This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol2", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
The Compass Plane is a smoothing plane with a curved sole, so that curved surfaces, such as the soffits of segment headed frames, may be worked. It is provided with an adjustable boxwood nosepiece, so that the sweep may be altered. The American type of this plane has a spring steel sole, actuated by a screw, so that it can be made to fit either concave or convex surfaces.
The Chariot is a very small thumb plane with the iron reaching close to the front, and is used for cleaning off internal angles.
The Chamfer Plane has a sole formed to an internal right angle. It is used for forming chamfers, and has a movable block in the throat by which the depth of cut can be regulated.
The Moulding and Grooving Planes comprise - the Sash Fillister and Side Fillister, each provided with rising and falling stops and sliding fences. These two form a pair, for working on the off and near sides respectively, and are used for forming rebates or sinkings.
The Grooving Plane is used for cutting grooves across the grain. For this purpose it is provided with two cutters, a front or pilot cutter severing the cross fibre and preventing the edges of the groove being torn.
The Plough is an adjustable grooving plane, but only for cutting with the grain. It is provided with several different size irons, usually a set of nine.
The Side Rebate Plane has a vertical cutting iron, and is used for widening grooves.
The Router is used for deepening grooves and levelling the bottom of sinkings.
Bead Planes are used for working half-round mouldings or "Beads" on the edges of material; they run in sizes, by sixteenths of an inch.
Sash Planes are used for working the mouldings on sashes. There are several, each being named from the moulding which it works, - as "Ovolo Plane," "Astragal and Hollow Plane," etc.
Hollows and Rounds are used for forming either hollow or round members of mouldings. They are made in pairs for working either hand, and a complete set consists of eighteen.
Nosing and Scotia Planes are, as their name implies, for working the nosings and scotias on stair treads.
A tool of somewhat similar action to the plane is the Spokeshave (Fig. 60), which is used for smoothing edges of quick sweep. The iron type, with screw adjustment of the blade, is an improvement on the old wooden form.
Chisels are made in a variety of patterns, each pattern suited to a particular purpose, and having a wide range of sizes, in some from \ inch up to 2 inches.
The Paring Chisel (Fig. 61) has a long, thin blade, and is used for paring surfaces, and, except when very narrow, has bevelled edges.
The Firmer Chisel has a shorter blade, and stouter, and is used with a mallet.
The Framing Firmer Chisel (Fig. 62), a still stronger make, usually has a ferrule at the end of the handle, so that it may be struck with the framing hammer without splitting.
The Mortise Chisel is a thick stiff tool used for cutting mortises.
The Sash Chisel (Fig. 63) is a long narrow chisel, used for mortises in sash bars.
The Sash Pocket Chisel (Fig. 64) is a thin wide chisel, used for cutting pulley-style pocket pieces.
The Drawer Lock Chisel is a double-ended all-steel tool for cutting mortises in confined position.
The Firmer Gouge (Fig. 65) is a hollow-faced chisel, having the ground bevel or "Basil" on the round side.
The Scribing Gouge (Fig. 66) differs only in having the basil on the inner or curved side.
The Draw Knife might be called a two-handled chisel. It is drawn towards instead of being pushed from the workman as in the case of other chisels, and its use is for paring down edges or angles where there is too much to plane off and not enough to saw.
Boring Tools of a variety of patterns and a number of sizes of each pattern are also required.
The Gimlet (Fig. 68) is used for making holes for screws. It is screwed into the wood and cuts a hole, removing the core. It is made in two patterns, "twist" and "shell." For larger holes a Brace and Bit is used. Of the several type of braces the two most generally used by joiners are the wooden stock, plated, and the iron stock with ratchet (American). The brace is worked by gripping its head with the left hand, and the hand pad with the right, and turning from left to right. The necessary pressure for driving the bit is obtained by the operator pressing either his head or chest on the left hand, the former usually for upright and the latter for horizontal boring. The ratchet attachment is useful in positions where there is not room to swing the hand pad completely round. By throwing the back stroke out of gear the bit may be driven by swinging the brace backward and forward in short strokes.