Down, a maritime county of Ireland, in the south-east of the province of Ulster, 50 miles long (NE. to SW.) and 35 broad. Area, 612,399 acres; pop. (1841) 368.143; (1881) 272,107; (1901) 205,889 (80,024 Presbyterians, 64,467 Catholics, and 47,130 Episcopalians). The coast-line of 67 miles, or 139 counting inlets and islets, is indented by Belfast Lough, Strangford Lough, Dundrum and Carlingford Bays. The Mourne Mountains cover 90 sq. m. in the south, and rise in Slieve Donard to 2796 feet. The other parts are mostly undulating and hilly, with plains and fine meadows along the rivers. The chief rivers are the Upper Bann and the Lagan. The Newry Canal admits vessels of 50 tons, and with the Ulster Canal opens communication through almost all Ulster. Nearly one-half of the entire area is under crop, mostly oats, potatoes, turnips, wheat, flax, and barley. The chief manufacture is linen, especially the finer fabrics. Down contains 70 parishes, and since 1885 sends four members to parliament, besides one for Newry borough. Other towns are Downpatrick, New-townards, Banbridge, Lisburn, Holywood, and Donaghadee. On the top of Slieve Croob (1755 feet) are twenty-three stone cairns.
Down, a village of Kent, 16 miles SSE. of London, residence from 1842 of Charles Darwin.