Milan (Ital. Milano; Ger. Ma Hand).

I. A Province Of Italy

A Province Of Italy, in Lombar-dy, bordering on Como, Bergamo, Cremona, Pia-cenza, Pavia, and Nova-ra; area, 1,155 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 1,009,794. The surface in the north is hilly, falling away gradually to the plains of the south. The river Adda bounds the province partly on the E., and the Ticino on the W.; along these streams the land is low and marshy, but on the whole the soil of the province is remarkably fertile. It is divided into the districts of Abbiategrasso, Gallarate, Lodi, Milan, and Monza.

II. A City (Anc. Mediolanum)

A City (Anc. Mediolanum), capital of the province, in lat. 45° 28' N, Ion. 9° 11' E., 155 m. W. of Venice, and 78 m. N E. of Turin; pop. in 1872, 199,009. It lies in a fertile plain S. of the Alps, between the small streams Lambro and Olona, which connect by the Naviglio Grande canal with the Ticino and by the Mortesana canal with the Adda, establishing a communication with the Lago Maggiore, the lake of Como, and the Po. By railway it is connected with the principal cities of Italy. Unlike other celebrated Italian cities, Milan combines remarkable natural and architectural attractions with appearances of comfort and material prosperity; and it is justly regarded as one of the pleasantest cities of Europe. It is nearly circular. The length of the canal which forms the circumference of the most densely populated part is 5 m.; the whole circuit of the modern city is 8 m., and that of the outer wall 10 m., the latter area comprising, besides the city proper and its suburbs, a great number of gardens and orchards.

The principal gates are the porta Principe Umberto, opened in 1865, through which all travellers by rail enter the city, and the porte Garibaldi, Nuova, Venezia, Vittoria, Vigentina, Ludovica, Pvomana, Ticinese, Ver-cellina (now Magenta, built to receive Napoleon when he came to assume the iron crown), and Tenaglia. The last leads to the Sim-plon, and opens upon an esplanade called piazza di Castello. The street running all round outside the city is called strada di Circonval-lazione. Some of the streets are narrow and winding, but they are generally well paved, and some of the thoroughfares are admirable.

Cathedral of Milan.

Cathedral of Milan.

Many streets parallel to and in the immediate vicinity of the canal retain the name of terrazzi or terraces. The piazza Borromeo is adorned with a statue of that saint. The piazza di Castello or esplanade was much embellished by Eugene de Beauharnais during his viceroy-alty. The castle is now used as a barrack, and on'the N. E. side is the piazza d'Armi. The arco della pace, opening into it, is second only to the arc de Vetoile in Paris; it is a magnificent white marble triumphal arch, principally the work of Cagnola, begun in 1807 and completed in 1838. Close by the piazza d'Armi is the Arena, used for shows and races, and capable of accommodating 30,000 spectators. The most fashionable promenades are the streets called corsi, which lead to the principal gates.

The corso Vittorio Emanuele, beyond the porta Venezia, is the most beautiful and the most frequented. Near by is the new public garden, beautifully laid out, and adorned with a bronze statue of Cavour. A magnificent equestrian statue of Napoleon III. was erected in one of the public squares in 1875. - The houses of Milan are generally from three to rive stories high. There are not as many sumptuous mansions as in Genoa, Rome, and Florence, but the Vis-conti, Belgiojoso, Annone, and Belloni palaces are line architectural monuments, containing many works of art. The archiepiscopal pal-are, the palazzo della Corte (the residence of the king when he visits Milan), the palazzo Marini or of the treasury, the palace of justice, that of the government, the palace of science and art (Brera), the mint, and the famous monte di atato or public loan bank, are among the most remarkable public buildings. But they are all eclipsed by the duomo or cathedral, next to St. Peter's the largest church in Italy. It is almost in the centre of the city, in the piazza del Duomo. It was begun by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti in 1387, but is not yet finished, although Napoleon I. gave a powerful impulse to its completion. Though the main design has been carried out, the details present inconsistencies and anachronisms.

