London is situated mainly on the north or left bank of the Thames, about 60 miles from the sea, in 51° 30' 48" N. lat. and 5' 48" W. long. The city was, according to many authorities, founded in 43 a.d., when Aulus Plautius was the Roman governor of Britain. The name is Celtic, and would appear to signify a fort on a lake or lagoon, the Thames being here a tidal estuary. During the greater part of the Roman occupation of Britain London consisted of two forts, one at either end of the bridge, built where the Thames is 900 feet wide (narrower than either above or below). The un-walled suburbs seem to have been populous and wealthy from an early period; and, when abandoned by Suetonius, they were burned byBoadicea in 61 a.d. They were still undefended in 286 and long after. The wall which for so many centuries was destined to defend the boundaries of the city was built in 350-369, and enclosed 380 acres. From 369 till 412 London was the capital of Britain, with the title of Augusta. After the Roman departure London disappears from history until 457, when the Britons, fleeing before the victorious Hengest, took refuge behind the Roman wall. In 604 we find it named as the ' Metropolis' - the ecclesiastical capital - of the East Saxons. During the Danish wars London was abandoned and lay desolate for thirty years. To King Alfred we must look as the real founder of modern London. William recognised the great position and ancient rights of London in a special charter by which the privileges enjoyed by the citizens under Edward the Confessor were confirmed to them ; but the most important grant from the crown was that of Henry I. in 1101. The ' Lord Mayor,' appointed for one year, is still held to rank as an earl, but within the city, where he has the position of the Lord-lieutenant of a county, next to the sovereign. The Court of Aldermen consists of twenty-six members. The Common Council was first elected in 1200; there are now upwards of 200 common councillors. The Common Hall consists only of members of the Livery Companies, and has obtained or usurped many of the rights of the whole body of citizens. The growth of the municipality was slow. Nevertheless, commerce increased, and the settlement of such foreign merchants as those of the so-called Steelyard, and of the Lombard and other Italian bankers, raised London by the time of Edward III. to a wealthy and prosperous condition. The usurpation, as many deemed it, of Henry IV. could hardly have succeeded had it not been for the support of the city ; and Henry V., whose French victories inflated trade, was most popular with the citizens. After a period of depression, the reign of Edward IV., by reviving and creating outlets for foreign trade, restored the prosperity of the city. Under the Tudors there were great fluctuations. The tenets of the Reformation were warmly welcomed in London. The accession of Queen Elizabeth gave a considerable impetus to London trade ; and the Merchant Adventurers, chartered by her father, now stepped into the place previously occupied by the Germans of the Steelyard. The last charter of Queen E liza-beth was granted to the East India Company. The silk manufacture, driven out of Flanders by the cruelties of the Spaniards, was naturalised in England; and even the short-sighted policy of the first Stuart could not repress the rapidly-growing enterprise of the Londoners, whom the discovery of America and of a sea-passage to India stimulated to greater and greater exertions. While the wealth and population of London thus increased during the 16th and part of the 17th century, the city itself became less and less fit for habitation. Its unhealthiness was partly caused by the deficiency of the water-supply, partly by overcrowding; the plague scarcely ever left its narrow streets and filthy alleys. Sir Hugh Myddelton, by bringing clean water to the city in abundant quantity in 1620, bestowed upon it the greatest possible boon. James I. had reverted as far as he could to the mistaken policy of such kings as Henry III. and Richard II. ; but it was reserved for Charles I., after a long series of high-handed proceedings, to seize the money of the city goldsmiths deposited in the Tower. His downfall was certain when the city turned against him ; but, except for a very brief period, the Commonwealth found little favour in London, and Cromwell imposed one humiliation after another upon the citizens. Charles II. was warmly welcomed, but followed in the footsteps of his father. Extortion and oppression were the instruments of his policy, and in 1672 he closed the Exchequer, and ruined nearly all the London bankers at a blow. Meanwhile two even greater disasters had come - the Great Plague of 1665 and the Great Fire of 1666. During the fearful epidemic of 1665 the deaths during the year v. ere officially stated at 97,306. As the population was reckoned at about 500,000, it will be seen that nearly a fifth perished. The Great Fire commenced on the 2d September, at 1 o'clock a.m., and raged for five days. It was estimated that 396 acres of houses were destroyed, fifteen city wards were consumed utterly, and eight others damaged, comprising 400 streets, 13,200 private houses, 88 churches and St Paul's Cathedral, and four city gates. The loss in mere money was estimated at about four millions. Sir Christopher Wren built a new St Paul's, and many other beautiful buildings, including the Monument, a column 202 feet high, erected near where the fire began. St Paul's has a dome 404 feet high and 145 feet in external diameter; the length of the building east and west is 500 feet. It contains many memorials, the best of which are Wellington's, by Stevens ; Lord Melbourne's, by Maro-chetti; and a recumbent figure of General Gordon, by Boehm. In the crypt are buried Lord Nelson (1805), Reynolds (1792), Turner (1851), Wellington (1852), Landseer (1873), and Wren himself (1723). The Exchange of Sir Thomas Gresham was burned, rebuilt, and then burned again, and finally rebuilt in 1844. The Guildhall, partly of the 13th century, partly of the 15th, which had been the scene of so many historical events, was damaged by the Great Fire of 1666, but not destroyed, and was handsomely restored. Among the churches spared by the fire is St Bartholomew's, in part a fine Norman structure; St Giles's, Cripplegate, built 1545, in which John Milton was buried, 1674; St Helen's, Bishopsgate, full of fine monuments; St Katharine Cree, said to have been designed by Inigo Jones, 1631 ; and St Andrew Undershaft, in which is Stow's monument.
