kensington.

While the London Government Act of 1S99, establishing the borough councils, simplified the management of the capital, there is still much overlapping and conflicting of authorities. Amongst nearly 300 different authorities engaged in public administration are : London County Council, London School Board, City Common Council, Metropolitan Borough Councils (28), Commissioners of London Police, Sick Asylum Boards (2), District School Boards (4), Boards of Guardians (31), Thames and Lea Conservancy Boards. The administrative county of London, established in 1889, has an area of 118 square miles, and consists of the City and the districts which had grown up round it, known as the metropolis. Greater London (the Metropolitan and City of London Police Districts) includes the counties of London and Middlesex, and parts of Kent, Surrey, Essex, and Herts, and has an area of 693 square miles. The metropolitan water area is 620 miles in extent, and differs in boundary. The metropolis for criminal jurisdiction has an area of 420 square miles. The County Court and Police Court areas differ from all these and from each other. The population of the City (37,702 in 1890) was in 1901, 26,923, reckoning only persons sleeping within the area ; the number entering the City during the day has been estimated at considerably over 1,000,000. The administrative county (4,228,317 in 1891) had in 1901 a pop. of 4,536,541, including the City. The Metropolitan and City Police District had 6,581,372. The rateable value of the City in 1901-2 was 4,8S8,378, and the corporation expenditure 649,215; and for the administrative county the corresponding figures were 35,455,315 and 4,595,364. London is divided into 60 parliamentary divisions, including West Ham (2), each returning one member, except the City, which has two.

The number of steam and sailing vessels which entered the Port of London, with cargoes and in ballast (excluding coast trade), in 1902 was 11,444, with a total tonnage of 10,179,023; and 8346 vessels, of 7,385,085 tons, cleared. The proportion of imports into London as compared with the remainder of the kingdom has slightly declined from 35 per cent. in 1872 to 32'5 per cent. in 1900.

The death-rate of London in 1855 was 24.3 per 1000; in 1901 it was 17.1 per 1000. At the census of 1901 there were in London 56,435 persons of Scottish birth and 60,211 of Irish birth. Of 135,277 foreigners, 38,117 were Russians, 15,420 Russian Poles, 27,427 Germans, 11,264 French, 10,889 Italians, 6189 Austrians, 5561 Americans (U.S.), 4249 Dutch, 4419 Swiss, 2102 Belgians, 1675 Swedish, 1067 Norwegian, 946 Danish.

See Stow's Survey (1599); Maitland's History (1756); Newcourt's Repertorium (2 vols. 1708); Cunningham's Handbook (1849; new ed. by Wheatley, 3 vols. 1891); Sharpe's London and the Kingdom (1894); Paul's Vanishing London (1896); Thome's Environs (2 vols. 1877); Wal ford's Greater London (2 vols. 1885); Baedeker's Handbook (1889); Hutton's Literary Landmarks (4th ed. 1888); Cassell's Old and New London (6 vols. 1887); Loftie's London (1890); and a series of works (1892-1904) by Sir W. Besant.