Michael Tuomey, an American geologist, born in Cork, Ireland, Sept. 29, 1805, died in Tuscaloosa, Ala., March 20, 1857. He early emigrated to the United States, and in 1835 graduated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute, Troy, N. Y. In 1844 he was appointed state geologist of South Carolina, in 1847 professor of geology, mineralogy, and agricultural chemistry in the university of Alabama, and in 1848 state geologist. He published a "Report on the Geology of South Carolina" (4to, Columbia, 1848); "First Biennial Report on the Geology of Alabama" (8vo, Tuscaloosa, 1850); and, with Prof. F. S. Holmes, "Fossils of South Carolina" (4to, parts i.-x., Charleston, 1855-7).
Michaelmas, the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, Sept. 29. It is more celebrated for popular customs connected with it than for any peculiar religious observance. It was an old custom in England to mark the day by electing civil magistrates, perhaps in allusion to the analogy between the superintendence of magistrate- ami that of guardian angels, of whom St. Michael was reputed the prince. A more famous custom is that of eating roast goose, which has been traced at least as far back as 1471; and it is said that one of the strongest objections of the English commonalty to the reformation of the calendar was based on the confusion which would follow if Michaelmas day was not celebrated when stubble geese are in their highest perfection.
Michal Czajrowsri, a Polish novelist, born in the Ukraine in 1808. After the Polish revolution of 1830 he betook himself to Paris, and in 1840 was sent by a portion of the Polish emigration on a mission to Turkey, where he became a Mohammedan under the name of Mohammed Sadik Effendi. On the outbreak of the Crimean war, he organized and with the title of pasha commanded a body of troops called the Cossacks of the sultan, and after the retreat of the Russians from the Danubian principalities was made military governor of Bucharest. He remained in Turkish service after the war, until, his son having in 1872 obtained permission to settle in Russia, he was soon after allowed by Alexander II. to return to his native country. His novels, which treat chiefly of Cossack and Ukrainian life, and of which Wernyhora is the most esteemed, have been translated into several languages.
Michel Carre, a French dramatist, born in 1819, died at Argenteuil, near Paris, June 29, 1872. He studied at the college Charlemagne, and published in 1841 a volume of poetry, and in 1843 his first drama, La jeunesse de Luther. Subsequently he wrote for the stage together with Jules Barbier and others. Among their joint productions are the librettos of Les noces de Figaro (1858), Le pardon de Ploermel (1859), La reine de Saba and Lalla Rouck (1862), and Mignon (1866).
Michel Jean Sedaine, a French dramatist, born in Paris, July 4, 1719, died there, May 17, 1797. He was a stone cutter, but became known in 1756 by his comic opera Le (Liable à quatre, for which Philidor composed the music. Among his other pieces, set to music by Grétry and others, was Richard Coeur de Lion (1784). His best comedy, Le philosophe sans le savoir (1765), was revived in 1875, at the Théâtre Francais.