The interior is crowded with monuments of prelates and princes and relics of saints. In fretwork, carving, and statuary, it is said to eclipse all other churches in the world; and the ornamentation is so profuse that much of the value of the details is lost in the mass. (For its dimensions and general description see Catiie-dbal, vol, iv., p. 118.) One of the most remarkable churches is that of St, Ambrose, renowned for its antiquity and as the scene of ecclesiastical councils, political conflicts, and? the coronation of sovereigns. In the refectory of the ancient Dominican convent, the present church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, is the celebrated fresco of the "Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci. The church of Santa Maria, near that of San Celso, in the Borgo Sin Celso, is noted for its beauty. The church of San Carlo Borromeo, begun in 1838 and opened in 1847, built after a design of Amati, is surmounted by a dome onlv second in size to that of the Pantheon, and contains a marble group of the dead Saviour and the Virgin by Marchesi; but the interior is unfinished. Among other notable churches containing celebrated pictures and monuments are San Fi-dele, San Lorenzo, San Marco, and San Vittore al Corpo, formerly the Basilica Porziana, which vies in dignity with the duomo.

Milan abounds with charitable institutions, which possess property to the amount of $40,000,000. The principal of them is the great hospital, 880 ft. long by 360 ft. in depth, founded by Francesco Sforza in the 15th century, open to all applicants, and containing a free dispensary; among other endowments, it has received two legacies respectively of $600,000 and $1,800,000? from private individuals. Among the other hospitals are the large foundling hospital; the Trivulzi hospital, for the relief of the aged, founded in 1771 by Antonio Trivulzi, who devoted his palace to the purpose; and the lazaretto, the most extensive of them all, situated outside of the walls, founded in 1461 and completed at the end of the century, for the plague-stricken, and consisting of four ranges of buildings, each nearly 1,200 ft. long, which enclose an area of more than 30 acres. - Education is represented in Milan by the archiepiscopal seminary, two lyceums, three gymnasiums, and a number of colleges and schools, including one for deaf mutes, one for veterinary surgeons, and one for the technological sciences.

There are an institute of science, a geographical military institute noted for issuing excellent maps, a collection of zoology and palaeontology in the museo municipale di storia naturale, and other establishments and societies for the promotion of science, literature, and art. The intellectual activity of the city has been rapidly increasing since the overthrow of the Austrian rule in 1859, and is particularly evident in the great number of newspapers and periodicals published there. Probably more books are issued in Milan than in any other city of Italy. The Milanese school of engravers has acquired a high reputation within the last 40 years. The academy of fine arts is one of the most celebrated institutions of its kind in Europe, and the palazzo delle scienze e delle arti, in which it is situated (commonly called the Brera from having originally been a Jesuit college called Santa Maria in Brera), is one of the chief ornaments of the city. It contains an extensive gallery of paintings, rich in works by Lombard and Bolognese artists; the public library of nearly 190,000 volumes, including the works bequeathed to it by Haller; a number of medals and an archaeological library; a collection of casts; a botanic garden, and an observatory, one of the best in Italy. The new Victor Emanuel gallery was opened by the king, Sept. 15, 1867. Besides several other special libraries in the Brera, Milan is the seat of the world-renowned Ambrosian library, founded by Cardinal Borromeo, and carefully explored by Cardinal Mai, who made there important discoveries of palimpsests. (See Ambrosian Library.) The most extensive private library in Milan is in the palazzo Trivulzi, which contains also a valuable collection of coins, and of Greek, Roman, and mediaeval antiquities.

The theatres and theatrical entertainments at Milan are numerous and excellent. La Scala can accommodate between 3,000 and 4,000 persons. Attached to it is an academy of dancing, and it also contains a sala di ridotto for concerts and balls. Among the other principal theatres are the Canobiano, the Carcano, the Teatro Re, and the Filodramatico, conducted exclusively by amateurs. The city contains fine coffee houses, club houses, hotels, elegant shops, and a magnificent bazaar (gal-leria di Cristofero). Milan has been the seat of an archbishop since the time of the last Roman emperors. The fortifications, consisting of a bastioned wall and other works, form an irregular polygon, and are not strong enough to withstand a siege. In the inland trade, the commercial activity is greater than that of any other city in Italy. The principal articles of commerce are silk, grain, rice, and cheese. The manufactures of silk goods, ribbons, felt and silk hats, turners' work, cutlery, and porcelain are important. - Ancient Milan (Medio-lanum) was the chief place of the Insubres in Cisalpine Gaul, and for a long time the capital of that province. It fell into the hands of the Romans about 222 B. C. Under the empire it advanced rapidly in prosperity and in political and intellectual importance.

It became the central point from which the high roads of northern Italy radiated; its admirable position midway between the Alps and the Po made it the natural capital, and it was the imperial residence of Maximian and some of his successors for the greater part of the 4th century. By his edict issued at Milan in 313 Constantine granted tolerance to the Christians. St. Ambrose was bishop of Milan more than 22 years, till his death in 397, and his personal influence made his metropolitan see paramount in Christendom. Several councils were held there in the 4th century, and several others in later times. In 452 the city was plundered by At-tila. It next became the capital of the Gothic kings, and was recovered by Belisarius in 537, but retaken by the Goths in 539, and almost entirely destroyed and nearly depopulated. In 569 it was occupied by the Lombards, and in 774 it came into the possession of Charlemagne. Several of his successors assumed either at Milan or at Pavia the iron crown. After the coronation of Otho I. in 961 Milan formed part of the German empire, and its governors were appointed by the emperors. The city was besieged by Conrad II. in the early part of the 11th century, on account of the attempt of Archbishop Heribert and others against the imperial authority.

In the 12th century, when Milan was the most wealthy, populous, and influential city in Lombardy, it became the principal opponent of the German emperors, and was twice besieged by Frederick Barbarossa (in August and September, 1158, and again from May, 1161, to March, 1162); and after the second siege it was almost entirely destroyed. Recovering from the effects of this calamity, it was declared a free city after the victory of the Lombard league at Legnano in 1176; and although pledging itself by the treaty of Constance (1183) to recognize the German emperors as chief feudatories and magistrates, it was permitted to withhold from them the revenues of the immense municipal domains. The efforts of the citizens to liberalize their institutions were thwarted by the conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the political influence being divided between the family Delia Torre, the representatives of the former, and the Viscon-ti, of the latter party. The Delia Torre were successful in monopolizing the office of po-destd or chief magistrate from 1237 to 1311, when a revolt against the emperor Henry VII. brought the Visconti into power.

Matteo Visconti and his successors extended the power of Milan over almost all parts of Lombardy, and in 1395 it became the capital of the duchy of Milan, the first duke being Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti. After the extinction of the male line of the Visconti family (1447), Francesco Sforza, the husband of an illegitimate daughter of the last of the Visconti, secured the duchy for himself and his descendants. The claim of France upon Milan, derived from intermarriage with the Visconti, was taken up by Louis XII. (1499), and more strongly by Francis I., who was opposed by the emperor Charles V.; and the duchy was alternately in the hands of the French and of Sforza until Francis was obliged to relinquish his pretensions by the treaty of Madrid (1526). Francesco Sforza II. having received Milan in fief from Charles V., it reverted to that emperor after the extinction of the male line of the Sforzas (1535); he gave it to his son Philip II., and it remained in the power of Spain for nearly two centuries. From the end of the 14th to that of the 16th century Milan was celebrated for its manufactures of arms and armor.

The city was equally renowned for the elegance and tastefulness of its finery, and became so noted as a leader of fashions in Europe that the English word milliner originated from Milancr, an importer of fashionable articles from Milan. In 1576 the city was desolated by the plague. At the close of the war of Spanish succession the duchy was allotted to Austria (1714), and constituted together with Mantua the Austrian portion of Lombardy. After the invasion of the French in 1796 it became part successively of the Cisalpine republic (1797), of the Italian republic (1802), and of the kingdom of Italy (1805). In 1814 it became a province of Austria and part of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. Soon after the French revolution of 1848 Milan became the scene of disturbances; and after the departure of the viceroy, Archduke Regnier, a violent insurrection broke out, in consequence of which Gen. Radetzky, commander of the citadel, was compelled to evacuate the city, which was occupied by the Piedmontese, who established a provisional government.

After the defeat of Charles Albert at Custozza (July 25) the republicans of Milan overthrew the provisional government; but on Aug. 5 the city was compelled to submit to Radetzky, who entered it with 50,000 men, and kept it in a state of siege till December. The disturbances of March, 1849, and the rising of Feb. 6, 1853, were speedily suppressed. The rule of Austria was brought to a close in 1859 by the French and Sardinian armies; and the Austrian troops evacuated Milan June 5, the .lay after the battle of Magenta. Napoleon III. and Victor Emanuel made their entry into the city June 8, and by the peace of Villa-franca (July 11) Milan and the rest of Lombar-dv were ceded by Austria to France, to be transferred by the latter to Sardinia. The city was the scene of some disturbances by Neapolitan soldiery, April 29 and 30, 1861, but these were soon suppressed.