Charles II. seized the charter and nominated a so-called Lord Mayor. At first James II. carried on his brother's evil policy towards the city. In December 1688 the citizens formally petitioned William to assume the crown, and in a few hours found ample funds for his use. The opposition of London, in old times fatal to a king or his family, affects still the fortunes of ministries. The remaining events that need be noticed here are the establishment of the Bank of England in 1694; the removal of the old wall and its gates in 1760 ; the clearing of the houses from London Bridge about the same time, and its complete rebuilding in 1831, when it was only one of a large number of bridges. Many have been built since then; the latest addition is a bridge below the Tower. The Mansion House is the official residence of the Lord Mayor. The population of the city has dwindled year by year, and especially since the multiplication of railways. Few tradesmen now live above their place of business, and the difference between the number of people who actually reside within the ancient boundaries and of those who only come in to business is immense. In 1881 there were 6493 inhabited houses and a night pop. of 50,526 ; but 25,143 houses were used during the day, when the pop. rose to 261,061. In 1891 the night pop. was only 37,694; while the day pop. was 301,384. Meanwhile the suburbs have spread in all directions, and the houses of Londoners are found in Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, and Sussex, as well as in Kent, Surrey, Essex, and Middlesex. The bishop resides in Westminster, and at an ancient manor-house of the see at Fulham. There is a dean of St Paul's who resides close to his church. He is assisted by four residentiary or stagiary canons, and by a precentor, a chancellor, and two archdeacons, and there are thirty canons of the old foundation, now usually called prebendaries, and a college of minor canons.
The County of London. Under the Local Government Act of 1888 a new county was defined, to consist of London and the suburban parishes of Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent - previously called ' the Metropolitan Area.' By the Act of 1888 a county council was provided for this district; the county of Middlesex was divided, one part forming a new county of Middlesex, and the other, united with parts of Surrey and Kent, forming the new county of London. By the Act of 1899 the administrative county of London (with the exception of the City), heretofore under more than a hundred and twenty local authorities (vestries, district boards, burial boards, &c), was reorganised into twenty-eight municipal boroughs, each under a municipal council. These boroughs are : Battersea, Bermondsey, Bethnal Green, Camberwell, Chelsea, Deptford, Finsbury, Fulham, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith, Hampstead, Holborn, Islington, Kensington, Lambeth, Lewisham, Paddington, Poplar, St Marylebone, St Pancras, Shoreditch, Southwark, Stepney, Stoke Newing-ton, Wandsworth, Westminster, Woolwich. The councils have all the powers and duties of the old vestries and district boards, and some of those of the London County Council.
The suburbs of London grew in spite of city and parliament; by 1222 a continuous street united Westminster with London; another stretched beyond the Tower to Stepney; and a third, flowing out of Bishopsgate, reached northward to Islington. In the same 13th century a great 'ward without' was formed westward, extending to the Temple and Holborn Bars; and, on the north, part of Moor-fields was made a 'ward without' in the jurisdiction of the alderman of Bishopsgate. But, except for the formal addition of Southwark in Surrey, made in 1327, confirmed and defined in 1550, no further extension of the city liberties took place.
