(1) This is most commonly applied to ceilings and walls. If the ceiling is new, nothing further is required than a coat of good Paris white (whiting of a superior kind), with just sufficient glue-size added to bind it, provided the finishing plaster was of good workmanship; but if inferior and very porous, it will require a preparation of strong size, soft-soap, and a handful of plaster of Paris. For old ceilings, all the previous whiting, etc, must be thoroughly washed off with an old whitewash brush and hot water, and allowed to dry before re-whitening. When this is done, if the ceiling is "hot" - ie. porous, and soaks in the moisture very quickly - it must be prepared with a mixture of lime, one handful; whiting, the same; glue, 1/2 lb.; soft-soap, 1/4 lb.; and if smoky or damp, about 2 oz. alum, to make a pail 3/4 full. When this is dry, it is ready for the finish. Use the preparation thin. To prepare whitewash properly, the whiting should be soaked overnight in plenty of water, thoroughly stirred up to wash it, and allowed to settle till the morning, when all the water possible should be drained off. The size should likewise be melted the night before use, so as to be jellied by the morning. It works better when cold.

About 1/2 lb. glue is required to 1 gal. water, which, with the water taken up by the whiting, will make it ready for use. Before using, the size and whiting should be broken up separately and strained through a fine sieve; then mixed and strained again. Before putting on the whiting, shut all doors and windows to exclude the draught, take a sweep right across the room, and continue till finished. If two are engaged at it, so much the better, as it requires to be done quickly; be careful to cover well, or you will not make a nice job. When finished, the doors and windows can be opened, as the sooner it dries after it is once on the more even and solid will it look. For whitening and colouring walls, great care is required in preparing them; all the old stuff is to be cleared off, well rubbed down with dry lump pumice, all holes well and evenly stopped with plaster of Paris, and a preparation of strong size, whiting, and alum, thickly laid on, of the colour you are going to finish, but a little darker in shade. When this is well dry, rub it well down to a good level and smooth face with lump pumice or coarse sandpaper.

The finishing coat may be made in the same way for the ceilings; but if exposed to the liability of being touched or rubbed against, a little more or stronger size is to be used; and if in any way to damp, a little alum. To get any of the colours required, it is merely necessary to get the dry powders and rub up with the whiting, prior to mixing with size, adding by degrees till the required depth of tone is arrived at. For the different shades of drab or stone-colour, yellow ochre, umber, black, and red are used. For shades of blue, from the French grey to sky blue, ultramarine, etc. {Painting for the Million.)

(2) If glue is employed to give body, it is destroyed by the corrosive action of the lime, and in consequence the latter easily rubs off the walls when dry. This is the case also if the lime is employed, as is often absurdly recommended, simply slaked in water, and used without any fixing material. Lime-wash is prepared by placing some freshly-burned quicklime in a pail, and pouring on sufficient water to cover it; boiled oil (linseed) should then be immediately added, in the proportion of 1 pint to 1 gal. of the wash. For coarser work, any common refuse fat may be used instead of the boiled oil. The whole should then be thinned with water to the required consistency, and applied with a brush. Care should be taken not to leave the brush in the lime-wash for any length of time, as it destroys the bristles. In lime-washing, Russia tallow is frequently used in preference to any other fatty matters. (Tegetmeier.)

(3) No brick wall that ever is intended to be painted should be whitewashed. All washes absorb water, and in damp weather lose their colour. For one barrel of colour wash take 1/2 bush, white lime, 3 pecks hydraulic cement, 10 lb. umber, 10 lb. ochre, 1 lb. Venetian red, 1/4 lb. lampblack. Slake the lime, cut the lampblack with vinegar, mix well together, add the cement, and fill the barrel with water. Let it stand for 12 hours before using, and stir frequently while putting it on. This is not white, but of a light stone colour, without the unpleasant glare of white. The colour may be changed by adding more or less of the colours named, or other colours. This wash covers well, needing only one coat. A rough board barn washed with this will look well for 5 years, and even longer, without renewing. The cement hardens, but on a rough surface will not scale. (Scient. Amer.)

(4) A wash which can be applied to lime walls and afterwards become waterproof so as to bear washing. Resen-schek, of Munich, mixes together the powder from 3 parts silicious rock (quartz), 3 parts broken marble and sandstone, 2 parts burned porcelain clay, with 2 parts freshly-slaked lime, still warm. In this way a wash is made which forms a silicate if often wetted, and becomes after a time almost like stone. The 4 constituents mixed together give the ground colour to which any pigment that can be used with lime is added. It is applied quite thickly to the wall or outer surface, let dry one day, and the next day frequently covered with water, which makes it waterproof. This wash can be cleansed with water without losing any of its colour; on the contrary, each time it gets harder, so that it can even be brushed, while its porosity makes it look soft. The wash or calcimine can be used for ordinary purposes as well as for the finest painting. A so-called fresco surface can be prepared with it in the dry way.

