"Billed direct from Specification," or "Billed direct as usual." If some items have been entered on the dimensions, abstract these and then make a note, "Remainder billed direct from Specification," or as the case may be.

After the "Preliminaries" will come the "Spot items," if any; that is, items which the Contractor can only price after visiting the site.

"Excavator and Concreter," usually billed together, will follow. In a small job half a sheet will often be found sufficient for this. Surface excavation, although billed in yards super., is usually the first item, notwithstanding the general rule that cubic dimensions should come first. Then comes the digging to basement and carting away, divided into its several columns for the varying depths (as explained in the Chapters on "Taking-off"), each with its deduction column. This should be followed by "Excavation to basement and return, fill in and ram," "Surface trenches, and cart away," "Surface trenches, and return, fill in and ram," "Basement trenches, and cart away," and "Basement trenches, and return, fill in and ram," each divided into columns for the various depths, etc., as explained with reference to Basement digging.

The excavation should be followed by the items of "Dry brick rubbish spread and rammed under concrete," in separate columns for the various thicknesses, beginning with that of the least. Cube concrete in foundations, and super. concrete of various thicknesses under-pavings; Cube concrete filled in between rolled steel joists at various levels; then lineal and numbered items of labours, etc.


Where cement or granolithic paving is measured and described in one item with the concrete there will be lineal dimensions for forming gutters, etc., and numbered items of fitting and dishing around gulleys, etc.


This trade will take up several sheets. First, there will be the common brickwork, "Supers," "Runs," and "Numbers" forming the headings of sheets or of sets of columns. In the latter case the number of columns embraced by a heading should be indicated by arrow heads, as in Fig. 37, thus:-

Bricklayer 72

Fig. 37.

The supers. should start with three columns, the first for cube brickwork, the second for brickwork one-brick thick, and the third for brickwork one and a half brick thick, each with its column for deductions, and the whole comprised under the heading of "Reduced brickwork in mortar." Follow this with a similar set of "Reduced brickwork in Cement," or "Reduced brickwork extra only in cement," according to the way in which it has been taken off.

All brickwork of whatever thickness will then be abstracted in one or other of these three columns. Sometimes it will be necessary to abstract an item under both the 1 B. and the 1 1/2 B. columns. For example, 99 ft. 0 in. of 3 B. would be abstracted as 198 ft. 0 in. of 1 1/2 B.; 64 ft. 6 inches of 3/4 B. as 32 ft. 3 in. of 1 1/2 B.; 75 ft. 6 in. of 2 1/2 B., as 75 ft. 6 in. of 1 B. and 75 ft. 6 in. of 1 1/2 B.; and so on. Brickwork which is taken off and abstracted per foot cube has J- of its total deducted from it before being transferred to the 1 1/2 B. column; and similarly 1 B.-work, taken out super., has one-third of its total deducted before transference. Thus this eventual total in the 1 1/2 B. column is that of all the brickwork Reduced to a standard thickness of 1 1/2 B. An example is given in Fig. 38.

Bricklayer 73

Fig. 38.

Follow the reduced brickwork with the other super. items of common brickwork, such as Half- brick partitions, Trimmer arches, Fair pointing, Limewhiting, Rough cutting, and Damp-proof course. After this will come the lineal dimensions, and finally the numbered items of common brickwork, commencing in each case with those of least value.

The next heading will be Facings, starting a fresh sheet of Abstract. Commence with the least expensive descriptions and work up to the most expensive, making a separate heading for each kind, and keeping every item appertaining to it under such heading. Commence each section with the super. dimensions of "extra for facing with" (here specify the kind of bricks) "and pointing with" (here describe the pointing). Follow on with the various descriptions of arches, the least expensive first, gradually working up to these of the greatest value. Complete the "Supers," and follow with the "Runs" and "Numbers." Subheadings should be made on the Abstract of "Supers," "Runs," and "Numbers," remembering to leave plenty of space under each, and when in doubt as to how much to allow start a fresh sheet.

The "Runs" should commence with lineal dimensions of labours, abstracted under a further subheading of "Labours."

Drains are either billed with "Excavator," which will then be headed "Excavator and Drains," or at the end of Bricklayer under a heading of "Drains in all trades," and are abstracted accordingly. The latter method is to be preferred. The only work in connection with drains actually done by the excavator is digging. The rules previously given will apply generally. If the manholes have been taken out in detail, they should be abstracted and billed under a subheading as explained in the Chapters on "Taking-off," otherwise they will be billed under "Numbers." Commence with the smallest drains, and divide each size into columns for its several depths of digging, as shown in Fig. 39.

Commence the "Numbers" with "Extra for bends " of the several diameters, the smallest first, following with "Junctions," "Double Junctions," etc., treating them in the same manner. After these come the numbered items of labours, such as "Ends of ventilating pipes made good to drain," etc. The last items under "Drains" will be "Connection to sewer, and pay fees," an item for "Coring out Drains," and one for "Testing," unless these last two items have been included in the Preamble.

Bricklayer 74

Fig. 39.