Calton Hill

Calton Hill. See Edinburgh.


Calumet, a mining locality of Houghton county, Michigan, on a peninsula of Lake Superior, 42 m. N. of L'Anse by rail. The Calumet and Hecla copper-mine is one of the richest in the world.


Calvados (Kal-vad'os), a maritime dep. of Normandy. The principal rivers are the Touques, Orne, Dives, Seulles, Aure, and Vire. The coast is formed partly by bold ridges, partly by sand-downs, cliffs, and reefs; the dangerous reef extending for 16 miles between the mouths of the Orne and the Vire was called Calvados, after the Salvador, a vessel in the Spanish Armada shipwrecked here, and from it the dep. takes its name. Towns are Caen (the capital), Bayeux, Falaix, Honfleur, Lisieux, and Trouville. Area, 2130 sq. m.; pop. (1861) 480,992; (1901) 410,178.


Calvi (Kal'vee), a seaport of Corsica, on a peninsula in the Gulf of Calvi, 38 miles WSW. of Bastia. Captured by the English after a siege of fifty-one days in 1794(when Nelson lost an eye), it was retaken by the Corsicans next year. Pop. 1987.


Calw, or Kalw (Kalv), a town of Wurtemberg, 35 miles WSW. of Stuttgart. Pop. 5423.


Cam, or Granta, a sluggish narrow river, which, rising in Essex, flows 40 miles NW. and NB. through Cambridgeshire, and falls into the Ouse 3 1/2 miles above Ely.


Camargue. See Bouches du Rhone.


Cambaluo (Khan-Baligh, 'city of the emperor'), the name by which Marco made Pekin (q.v.) known to Europe.


Cambay (Khambhat), the port and capital of a small Indian feudatory state of Bombay presidency, lies in the north-west portion of the peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Cambay, 52 miles S. of Ahmedabad. Many ruins still attest its former magnificence, the main cause of its decay having been the gradual obstruction of its seaward navigation. It exports agate, cornelian, and onyx ornaments. Pop. 31,390. The area of Cambay state is 350 sq. m.; pop. 79,722. - The Gulf of Cambay, 80 miles long and 25 broad, was formerly a great commercial resort.


Camberwell, a metropolitan and parliamentary borough (three members) of London. Pop. of metr. bor. (1901) 259,339.


Camborne, a Cornish town, 12 miles WSW. of Truro by rail. Round it are productive copper, tin, and lead mines. Pop. of parish, 14,730.


Cambrai (anc. Camaracum), a city and first-class fortress of the French dep. of Nord, on the Scheldt, 128 miles NNE. of Paris by rail. Among the principal public buildings are the town-house, archiepiscopal palace, and cathedral (rebuilt after the fire of 1859), with a monument to Fenelon. The town also contains a college, theological seminary, and library, with 40,000 vols, and 1200 MSS. The manufactures are cambric - so named from Cambrai - linen thread, lace, sugar, soap, leather, etc. Pop. (1872)22,897; (1901) 15,000. The League of Cambrai was formed in 1508 by the pope, the emperor, and the kings of Prance and Spain.