Tewkesbury, a quaint old market-town of Gloucestershire, on the Avon at its confluence with the Severn, 9 miles NNW. of Cheltenham, 10 NNE. of Gloucester, and 15 S. by E. of Worcester. On the site of the cell of the hermit Theoc, from whom the place got its name, was founded in 715 a monastery, re-founded in 1102 as a great Benedictine abbey. Its noble church, consecrated in 1123, measures 317 feet by 124 across the transepts, and remains essentially Norman, in spite of later additions. It was restored by Scott in 1875-79. Special features are the west front and the massive central tower, 132 feet high. Many of the Clares, Despencers, Beauchamps, and other lords of Tewkesbury are buried here, as also the murdered Prince Edward and (possibly) Clarence; and in 1890 a tablet was erected to Mrs Craik, the scene of whose John Halifax is laid in Tewkesbury. The place has also a town-hall (1788), a corn-exchange (1856), Telford's iron bridge over the Severn (1824), with a span of 176 feet, a free grammar-school, etc. The thick mustard Falstaff speaks of is a thing of the past, and the trade is chiefly agricultural. Within half a mile was fought (4th May 1471) the famous battle of Tewkesbury, in which the Yorkists under Edward IV. gained a crowning victory. Incorporated by Elizabeth in 1574, Tewkesbury returned two members from 1609 till 1867, and then one till 1885. Pop. (1851) 5878; (1901) 5419. See works by Dyde (1790), Bennett (1830), Petit (1848), and Blunt (2d ed. 1877).

Tex'as is the extreme south-western state of the American Union, bordering on Mexico, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Arkansas, Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico. The largest state in the Union (265,780 sq. m.), it covers nearly 9 per cent. of the total area of the United States, exclusive of Alaska; and is larger than France or Germany, and more than twice as large as the British Isles. Its extreme length is about 900 miles, and its greatest breadth 750; the coast-line is 400 miles long. From the low, flat prairie lands along the coast the land rises till it reaches the plateau and mountains of the distant west, some of whose peaks attain 5000 feet. All along the coast is a fringe of low islands (Padre Island is 100 miles long) and peninsulas, separated from the mainland by lagoons. The alluvial coast-belt, extending from 25 to 60 miles inland, comprises both fertile lowlands and stretches of barren soil. Beyond lies a terrace of rich rolling land called the 'prairie belt.' In the eastern prairie sections there are extensive timber regions. N. and W. of the prairies the land presents a rough, broken surface, with occasional bluffs. On the southern border of the plateau the elevation is about 1000 feet, but a height of 2000 feet is reached as the ascent continues toward the arid Llano Estacado and the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains.