Lord Clyde Campbell Sir Colin, a British general, born in Glasgow, Oct. 20, 1792, died at Chatham, Aug. 14, 1863. He entered the military service in 1808; served in Portugal and at Walcheren; was wounded on several occasions during the peninsular war; served in the war with the United States, in 1814 and 1815; aided in 1823 in quelling an insurrection at Demerara; was actively engaged in the Chinese war of 1842; in the second Punjaub campaign, under Lord Gough, in 1848 and 1849, commanded a division of infantry at the battles of Chilianwallah (where he was wounded) and Guzerat, and in other engagements: assisted afterward in the pursuit of Dost Mohammed and the occupation of Peshawer; held the command of the troops in that district; undertook in 1851 and 1852 various successful operations against the tribes of the adjoining mountain regions; and received on his return to England the thanks of the British parliament, and of the East India company, for his services. In 1854 he proceeded to the Crimea in command of the Highland brigade, which took a conspicuous part in deciding the battle of the Alma, Sept. 20,1854. At Balaklava, on Oct. 25, the Russian cavalry were repulsed by his Highlanders. In 1856 he became inspector general of infantry, and held this office until the end of June, 1857, when, on the death of Gen. Anson, he proceeded to India to assume the supreme command in Bengal, arriving at Calcutta Aug. 14. Considerable additions to the army having begun to arrive in the course of October, Sir Colin hastened to Lucknow, the seat of the sepoy rebellion.
He reached Benares Oct. 31, crossed the Ganges Nov. 11, and arrived at Alumbagh on the evening of the 12th. After an encounter with a body of 2,000 rebels, he left one of his regiments in garrison at that place, and resumed his march on the 14th; was received on his approach (Nov. 16) by the fire of the enemy, whom he routed, and advanced against Secunderbagh, a walled enclosure carefully loopholed. A narrow breach was effected, enabling the British forces to make terrible havoc among the enemy, 2,000 of whom were killed. On the following day the mess house was taken, the troops bursting into the enclosure round the Pearl Palace, where the rebels made a last stand, and soon a communication was opened with the residency, permitting Havelock and Outram to welcome their deliverers the same afternoon. Sir Colin, however, recognized at once the impossibility of holding Lucknow in the face of the overwhelming masses of the enemy; but masking his real designs by opening a fire on the Kaiserbagh, he succeeded in dividing the insurgents' attention, and while they were preparing for the anticipated assault the garrison withdrew during the night of the 22d, through the lines of pickets.
Toward the afternoon of the 24th Sir Colin reached Alum-bagh, where on the 25th he was joined by the rear guard under Sir James Outram (Havelock having died on the same day), and hastening on toward Cawnpore, arrived at the Pandoo Nud-dee, within a few miles of that town, on Nov. 26. He came in time to save the British from destruction. A force of 14,000 sepoys, with numerous cavalry and 40 pieces of artillery, was threatening an army of 2,000 Europeans under Gen. Windham. Forced to retire within their intrenchments, the British suffered severely from the fierce assault of the rebels, and were almost entirely at their mercy when, alarmed by the long-continued sounds of firing, Campbell crossed the Ganges, and soon drove the enemy before the intrenchments, capturing 16 of their guns. His first care was to have the women and children and the wounded sent under safe escort to Allahabad, whence they were forwarded to Calcutta; and turning his attention next to the enemy, he commenced the attack in the forenoon of Dec. 6, shelling them out of the town, falling on them with his infantry, and forcing them to take for safety to the Ganges, whence they reached the other side, on their flight into Oude. He again defeated the enemy at Futtehgurh, Jan. 2, 1858; and he recaptured Lucknow, March 4. He was made general, May 14, 1858; created a peer with the title of Baron Clyde, of Clydesdale, Aug. 16; received the thanks of parliament in 1859 and was made colonel of the Coldstream guard in 1860, knight of the Star of India in 1861, and field marshal, Nov. 9, 1862.