The precinct of the Tower, eastward of the city wall, was formed partly by aggressions on the citizens, partly by acquisitions from the lord of Stepney, and partly by reclamations from the Thames. Two bastions of the old wall, generally called Roman, and certainly dating back to the reign of Alfred, were removed, and the White and Wakefield towers were built on them. Gun-dulf, a monk of Bee, designed the White Tower, begun in 1078; the chapel of St John in the White Tower being supplemented by the parish or precinct church of St Peter ' ad Vincula' on the Green in the reign of Henry II. The keep is approximately in the centre, and is surrounded by walls and towers forming the inner and outer wards. The towers of the inner ward were those chiefly used for prisoners' lodgings, but a complete royal palace was in the south-eastern corner. Of this palace, from which Queen Anne Boleyn went to her death on the adjoining green, scarcely a vestige remains. The lieutenant's lodgings, where, or in the chief-warder's house next door, Lady Jane (Grey) Dudley lived, is now called the Queen's House. The Beauchamp and Devereux towers seem to have held the most illustrious prisoners; they, with the Bell Tower, in which Fisher, Bishop of Rochester (1534), and Mary, Countess of Lennox (1565), were confined, form the western side of the inner ward. It is impossible to name more than a very few of the most famous persons who have suffered imprisonment in the Tower : Sir Thomas More, Sir Walter Raleigh, the Earl of Strafford, Archbishop Laud, the Duke of Monmouth, the Jacobite lords of 1715 and 1745. Many of these prisoners were buried in St Peter's Church, which having been burned in 1512 was rebuilt in time to receive the bodies of Queen Anne Boleyn and other victims of the Tudor times. It was ' restored' some years ago in a very thorough manner, every vestige, except some monuments of the period which witnessed these sad scenes, being carefully obliterated. The crown jewels were long kept in the Brick Tower, at the north-eastern corner, but in 1867 were removed to a chamber in the Wakefield Tower, also now 'restored.' The great collection of armour, founded by Henry VIII. in his palace at Greenwich, is on the upper floor of the White Tower. The ticket-oflice, by which the visitor enters the fortress, is on the site of a menagerie which dates back to the time of Henry I., whence the saying 'to see the lions,' meaning to visit the Tower. The principal feature of the outer ward is St Thomas's Tower, or the Traitor's Gate, facing the Bloody or Garden Tower, the entrance of the inner ward. A little farther east, still on the Thames bank, we come to one of the numerous divisions, known as the Tower Hamlets, into which the original parish of Stepney has been parcelled. This used to be Ratcliffe and Wapping, but has long been known as St George's in the East. Next to it is Lime-house. Next to Limehouse is Poplar, which includes the Isle of Dogs (' Docks'), a kind of delta formed by the river Lea. Farther inland are Bethnal Green, a vast district, chiefly covered with factories and with the houses of artisans and labourers. Mile End, Old and New Towns, with Whitechapel north of the Tower, form a complete ring round Stepney. The Bethnal Green Museum of the Science and Art Department has housed and exhibited various fine collections of pictures and works of art. Much of Hackney, which adjoins Stepney on the north, has been kept open ; an old park of the bishops being now laid out as Finsbury Park. South of this district, which stands high, are Haggerston and Hoxton, densely populated parishes, comprising the ancient Shoreditch, and reaching to the city wall. Westward are the two divisions of Finsbury, St Luke's and Clerken-well. In Clerkenwell, but not strictly speaking of it, is the Carthusian monastery, now a kind of refuge for decayed gentlemen, known as the Charterhouse (see Godalming). Clerkenwell, the site of the house of the Hospitallers, has still its St John's Gate, with memories of Dr Johnson. Islington, northwards and westwards, has a very ancient history, extending back to the Conquest ; Stoke Newington has a curious old church and a new one; in St Andrew's, Holborn, Lord Beaconsfield was baptised, and in its cemetery, in Shoe Lane, Chatterton was buried. In Bloomsbury the British Museum is situated. St Giles's, long a rookery of wretched tenements, has been greatly cleansed and improved of late, but the too famous Seven Dials continue to deserve an evil reputation. Nell Gwynn lived in Wardour Street, the Duke of Monmouth in Soho Square, Dryden in Long Acre and in Gerard Street. The small parish of St Paul, Covent Garden, boasts of a church designed by Inigo Jones, of the greatest vegetable and flower market in London, and of innumerable literary associations. In Bow Street was Wills's Coffeehouse, where Pepys met Dryden; Turner, the landscape-painter, was born in Maiden Lane; Charles Lamb lived in Russell Court; and there are memories also of Pope, Sheridan, Butler, and Prior. At the eastern end of the Strand, next to (the site of) Temple Bar, we have the colossal buildings of the New Law Courts (1874-82), of which George E. Street was the original designed, but so thwarted by the authorities, that only the best features, such as the noble hall (238 feet long) and the tower, can be considered his. North of the courts is Lincoln's Inn Fields, the largest square in London. Before we reach Waterloo Bridge we are in the precinct of the Savoy, of which the hospital was suppressed in 1703, and the chapel, where Gavin Douglas is buried, made ' royal' in 1773.
