Engena Do Beauharnais. duke of Leuchten-berg and prince of Eichstadt, son of the preceding and stepson of the emperor Napoleon, born in Paris, Sept. 3, 1781, died in Munich, Feb. 21, 1824. He served in Brittany under Gen. Hoche, who had been his father's friend, and in 1795 went back to Paris, and called on Gen. Bonaparte to obtain from him his father's sword, which had been taken away on the disarming of the sections subsequent to the 13th Vendemiaire. Bonaparte at once granted his request, and soon received a visit of thanks from Mine. Beauharnais, whom he married in 1790. In 1798 Eugene followed Bonaparte to Egypt, and was severely wounded at Acre, He returned to France with Bonaparte, was appointed to a captaincy in the consular guards, and after the battle of Marengo promoted to the rank of major. On the establishment of the empire he became a prince and colonel general of the chasseurs; in 1805 state arch-chancellor, grand officer of the legion of honor, and viceroy of Italy. On the occasion of his marriage with Augusta Amelia, daughter of the king of Bavaria, Napoleon invested him with the title of prince of Venice, and proclaimed him "his adopted son, and heir apparent to the crown of Italy." He was then only 24 years old, but showed at once great prudence and discretion.
The Italian army was reen-forced, and soon ranked among the best troops of the great empire; the fortresses and the coasts were put in a state of defence, unifoim laws promulgated, facilities for public education increased, beggary suppressed by the establishment of asylums for the poor, and the cathedral of Milan completed. All this was accomplished without any addition to the taxes; never were the fiscal charges so moderate, and yet in 1813 the public treasury had a surplus of 92,000,000 livres, Italian. When the fourth Austrian war broke out, he was defeated by the archduke John in the battle of Sacile, April 10, 1809; but he soon toe>k his revenge on the banks of the Piave, "where he inflicted on the Austrians a loss of 10,CC0 soldiers and 15 pieces of cannon. Eugene pursued them into Carinthia, defeated them in several encounters, and joined the great French army in the plains of Austria. Then he invaded Hungary, anel gained on June 14, near Raab, a victory over Archduke Join, whose army was one third stronger than his own. Three weeks later be took an important part in the battle of "W'apram. When his mother was divorced from Napolecn, Eugene as state arch-chancellor was obliged to announce the event to the senate.
In 1812 he commanded one of the main divisions of the army which invaded Russia, and greatly contributed to the victory of Borodino. During the retreat from Moscow he was noted for his self-possessien, firmness, and intrepidity, and the retreat he conducted from Pesen to Leipsic, as commander-in-chief after the departure of Murat, has been considered as one of the most extraordinary war operations en record. Before leaving the army he contributed much to the victory of Lutzen. Then he repaired to Italy, where in less than three months a new army amounting to 50,000 soldiers, was organized, and all the fortresses were prepared for defence. He defended Italy bravely against the allied forces, but was finally forced to yield, and retired to the court of his father-in-law in Bavaria. There he received, with the principality of Eichst&dt, the title of duke of Leuchtenberg and first peer of the kingdom. He left two sons and four daughters. The eldest daughter, Josephine, married Oscar, king of Sweden; the next, Eugenie Hortense, married the prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen; and the third, Amelie Auguste, became the wife of Dom Pedro I. of Brazil. Of the two sons, the elder, Auguste Charles, the first husband of Queen Maria of Portugal, died March 28, 1835; and the younger, Maximilian Joseph, who in 1839 married the grand duchess Maria, daughter of Czar Nicholas, died Nov. 1, 1852.