Bathurst, a town of New Brunswick, capital of Gloucester county, situated on the most southern point of the bay of Chaleurs, 237 m. N. W. of Halifax; pop. about 2,000. It is a port of entry, and has considerable trade. It has a good harbor, and is noted for its ship building.
Bathurst. I. An E. county of New South Wales, Australia, bounded N. E. by the Macquarie, and S. W. by the Lachlan; area, about 2.000 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 16,826. It was the earliest district settled on the W. side of the Blue mountains, through which a practicable route was first discovered in 1813. It is an excellent grazing country, well watered, and, being nearly 2,000 feet above the level of the sea, has a moderate climate. The first discovery of gold in Australia was made in this county, Feb. 12, 1851, by Edmund Hargraves, an Englishman who had been a miner in California. II. The principal town of the preceding county, situated near the centre of the gold region of the district, on the river Macquarie, 98 m. W. N. W. of Sydney; pop. about 5,000. Two lofty elevations lie near the town, Mount Rankin, about 4 m. to the N. W., and the Bald Hill, 2 in. to the S. W. The town was founded by Gov. Macquarie in 1815, and named in honor of Lord Bathurst, the then English secretary of state for the colonies. It is now the finest of all the inland towns of the colony, and is built on a sloping plain intersected by a deep watercourse, over which there are several bridges. The streets are broad, and cross each other at right angles.
Many of the stores are large, well built, and well supplied with goods. The Episcopalian, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches are large and handsome, and there are many public and private schools, and an extensive school of arts. There are several good hotels, a theatre, and a large and well managed hospital. Bathurst was erected into a municipality Nov. 18, 1862, and is the seat of a Roman Catholic and an Anglican bishop. In 1872 two bi-weekly newspapers were published here.
Bathurst, a settlement on the isle of St. Mary, near the mouth of the Gambia, on the W. coast of Africa, founded by the English in 1816, and the principal of the English establishments in Senegambia. It is situated only 12 or 14 feet above high-water mark, and is not a healthy station, water being scarce and not of good quality. The island has about 3,000 inhabitants, few of whom are Europeans.
Bathurst, an old English family, prominent in the last three centuries. I. Ralph, dean of Wells, born at Howthorpe in Northamptonshire in 1620, died June 14, 1704. He was educated at Trinity college, Oxford, of which college his grandfather, Dr. Kettel, was president, He took his degrees of bachelor and master of arts in 1638 and 1641, studied theology, and was ordained in 1644. He delivered some theological lectures in 1649, which he soon afterward published, and which gained him much reputation. But the troubles of the period made him resolve to abandon the clerical profession, and he began to study medicine, and took a doctor's degree in 1654. He had a large practice, and was made physician to the navy. In conjunction with Dr. Willis, who like himself had abandoned the church for the medical profession, he settled at Oxford, where he studied chemistry and several branches of natural philosophy. He took an active part in the foundation of the royal society, and in 1663 was elected a fellow of the Oxford branch of the society. After the restoration he abandoned physic and returned to the church, was made chaplain to the king in 1663, dean of Wells in 1670, and in 1691 was nominated to the bishopric of Bristol, which he declined.
In the latter part of his life lie was president of Trinity college and vice chancellor at the university. He wrote good Latin poetry. II. Allen, first Earl Bathurst, born in London in November, 1684, died Sept. 16, 1775. He was the eldest son of Sir Benjamin Bathurst, treasurer of the household to Queen Anne before she ascended the throne. He entered parliament in 1705, and was called to the house of lords as Baron Bathurst in 1711, in 1757 was made treasurer to the prince of Wales, and on the accession of this prince as George III. soon after, declined further public employments, but accepted a pension of £2,000 a year. In 1772 he was created Earl Bathurst, and spent the rest of his life in retirement. He was a political opponent of the duke of Marlborough and of Sir Robert Walpole, and was on intimate terms with Pope, Gay, Addison, and Congreve. III. Henry, the only surviving son of the preceding, born May 2, 1714, died Aug. 6, 1794. He was made chief justice of the common pleas in 1754, and lord chancellor in 1771, with the title of Baron Apsley, and resigned the seals in 1778, having voted against the Chatham annuity bill, a ministerial measure. He was president of the council in 1780, and in the Gordon riots was assaulted by the mob.
IV. Henry, bishop of Norwich, cousin of the second Earl Bathurst, born Oct. 16,1744, died April 5, 1837. He was educated at Winchester and New college, Oxford, obtained a rectory in Norfolk, and then the rich family living of Cirencester, with the deanery of Durham, and a canonry of Christ church, Oxford. In 1805 he was made bishop of Norwich. In parliament he strongly advocated Roman Catholic emancipation, concessions to the dissenters, and parliamentary reform. His life was written by his eldest son, Dr. Henry Bathurst. V. Henry, second Earl Bathurst, son of Baron Apsley, born May 22, 1762, died July 27, 1834. He entered the house of commons, and was successively lord commissioner of the admiralty, commissioner for India, foreign secretary, and colonial secretary. When the tories came into power in 1828 he became president of the council, but resigned in 1830. He was afterward first lord of the admiralty.