The Thames Embankment (1864-1903) borders the Strand from the city round a great bend of the Thames at Charing Cross to Westminster. When we pass the city boundary near the Temple, we are abreast of the offices of the London School Board, by Shaw, next to which is the river-front of Somerset House, by Chambers. Gardens beautifully laid out conduct us past the Savoy, the Adelphi Terrace, and the Egyptian obelisk called 'Cleopatra's Needle.' Charing Cross station occupies the site of Hungerford Market. The cross in the court toward the Strand was meant for a reproduction of the Eleanor Cross erected by Edward I. Northumberland Avenue was made in 1874. Trafalgar Square is on the site of the old Kings' Mews. Its chief ornament is the church of St Martin 'in the Fields,' by Gibbs (1726). The National Gallery is a poor building (by Wilkins, 1838). The monumental Corinthian column to Nelson is very conspicuous, with four lions by Landseer at its base. Behind it is a statue of General Gordon by Thornycroft. Cockspur Street leads us past the Haymarket and its great opera-house to Waterloo Place, where are the Guards' Memorial, a very poor bronze Victory; the Duke of York's column with statue by Westmacott; and monuments, mostly very bad, to Franklin, Lord Clyde, Lord Lawrence, etc. The clubs in Pall Mall and St James's Street are in many cases justly admired. Piccadilly begins a little to the eastward of Waterloo Place and its continuation Regent Street, and is called from a kind of tea-garden, Peccadillo Hall, which stood where the Criterion is now. The formation of Regent Street must be ascribed to Nash. In the Regent's Park are situated the Zoological and Botanic Gardens. In Piccadilly there are still some fine palaces, as Devonshire House, Northampton House, the residence of Lord Rothschild, Apsley House, and Burlington House (injured by alterations and additions). Here are lodged the Royal Academy, the Royal, the Antiquarian, the Linnean, and several other learned societies. The gardens are covered by the exhibition rooms of the academy, and by the offices and theatre of the university of London. Northward and westward is the great parish of St George, Hanover Square, which comprises Mayfair, Grosvenor Square, and Belgravia, extending from Oxford Street on the north to the Thames on the south. St George's Church is heavy in design, except the portico The parish nearly all belongs to the Duke of Westminster. In St Pancras parish is Kentish town. The new parish church of St Pancras, in the Euston Road, was built in what was thought to be a Grecian style in 1822. The Midland Railway terminus at St Pancras, by Sir G. G. Scott, is one of the largest and most imposing buildings of the kind.
Tyburn, named from a little brook or bourne which formerly ran through it, was anciently the name of the parish which Ave know as St Marylebone. The place of execution was at first by the burnside. As the suburbs increased and crept towards St Marylebone, the gallows was removed farther west. In 1512 it stood in the adjoining manor of Lilleston, close to the modern Marble Arch, and eventually it was set up for each execution at the foot of Edgware Road. At one or other of these places the Holy Maid of Kent (1534), many priests in the reign of Elizabeth, Felton, the assassin of Buckingham (1628), Jack Sheppard (1724), Jonathan Wild (1725), Lord Ferrers (1760), Mrs Brownrigg(l767), and the Rev. W. Dodd (1777) were hanged. The last execution here was that of John Austen (1783). Tyburnia is not in Tyburn, nor yet in Lilleston, but in Paddington. Oxford Street is called after Edward Harley, second Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, who married the heiress of the property on which it was built. North of St Marylebone is Hampstead (q.v.), with its splendid open heath, some parts of it 450 feet above the sea. Paddington lies wholly westward of the Edgware Road. A small part of Kensington Gardens is in Westbourne. Westward of Kensington (q.v.) is Hammersmith, a populous suburb, taken out of Fulham, which reaches down to the Thames, and forms the western extremity of the county. Fulham boasts of an ancient church and of the palace of the bishops of London. Chelsea (q.v.) adjoins Fulham.