(5) Well wash the ceiling by wetting it twice with water, laying on as much as can well be floated on, then rub the old colour up with a stumpy brush and wipe off with a large sponge. When this is done, stop all the cracks with whiting and plaster of Paris. When dry, claircole with size and a little of the whitewash. If very much stained when this is dry, paint those parts with turps, colour, and, if necessary, claircole again. To make the whitewash, take 12 lb. whiting (in large balls), break them up in a pail, and cover with water to soak. During this time melt over a slow fire 4 lb. common size, and at the same time, with a palette knife or small trowel, rub up fine about a dessertspoonful of blue-black with water to a fine paste; then pour the water off the top of the whiting, and with a stick stir in the black; when well mixed, stir in the melted size and strain. When cold it is fit for use. If the jelly is too stiff for use, beat it well up and add a little cold water. Commence whitewashing over the window, and so work from the light; lay off the work into that done, and not all in one direction, as in painting.

Distemper colour of any tint may be made by using any other colour instead of the blue-black - as ochre, chrome, Dutch pink, raw sienna for yellows and buff: Venetian red, burnt sienna, Indian red, or purple-brown for reds; celestial blue, ultramarine, indigo, for blues; red and blue for purple, grey, or lavender; red lead and chrome for orange; Brunswick green for greens. (Smither.)

(6) 1 doz. balls of whiting, 2 lb. size, and 1 oz. celestial or ultramarine blue; this will cover about 12 sq. yd. Mixing: Take the whiting and break up in just enough water that you can work it about in a bucket with a stout stick. Next take a saucepan, about 3 qt., and put a pint of water in and boil; take off the fire, and drop your size into it, and let it stand upon the hob until melted. When tolerably warm, pour into your whiting, being careful to keep stirring it. Mix up your blue with a flat stick upon a slate or board, and add until it becomes of the shade required. Lime that will produce a fast lime wash is burnt in the bottom of brick kilns, the bricks upon the top, and fired with heath, fir loppings, coal, wood, ferns, and gorse. The sand from the bricks, the chalk, and the potash from the wood combined, cover the chalk or lime with a silicate soluble in water. To use this, get it fresh burnt, break it up, and pour boiling water upon it; it subsides into a beautiful cream-like consistence. This, owing to the soluble silicate in it, must be used and made fresh. It is fast, and frequently presents a glazed surface, and, if not put on too thick, is very durable. A peck of lime will do about 20 sq. yd.; this is merely lime - the fresher the better. Slake it.

Make it of the proper consistence, and add to every bucket one gill of turps and linseed oil, mixed. Some use tallow, some size.

(7) Lime is always apt to turn a bad colour. The way to whitewash a ceiling is to first thoroughly wash with clean water - not one pail, which speedily gets dirty, but with several. Then steep balls of whiting in water, and the next day reduce them to a thick cream. Put a kettle on the fire, with sufficient size, and when hot pour it on the whiting, adding at the same time some finely-ground blue-black. The proportions are, say, 6 balls whiting, 2 lb. size, and 1/4 to 1 oz. of blue-black, according to taste. The mixture must be allowed to cool before using. To lime-wash, clean first, and then proceed to make up the following: Take 1/2 bush, lime, and slake it; add 1 lb. common salt, 1/2 lb. white vitriol, and 1 gal. skim milk. With a clean surface, this will not shell off, neither will lime wash and size, when properly prepared and laid on a clean surface.

(8) Recommended by the United States Treasury Department to all the lighthouse keepers: it answers for wood, brick, or stone: -Slake about 1/2 bush, unslaked lime with boiling water, keeping it covered during the process. Strain it, and add 1 peck salt dissolved in warm water, 3 lb. ground rice put in boiling water and boiled to a thin paste, 1/2 lb. powdered Spanish whiting, and 1 lb. clear glue dissolved in warm water; mix these well together, and let the mixture stand for several days. Keep the wash thus prepared in a kettle or portable furnace, and when used put it on as hot as possible with either painters' or whitewash brushes.

(9) Having prepared the ceilings, scraped them, washed them, or removed the blisters and inequalities, use any of the following, according to the kind of job operated on: - (a) Well-selected pieces of quicklime, free from the appearance of iron (avoid red streaked); slake with water; when all have fallen to powder, mix to proper consistency, and apply with a stock brush, about 6 in. broad; this is suitable for common purposes. (6) Common whiting, washed whiting, Paris whiting (or gilders' white), mixed with water and a little size (strong glue boiled down); these are suitable for all parts of a house, from the kitchen to the drawing-room, (c) For a superior job, and where there is much gas burnt, use white oxide of zinc in water, and a little size; this will keep beautifully white a very long time, but is dear. In some cases it is desirable to first paper the ceiling with cartridge-paper before whitewashing. Considerable practice is necessary to lay on the wash quite even. Be careful not to leave clouds or tails where the brush leaves the roof after the stroke, and above all see that the ceiling is not dusty. (Kemp.)