This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol2", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
The different bits (see Fig. 69) used are - the Centre Bit, used for boring across the grain; Twist Bit, Shell Bit, Nose Bit, Spoon Bit, and Taper Bit, sometimes called a Shell Rimer. Patterns of these bits, with the exception of the latter, which is mostly used for enlarging holes, are made to cut either with or across the grain. A Turnscrew bit or screwdriver is sometimes used for driving screws. A special long bit, known as a Sash Bit, is used for boring sashes to receive the cords. Other bits used in the brace are Countersinks, used for enlarging or "countersinking" the tops of holes so as to let the heads of screws in flush with the surface. The three patterns in general use are the Snail Horn Countersink, for wood; the Rose Head Countersink, for brass; and the Flat Head Countersink, for iron.
Gauges are used for marking working lines at equal distances from the working face. There are two kinds used, the ordinary Marking Gauge (Fig 70) and the Mortise Gauge (Fig. 71). The former has a single tooth and the latter two, one being movable, which is worked by a screw at the end of the stem, and may be set to any width of mortise. It is set by using the required mortise chisel as a guide, the teeth being adjusted so that the edge of chisel fits exactly between the points of teeth. A Cutting Gauge (Fig. 72) has a thin knife point instead of a tooth, and is used for cutting off thin parallel strips, usually for tongues. Screwdrivers, of which three patterns are shown in
Fig. 73, or turnscrews, are used for driving screws, the round stem with oval handle being the most approved pattern.
A Framing Hammer and a Bench Hammer are used. The former, being heavy and double faced, is employed for knocking together large frames; and the latter, having a single face and flat pane, being used for all ordinary purposes.
The Try Square (Fig. 74), with wooden plated stock and steel blade, is used for testing angles and setting out shoulders, etc. Other fixed squares are the Mitre Square, used for marking mitres, and the Set Square, used for testing internal angles.
The Sliding Bevel (Fig. 75) is used for setting out and testing bevels. It has a sliding plate, and may be adjusted to any angle.
The Marking Knife (Fig. 76) has one chisel end and the other a sharp point. It is used for pricking off dimensions, marking shoulders, etc.
A Two-foot Rule, divided at least into eighths and sixteenths, is, of course, an indispensable adjunct. Among other miscellaneoustools maybe mentioned:-
Compasses, both adjustable Wing (Fig. 77) and Spring Dividers.
Callipers, for gauging widths and thicknesses. Those known as "Inside Callipers" are shown in Fig. 78.
Pincers (Fig. 79) are those known as the "Tower" pattern.
Spirit Level (Fig. 80) and Plumb Pule. Both necessary for the accurate fixing of work in position.
Punches (Fig. 81) are short steel bars for driving nail heads below the surface. A special Handrail Punch, with curved wide end, is used for tightening handrail bolts.
Mallets (Fig. 83) should be used for striking wood-handled chisels, etc., instead of hammers, and also for fitting together light framings.
Beam Compasses are useful for setting out large curves, although more frequently than not a light strip of wood with a bradawl for centre and a pencil at the required radius is made to serve all purposes.
In addition to the foregoing there are several other articles required by the joiner which, although they may hardly be classed strictly as tools, are nevertheless essential. They may be termed Workshop Appurtenances, for whereas the joiner has to provide all his own tools, these are common property.
The Bench upon which the work is done is a strongly made table, and is either "single" or "double" according to whether one or two men are accommodated. The usual size of a single bench is about 10 feet long, 27 inches wide, and 28 inches high. A double bench is the same height, but may run to 13 or 14 feet in length and 3 feet in width. It should be fitted with a bottom board of the full width, and also a large lock-up drawer. The top of a single bench is made of three 9-inch boards, the front 1 1/2 and the others 1 inch thick, a double bench having the two outside 1 1/2 and the two inside 1 inch thick, all grooved, tongued, and finished flush on top. A 9-inch board is fitted on each side close under the top, and should be perfectly square with it.