Crossing the Thames, we reach that part of Surrey which has been included in the new county. Battersea is chiefly remarkable now for the beautiful park, opened in 1852. Westward of Battersea is Wandsworth, south of it is Clapham, and beyond that Penge, in which is the Crystal Palace, usually called from the neighbouring Sydenham (q.v.). Kennington, the site of a manor-house of the princes of Wales, Brixton a little farther south, and Norwood, on the summit of the southern line of hills which enclose what is called the London Basin, come next, and the manor of Lambeth (q.v.) faces Westminster. The domestic parts of Lambeth Palace are modern, but the chapel was built about 1250, the 'Lollards' Tower,' 1440, the gateway, 1490, and the hall, now the library, in 1663. Two modern buildings are very conspicuous at Lambeth - Doulton's terra-cotta factory, south of the palace, and St Thomas's Hospital, removed to this site in 1871.
From this point eastward to Southwark the low-lying area is occupied with mean streets and lanes, and with great warehouses, stores, and wharves; Shakespeare's Bankside Theatre is probably covered by the approaches to Waterloo Bridge. Eastward of Southwark are Bermond-sey, where a famous abbey flourished before the Reformation, and Rotherhithe, at an abrupt bend of the Thames. Both districts are densely covered with factories and labourers' dwellings. Farther inland and southward are Newington, Walworth, the immense parish of Camberwell, with Dulwich (q.v.) College and picture-gallery, and Peckham. Eastward of Camberwell we enter those parishes which are taken from Kent. They comprise Lewisham, a good part of which is still open, and Deptford, Greenwich, and Woolwich, which are separately noted.
Westminster originally comprised a district outside of London, extending from the walls of London almost to the village of Kensington, but was gradually reduced in area. The present borough, included in the county of London, comprises the parishes of St Margaret and St John Westminster, St George Hanover Square, St James Westminster, St Martin-in-the-Fields, and the district of the Strand Board of Works and ineluding the close of the collegiate church of St Peter Westminster. The name contains a reference to an ancient abbey church, probably founded about the time of Offa, but refounded by Dunstan in the time of King Edgar, about the year 971; as also to another minster, that of St Paul. Edward the Confessor, who lived chiefly at Westminster, rebuilt the church, and of his work an archway in the south transept may be identified. The church was consecrated in 1065, and Freeman was of opinion that the ill-fated Harold was crowned in it, as certainly was the Conqueror. In 1269 a new church, that which we now see, was consecrated, having been built by Henry III. in honour of Edward the Confessor (canonised 1163). The nave was finished under Richard II., but the western towers were not built till 1735. The chapel of the Annunciation, or chantry of Henry V., was built in the reign of Henry VI. The Lady Chapel, or chapel of Henry VII., an elaborate example of the last phase of the old Gothic style, was built by Henry VIII., who subsequently suppressed the monastery and made Westminster a bishopric (for ten years only), since which the surrounding town has been reckoned a city. James I. set up the last of the royal monuments - those, namely, to his mother, Mary of Scotland, and to his predecessor Elizabeth. The north front was rebuilt by Wren, and was a beautiful example of his taste in Gothic. It was pulled down, and a new and less appropriate design by Mr Pearson substituted in 1890. The church is the burial-place of thirteen kings of England, including Henry III., Edward I., Edward III., Richard II., Henry V., Henry VII., Edward VI., James I., Charles II., William III., and George II., as Well as of five queens in their own right, and the queens of many of the kings. In the reign of Richard II. the practice of burying court favourites and others in the abbey commenced. The first poet to be laid in the south transept, often called the Poets' Corner, was Chaucer; here also are buried Spenser, Dryden, Garrick, Johnson, Dickens, Browning, Tennyson, and others of less note. The first Lord Lytton was buried in the chapel of St Edmund. Handel's grave is in the south transept, Dean Stanley's in the chapel of Henry VII. The north transept contains the graves of Mansfield, the two Pitts, the three Cannings, and other statesmen. In the nave are buried Newton, Sir Gilbert Scott, Street, Livingstone, Ben Jonson, Sir Charles Barry, Robert Stephenson, and Charles Darwin. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here, and since Edward I.'s reign have used the chair holding under its seat the Stone of Scone. Shortly before the dissolution of the monasteries William Caxton had set up the first English printing-press in the Almonry, a little to the west of the western front of the abbey. He is commemorated by a monument in the church of St Margaret, where he is buried. The Westminster Assembly, called by the Long Parliament to settle the doctrine, ritual, and government of the Church of England, met first in 1643 in Henry VII.'s chapel, and held the most of its 1163 meetings in the Jerusalem Chamber. The abbey remains are numerous, some of them being in the occupation of the school. The cloisters, except for restorations, are unusually perfect, and the domestic buildings of the Confessor's period are extensive. The Abbot of Westminster Avas a peer of parliament, took precedence of all other English abbots, and had an income which would be reckoned at about £60,000 of our money.
