Various matters are largely employed to artificially heighten the colours of wines. The following are among the number: -

(1) Malva flowers or hollyhock produce, when steeped in spirits for 24 hours, or even when boiled with water, a very beautiful purple.

(2) The pokeberry (the 'dark berries from the plant growing all over the United States) has a very dark red colour.

(3) Whortleberry, elderberry, blackberry, and mulberry.

(4) Brazil-wood, Sanders-wood, and logwood. These woods are boiled in water, and the decoctions yield shades of colour from red to blue.

(5) Cochineal gives a fine red colour by boiling finely-ground cochineal with cream of tartar.

(6) Orchil produces a beautiful purple.

(7) Red beets and carrots produce likewise a good colour.

(8) Indigo solution, neutralized by potash, produces a fine blue.

(9) Annatto and extract of safflower produce a beautiful yellow.

(10) Turmeric is the most common colour for yellow, as the spirit extracts all colour immediately; as also quercitron bark.

(11) Red cabbage produces a beautiful bluish-red.

(12) Garacine (extract of madder) produces various shades of red.

(13) Tincture of saffron (Spanish saffron) for yellow.

(14) Blue vitriol, or solution of indigo, produces blue.

(15) Burnt sugar produces a fine and permanent brown colour for wines. It is best to boil down common sugar or loaf-sugar nearly to dryness. It is then dissolved in hot water sufficient to make the consistency of syrup; and for the purpose of neutralizing it and making it a more permanent colour, add to each gallon of sugar-colour about 1 oz. liquid ammonia.

(16) Green colour for absinth is prepared from a solution of extract of indigo and turmeric, dissolved in spirits.

(17) Violet is obtained by a solution of extract of logwood and alum.

(18) Barwood acquires a dark wine-red colour by digesting in alcohol.

(19) Brazil-wood, by being macerated in alcohol, or by boiling for 1/2 hour, produces a deep red.

(20) Alkanet-root produces a fine blue-red by macerating in alcohol.

(21) Fuchsine, an aniline colour, is now largely employed as a substitute for ammoniacal extract of cochineal.