Peter Mark Roget, an English author, born in London in 1779, died there, Sept. 13, 1869. He graduated in medicine at the university of Edinburgh in 1798, and after a tour to the continent settled in 1804 in Manchester, where he was appointed physician to the infirmary, lunatic asylum, and fever hospital. In 1808 he went to London, and was for many years secretary of the royal society, and one of the Ful-lerian lecturers on physiology at the royal institution. His best known work is the "Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases " (1852; 9th ed., revised, 1860; American ed. by Barnas Sears, D. D., New York, 1854). He also wrote "Animal and Vegetable Physiology," a Bridge-water treatise (2 vols. 8vo, 1834; 3d ed., 1840), "Electricity, Galvanism, Magnetism, and Electro-magnetism " (1848), etc.
Peter Von Winter, a German composer, born in Mannheim in 1755, died in Munich, Oct. 17, 1825. At 10 years of age he became a violinist in the orchestra of the elector, and in 1776 director of the orchestra of the German opera at Mannheim. It was not until his 40th year that he produced any really effective works. He composed more than 50 operas and a great number of masses, symphonies, and miscellaneous pieces. His maturer works, including the operas Calypso, Proserpina, Zaļra, Tamerlan, and Der Sanger und der Schneider, are esteemed his best. He was eminent as a teacher of vocal music, and his Gesangschule (Mentz, 1824) is still esteemed.
Peter's Pence, an annual tribute of one penny formerly paid to the pope on the festival of St. Peter. In England, where every family possessed of 30 pennyworth of property of any kind was considered liable to this tribute, it was continued from Saxon times to the reign of Henry VIII. The tribute was collected by the bishops. The term is also applied to any general voluntary collection made for the pope, such as that in 1860; on Jan. 1, 1861, the amount received at Rome from this collection had exceeded $2,000,000. Since the annexation of the Papal States to the kingdom of Italy, voluntary Peter's pence associations have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland, which yield a handsome revenue. Similar associations, under various names, also exist on the continent of Europe and in the British colonies. In the United States a collection is taken up annually in every church and sent to Rome. These offerings now form (1875) the only revenue of the papal court.
Peterhead, a seaport town of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 26 m. . N.N. E. of Aberdeen, on a peninsula which is the most easterly point of Scotland, connected with the mainland by an isthmus only 1/2 m. wide; pop. in 1871, 8,535. The principal streets are well paved and handsomely built up, chiefly with granite. There are two excellent harbors on the N. and S. sides of the peninsula, connected by an artificial channel. The imports consist of lime, wool, timber, salt, and flour, and the exports of red granite quarried in the vicinity, grain, meal, pork, butter, cheese, eggs, herrings (of which 50,000 bbls. are cured annually), and whitefish. The tonnage entered in 1873 was 75,623 (13,311 in the foreign trade), and cleared 74,287 (15,718 foreign). The manufactures are unimportant, but there is some ship building. Peterhead is frequented in summer by bathers, and there are mineral springs near by.