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Chemistry Of Food And Nutrition | by Henry C. Sherman



The purpose of this book is to present the principles of the chemistry of food and nutrition with special reference to the food requirements of man and the considerations which should underlie our judgment of the nutritive values of foods. Food is here considered chiefly in its relations to nutrition, the more detailed description of individual articles of food and the chemical and legal control of the food industry having been treated in another volume.

TitleChemistry Of Food And Nutrition
AuthorHenry C. Sherman
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1919
Copyright1918, The Macmillan Company
AmazonChemistry of food and nutrition

By Henry C. Sherman, Ph.D, Professor In Columbia University

Second Edition Rewritten And Enlarged

-Preface
The purpose of this book is to present the principles of the chemistry of food and nutrition with special reference to the food requirements of man and the considerations which should underlie our jud...
-Introduction
The activities on which the life of the body depends involve a continuous expenditure of energy and a constant exchange of material. Ultimately the body is dependent upon food for the fuel materials w...
-Chapter I. Carbohydrates
Of the constituents of the ordinary mixed food of man the carbohydrates are usually the most abundant and the most economical sources of energy. They are also considered to be the first of the three g...
-Classification Of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides
(Monosaccharoses) Dioses (C2H4O2) - Glycolose. Moses (C3H6O3). Aldoses - Glycerose. Ketose - Dioxyacetone. Tetroses (C4H8O4). Aldoses - Erythrose,3 Threose.3 Ketose - Erythrulose.2 Pentose...
-Properties Of The Chief Carbohydrates Of Food. Monosaccharides
The monosaccharides are all soluble, crystallizable, diffusible substances, unaffected by digestive enzymes, and if not attacked by bacteria in the digestive tract, they are absorbed and enter the blo...
-Disaccharides
The three disaccharides here considered are di-hexoses or hexo-bioses of the formula C12H22O11, and are crystallizable and diffusible. Sucrose crystallizes anhydrous; maltose and lactose, each with on...
-Polysaccharides
The polysaccharides are all colloids insoluble in alcohol. Some dissolve in water in the sense that they form colloidal dispersions which will pass through filter paper; some swell and become gelati...
-Polysaccharides. Continued
The digestion of dextrin has already been mentioned in connection with that of starch, both saliva and pancreatic juice forming dextrin during the digestion of starch and acting upon it with the produ...
-Carbohydrates References
Abderhalden. Physiologische Chemie (3. Aufl.). Abderhalden. Biochemisches Handlexicon. Abderhalden. Handbuch der Biochemischen Arbeitsmethoden. Armstrong. The Simple Carbohydrates and the Glu...
-Chapter II. Fats And Lipoids
Almost as widely distributed in nature as the carbohydrates, and constituting a much more concentrated form of fuel to supply energy in nutrition, are the fats. Fats are glyceryl esters of fatty acids...
-Fatty Acids
The greater number of the fatty acids belong to a few homologous series. The series to which stearic acid belongs may be represented by the general formula, CnH2nO2, and is made up of homologues of ac...
-"Simple" And "Mixed" Triglycerides
Triglycerides in which the three fatty acid radicles are of the same kind are known as simple triglycerides. Tristearin, triolein, tripalmitin, etc., are examples of simple triglycerides. A mixed trig...
-Formation Of Fat From Carbohydrate
In plants there are many indications of the formation of fat from carbohydrate, as when decrease of starch and increase of fat go on simultaneously in a ripening seed, or when sugars are found to be c...
-Composition And Properties Of Animal Fat
Just as we found that the character of the fat of the coldblooded animals is adapted to the maintenance of a fluid or plastic consistency at the low temperature to which it is exposed, so to a less de...
-Storage Of Food Fat In The Body
In discussing the formation of body fat from carbohydrate it was shown that often the greater part of the fat stored is manufactured in the body from carbohydrate. So striking were the results of some...
-Fats And Lipoids As Body Constituents
From what has been stated above, fat is seen to be a form of reserve fuel to which any of the organic foodstuffs may contribute (see also the discussion of fate of the foodstuffs in Chapter V (The Fat...
-Fats And Lipoids References
Abderhalden. Lehrbuch der Physiologische Chemie. Abderhalden. Biochemisches Handlexicon. Abderhalden. Handbuch der Biochemischen Arbeitsmethoden. Bang. Chemie und Biochemie der Lipoide. Bl...
-Chapter III. Proteins
Carbohydrates and fats are the chief sources of energy for the activities of the body, but not the chief constituents of which the active tissues are composed. Muscle tissue, for instance, is almost d...
-Chemical Nature And Physical Properties Of Proteins In General
Generally speaking, the proteins of different kinds of tissue, and even of the corresponding tissues of different species, are not identical substances. The total number of different proteins occurrin...
-Chemical Nature And Physical Properties Of Proteins In General. Continued
In view of the marked differences in structure existing among these amino acids it becomes important to know the relative proportions in which the various amino acid radicles exist in the different pr...
-Classification Of The Proteins
