Nature of contracts for the benefit of a third person.........................

347

Property rights distinguished from contract rights....................

348

Property rights distinguished from revocable agencies......................

349

Application of foregoing principles....................................

350

Further illustrations.................................................

351

Agency and contracts for the benefit of a third person..................

352

Novations.................................

353

Promises to one who did not furnish the consideration.....................

354

When cestui que trust can sue on contract for his benefit.....................

355

Two types of case involving benefits of third persons....................

356

Contracts for the sole benefit of a third person should be enforceable......

357

A court of equity is the appropriate forum.............................

358

Grounds for equitable jurisdiction..................

359

English law...................

360

Contract to discharge a debt of the promise............................

361

Creditor's interest in such a promise..................................

362

Right not available for every creditor.................................

363

Creditor's right derivative...........................................

364

Statute...........................................................

365

Massschusetts law......................

366

Law of other states.........................

367

Life of other states.........................

368

Life insurance cases

369

Receipt of property as consideration for a promise to make a payment.....

370

No distinction if promise based on other valid consideration.................

371

Bonds to secure performance of building contracts or other duty..............

372

Contracts of public service corporations................................

372a

Contracts for the sole benefit of inhabitants of a community.................

373

Contract to perform a duty of a municipality..........................

375

Obligation of carrier in regard to mail.................................

375

Telegraph company cases......................

376

Charitable subscriptions........................

377

Action by an undetermined beneficiary................................

378

Enforcement of beneficiary's right by injunction........................

379

Confusion in regard to contracts to discharge a debt....................

380

Most jurisdictions allow the creditor an action at law...................

381

What amounts to an assumption of a mortgage..................

382

A mortgagee is generally allowed an action against a grantee who has assumed the mortgage.....................................................

383

Enforcement in equity of the mortgagee's right against the grantee.......

384

Mortgagor should be party to the suit..................

385

Successive purchases of mortgaged property.......................

386

Assumption of mortgage by second mortgage...................

387

Assumption of liabilities of outgoing partner.............

388

Right of holder of check against bank.................

389

Rights of the promise.........................

390

Ground for denying recovery by the promise...............

391

Recovery by the promise generally allowed.................

392

Creditor's right to sue both debtor and new promisor..................

393

Defences good against the promisee good against the creditor.............

394

Non-performance by promisee a good defence..........................

395

Rescission or release - sole beneficiary................

396

Fraternal benefit societies.............

396a

Distinction between sole beneficiary cases and others often not observed. ..

396b

Rescission or release - debtor and creditor cases.........................

397

Statute of Limitations...............................................

398

Invalidity of debt assumed.......................

399

All parties should be joined...............

400

Contracts under seal..............................

401

Person incidentally benefited........................................

402

Further illustrations......................

403