'The dean has succeeded to some of the privileges and more of the duties. The chapter includes six canons, one of whom is archdeacon. Kensington Gardens are still reckoned in the parliamentary borough of Westminster; and the palace of Kensington is within the boundary. The Dean of Westminster is still nominally lord of the manor, and appoints a steward, generally some nobleman of high rank. There are also a bailiff and sixteen burgesses. The deanery contains the 'chamber called Jerusalem,' probably from a painting of the holy city among its original decorations. Jerusalem forms a chapter-house, the original chapterhouse in the east cloister having for centuries been used by the House of Commons ; having become ruinous, it was almost rebuilt by Sir Gilbert Scott. The school closely adjoins the abbey, and the great school-room is part of the monks' dormitory, remains of the Confessor's buildings. Among the masters of the school, founded as St Peter's College by Queen Elizabeth in 1560, have been Camden, the Elizabethan antiquary, Busby, and Vincent Bourne; the scholars have included George Herbert, Cowley, Dryden, Prior, Cowper, and Southey, poets; the architect Wren; Locke and Gibbon; and the statesmen Warren Hastings, Lord Mansfield, and Lord Russell.
The churches of Westminster are now very numerous, but the original parish churches are only St Margaret's and St John's. St Margaret's seems to have first been built before 1140, but as we see it now is in a poor style of Gothic, with many modern additions. The headless body of Sir Walter Raleigh was buried in it in 1618. The east window is old Dutch. The church is supposed to be the special charge of the House of Commons. All the royal palaces of London used to be in Westminster, but since the parish has been dismembered only Whitehall, Kensington, and the Houses of Parliament can be reckoned within the boundaries. Of Whitehall but little remains. The chief relic was till lately the Chapel Royal, Whitehall. Henry VIII. first made a palace here. James I. constantly used Whitehall, and set Inigo Jones to design him a great palace on the site. Nothing was ever built except the chapel, as it was till lately called, then a banqueting hall. On the street front of this banqueting house are some blank windows ; one of these, the fourth from the north end, was broken through to provide an exit from the ground-floor of the hall to a ladder outside, leading to the scaffold, and by this passage Charles I. went to his doom. The Chapel Royal was closed in 1890, and in the following year was made over to the Royal United Service Institution.
The present ' palace of parliament' stands on a site consecrated by nearly six centuries of representative institutions. According to the local tradition it was Canute or Knut who first lived at Westminster, and here he rebuked the tide. It became the chief residence of successive kings, and the headquarters of the courts of law. The palace had numerous great public chambers and halls, where cases could be heard, great court functions could be carried out, and banquets given to hundreds of guests together. As the centuries went on these chambers formed not a homogeneous house, but a village of single apartments, such as the Painted Chamber, the Whitehall, the White Chamber, the Star Chamber, the Court of Requests, St Stephen's Chapel, and the Great Hall. To the westward of the Great Hall were the law-courts, and to the north and east the royal apartments. William Rufus rebuilt the Confessor's hall on an immense scale. Henry III. improved the palace greatly. Richard II. transformed the hall, and raised over it the magnificent roof of oak which is still intact. In 1512 a fire took place in the royal apartments, and Henry VIII. removed his court first to. Bridewell and then to Whitehall, but the law-courts were fixed in Westminster Hall from 1224. Many of the greatest events of English history, and all the greatest pageants have had their place in this old hall. In 1834 a conflagration resulted in the destruction of all that remained of the ancient palace, except the hall, the cloister of St Stephen's Chapel, and the crypt. All were worked into Sir Charles Barry's new design for the Houses of Parliament, in the Perpendicular style. The whole contains 11 courts, 1100 apartments, and cost some £3,000,000. The first bridge here was opened in 1750. The present Westminster Bridge Avas completed in 1862.