N.B. - Enough varnish should be mixed at once for the job to make it all one colour - i.e., good black. (Smither.)

(9) For Table

Wash the surface of table with liquid ammonia, applied with a piece of rag; the varnish will then peel off like a skin; afterwards smooth down with fine sand-paper. Mix 1/4 lb. lampblack with 1 qt. hot water, adding a little glue size; rub this stain well in; let it dry before sand-papering it; smooth again. Mind you don't work through the stain. Afterwards apply the following black varnish with a broad fine camel-hair brush: - Mix a small quantity of gas-black with the varnish. If one coat of varnish is not sufficient, apply a second one after the first is dry. Gas-black can be obtained by boiling a pot over the gas, letting the pot nearly touch the burner, when a fine jet black will form on the bottom, which remove, and mix with the varnish.

(10) Black-board wash, or "liquid slating." - (a) 4 pints 95 per cent, alcohol, 8 oz. shellac, 12 dr. lampblack, 20 dr. ultramarine blue, 4 oz. powdered rottenstone, 6 oz. powdered pumice. (6) 1 gal. 95 per cent, alcohol, 1 lb. shellac, 8 oz. best ivory black, 5 oz. finest flour emery, 4 oz. ultramarine blue. Make a perfect solution of the shellac in the alcohol before adding the other articles. To apply the slating, have the surface smooth and perfectly free from grease; well shake the bottle containing the preparation, and pour out a small quantity only into a dish, and apply it with a new flat varnish brush as rapidly as possible. Keep the bottle well corked, and shake it up each time before pouring out the liquid, (c) Lampblack and flour of emery mixed with spirit varnish. No more lampblack and flour of emery should be used than are sufficient to give the required black abrading surface. The thinner the mixture the better. Lampblack should first be ground with a small quantity of spirit varnish or alcohol to free it from lumps. The composition should be applied to the smoothly-planed surface of a board with a common paint-brush. Let it become thoroughly dry and hard before it is used.

Rub it down with pumice if too rough, (d) 1/2 gal. shellac varnish, 5 oz. lampblack, 3 oz. powdered iron ore or emery; if too thick, thin with alcohol. Give 3 coats of the composition, allowing each to dry before putting on the next; the first may be of shellac and lampblack alone.

(11) 17.5 oz. Brazil-wood and 0.525 oz. alum are boiled for 1 hour in 2.75 lb.water. The coloured liquor is then filtered from the boiled Brazil-wood, and applied several times boiling hot to the wood to be stained. This will assume a violet colour. This violet colour can be easily changed into black by preparing a solution of 2.1 oz. iron filings, and 1.05 oz. common salt in 17.5 oz. vinegar. The solution is filtered, and applied to the wood, which will then acquire a beautiful black colour.

(12) 8.75 oz. gall-nuts and 2.2 lb. logwood are boiled in 2.2 lb. rain-water for 1 hour in a copper boiler. The decoction is then filtered through a cloth, and applied several times while it is still warm to the article of wood to be stained. In this manner a beautiful black will be obtained.

(13) This is prepared by dissolving 0.525 oz. extract of logwood in 2.2 lb. hot rain-water, and by adding to the logwood solution 0.035 oz. chromate of potash. When this is applied several times to the article to be stained, a dark brown colour will first be obtained. To change this into a deep chrome-black, the solution of iron filings, common salt, and vinegar, given under (11) is applied to the wood, and the desired colour will be produced.

(14) Several coats of alizarine ink are applied to the wood, but every coat must be thoroughly dry before the other is put on. When the articles are dry, the solution of iron filings, common salt, and vinegar, as given in (11), is applied to the wood, and a very durable black will be obtained.

(15) According to Herzog, a black stain for wood, giving to it a colour resembling ebony, is obtained by treating the wood with two fluids, one after the other. The first fluid to be used consists of a very concentrated solution of logwood, and to 6.35 oz. of this fluid are added 0.017 oz. alum. The other fluid is obtained by digesting iron filings in vinegar. After the wood has been dipped in the first hot fluid, it is allowed to dry, and is then treated with the second fluid, several times if necessary.


(1) Powder a little Prussian blue, and mix to the consistency of paint with bur; brush it on the wood, and when dry size it with glue dissolved in boiling water; apply lukewarm, and let this dry also; then varnish or French polish.

(2) Indigo solution, or a concentrated hot solution of blue vitriol, followed by a dip in a solution of washing soda.

(3) Prepare as for violet, and dye with aniline blue.

(4) A beautiful blue stain is obtained by gradually stirring 0.52 oz. finely-powdered indigo into 4.2 oz. sulphuric acid of 60 per cent., and by exposing this mixture for 12 hours to a temperature of 77° F. (25° C). The mass is then poured into 11 to 13.2 lb. rain-water, and filtered through felt. This filtered water is applied several times to the wood, until the desired colour has been obtained. The more the solution is diluted with water, the lighter will be the colour.

(5) 1.05 oz. finest indigo carmine, dissolved in 8.75 oz. water, applied several times to the articles to be stained. A very fine blue is in this manner obtained.

(6) 3.5 oz. French verdigris are dissolved in 3.5 oz. urine and 8.5 oz. wine vinegar. The solution is filtered and applied to the article to be stained. Then a solution of 2.1 oz. carbonate of potash in 8.75 oz. rain-water is prepared, and the article coloured with Che verdigris is brushed over with this solution until the desired blue colour makes its appearance.

(7) The newest processes of staining wood blue are those with aniline colours. The following colours may be chosen for the staining liquor: - Bleu de Lyon (reddish blue), bleu de lumiere (pure blue), light blue (greenish blue). These colours are dissolved in the proportion of 1 part colouring substance to 30 of spirit of wine, and the wood is treated with the solution.


(1) Various tones may be produced by mordanting with chromate of potash, and applying a decoction of fustic, of logwood, or of peachwood.

(2) Sulphuric acid, more or less diluted according to the intensity of the colour to be produced, is applied with a brush to the wood, previously cleaned and dried. A lighter or darker brown stain is obtained, according to the strength of the acid. When the acid has acted sufficiently, its further action is arrested by the application of ammonia.

(3) Tincture of iodine yields a fine brown coloration, which, however, is not permanent unless the air is excluded by a thick coating of polish.

(4) A simple brown wash is 1/2 oz. alkanet root, 1 oz. aloes, 1 oz. dragons'-blood, digested in 1 lb. alcohol. This is applied after the wood has been washed with aqua regia, but is, like all the alcoholic washes, not very durable.