Ross, a S. county of Ohio, intersected by Scioto river and drained by Paint creek; area, about 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 37,097. It has a diversified surface, and the soil, especially in the valley of the Scioto, is very fertile. It is intersected by the Marietta and Cincinnati railroad, and by the Ohio and Erie canal. The chief productions in 1870 were 327,858 bushels of wheat, 2,313,529 of Indian corn, 99,983 of oats, 98,134 of potatoes, 9,368 tons of hay, 4,048 lbs. of tobacco, 85,402 of wool, 334,391 of butter, and 24,191 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 8,035 horses, 5,532 milch cows, 14,258 other cattle, 24,411 sheep, and 53,926 swine; 23 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 1 of railroad cars, 2 of iron castings, 18 of leather, 3 of liquors, 10 of lumber, 1 of engines and boilers, 2 of paper, 15 of saddlery and harness, 10 flour mills, and 5 woollen mills. Capital, Chillicothe.
Sir John, a British navigator, born at Balsarroch, Scotland, June 24, 1777, died in London, Aug. 30, 1856. He served as a volunteer in the British navy from 1786 to 1791, after which for several years he was in the merchant service. In 1799 he became a midshipman, and in 1805 a lieutenant. The next year he received severe wounds in a desperate engagement, for which two years later he was pensioned. He was appointed to the command of the Briseis in 1812, and subsequently to that of other vessels. On April 25, 1818, he set sail from the Thames in the Isabella, the larger of two vessels sent out to settle the question of a northwest passage, accompanied by Lieut. Parry in the Alexander. (See Arc-tic Discovery.) He was promoted to the rank of post captain on his return, and published an account of his voyage. In 1829 he made a second voyage to the arctic regions, in a badly constructed steamship called the Victory, equipped at the expense of Mr. (afterward Sir Felix) Booth, sheriff of London, and accompanied by a small tender of 16 tons, called the Krusenstern. He was frozen up in the ice for four years, and was finally rescued with his crew by the Isabella, then on a whaling voyage, in August, 1833, after abandoning his ship in April, 1832. In 1834 he was knighted.
From 1839 to 1845 he was consul at Stockholm. In 1850 he went in search of Sir John Franklin in a vessel of 90 tons, and remained one winter in the ice. He attained the rank of rear admiral July 8, 1851. He published "A Voyage of Discovery " (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1819), "A Narrative of. a Second Voyage" (2 vols. 4to, 1835-6), and "A Treatise on Navigation by Steam" (4to, 1828).
Sir James Clark, a British navigator, nephew of the preceding, born in London, April 15, 1800, died at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, April 3, 1862. At the age of 12 he entered the navy as a volunteer on board the Briseis, then commanded by his uncle. He accompanied Capt. Ross in 1818 as midshipman on his first arctic voyage, was an officer under Parry in his four voyages between 1819 and 1827, and was promoted while absent on the second voyage to the rank of lieutenant. In 1827, on his return from the fourth voyage, he received a commission as commander. He accompanied his uncle's second expedition, 1829-'33, and in 1834 was made post captain. In 1835 he again visited Baffin bay to search for some missing whale ships, and after his return was employed for several years in a magnetic survey of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1839 he commanded the Erebus, to which, with the Terror, Commander Crozier, was assigned the duty of exploring the Antarctic ocean. In this voyage, which occupied four years, he made many valuable discoveries. He made an independent discovery of the antarctic continent, which Commander Wilkes, U. S. N., had a few months before discovered and traced at a different point, and gave it the name of Victoria Land; a volcano, 12,000 ft. high, was named Mt. Erebus from his vessel.
He returned in 1843, and in 1844 was knighted. In 1848 he was appointed to the Enterprise, and made a voyage as far as Barrow strait in search of Sir John Franklin. His only published work is "A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions" (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1847).