There was formerly considerable confusion in the classification and terminology of the proteins and some differences of usage will still be met in the literature. At present, however, the majority of ...
-Properties Of Some Individual Proteins
Albumins and globulins are very often associated, as, for example, in blood serum and in the cell substance. As a rule the albumins are the more abundant in animal fluids, while the globulins predomin...
-Properties Of Some Individual Proteins. Continued
Phosphoproteins occur especially in milk and eggs, which obviously function in nature to provide the material for growth and development of new animal tissue. The phosphorus, while probably present in...
-Relation Between Chemical Constitution Of The Proteins And Their Food Value
Several facts bearing upon the relation between the feeding values of individual proteins and their amino acid make-up have been cited in the preceding pages. The subject is of great importance and is...
-Proteins. References
Abderhalden. Lehrbuch der Physiologische Chemie. Fischer. Untersuchungen uber Aminosauren, Polypeptide und Proteine. Geiling. The Nutritive Value of the Diamino-Acids occurring in Proteins for t...
-Chapter IV. Enzymes And Digestion
The carbohydrates, fats, and proteins as they exist in foods* are in most cases not of a nature to be used by the body tissues in the exact form in which they are eaten, but must usually undergo more ...
-Attempts To Determine The Chemical Nature Of Enzymes
In 1902 Pekelharing prepared what has generally been regarded as probably the purest pepsin of which we have record. This product contained carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur in proportions withi...
-Classification And General Properties Of Enzymes
The word enzyme (from the Greek in yeast) was introduced by Kuhne as a general designation for the substances formed in plants or animals which had previously been called soluble or unorganized...
-Terminology Of The Hydrolytic Enzymes
Except in so far as some familiar enzymes continue to be known by their old established names (pepsin, rennin, trypsin, etc.), scientific usage now generally follows the suggestion of Duclaux that eac...
-Influence Of Hydrogen Ion Concentration
The activity of most enzymes is largely dependent upon the exact acidity or alkalinity of the medium. This is now usually expressed in terms of hydrogen ion concentration. Thus a normal solution of hy...
-Activity Of The Digestive Enzymes
That the typical digestive enzymes are very pronounced catalysts may be judged from the relatively large amounts of material which they are capable of digesting under favorable conditions. Thus Hammar...
-Salivary And Gastric Digestion
Since the muscular movements of the digestive tract, particularly of the stomach when empty, play an important part in bringing about the sensations which lead to the taking of food, it may be well to...
-Salivary And Gastric Digestion. Part 2
Usually the food stays too short a time in the mouth for the starch to be acted upon there to any great extent, and until recently it was supposed that salivary digestion must cease almost as soon as ...
-Salivary And Gastric Digestion. Part 3
In studying the passage of food from the stomach into the intestine, Cannon found that the pylorus does not open at the approach of each wave of constriction which passes over this part of the stomach...
-Intestinal Digestion. Digestion In The Small Intestine
When the pylorus opens, food, now reduced to liquid chyme, is projected into the upper part of the small intestine, where it usually lies for some time in the curve of the duodenum, until several addi...
-Digestion In The Large Intestine
We have seen that in the small intestine the conditions are very favorable both for digestion and for absorption, and that very much the greater part of the available nutrients has been absorbed befor...
-Bacterial Action In The Digestive Tract
The digestive tract of an infant contains no bacteria at birth, but usually some gain access during the first day of life. In the average adult it is estimated that each day's food in its passage thro...
-Coefficients Of Digestibility Of Food
The fecal matter passed per day varies considerably in health, but, on an ordinary mixed diet of digestible food materials, is usually between 100 and 200 grams of moist substance containing 25 to 50 ...
-Enzymes And Digestion. References
Bayliss. Principles of General Physiology. Bayliss. The Nature of Enzyme Action. Cannon. The Mechanical Factors of Digestion. Cannon and Washburn. An Explanation of Hunger. American Journal of Phys...
-Chapter V. The Fate Of The Foodstuffs In Metabolism Carbohydrates. Oxidation Of Carbohydrate
The carbohydrate of the food, having been converted into monosaccharides in the intestine, is taken up by the capillary blood vessels of the intestinal wall and passes from them into the portal vein. ...
-Oxidation Of Carbohydrate. Continued
Thus far in our study of the catabolism of glucose we have considered no oxidative changes but only the cleavages and transformations which, from the standpoint of the use of glucose as fuel, may be r...
-Production Of Fat From Carbohydrate
Experimental evidence of the transformation of carbohydrate into fat has been cited in Chapter II (Fats And Lipoids) where it was shown that animals which fatten readily on carbohydrate food may store...
-Chemical Steps In The Formation Of Fat From Carbohydrate
While there is no doubt whatever of the ability of the animal to synthesize fat from carbohydrate, the mechanism of the process is far from clear. As expressed by Leathes, the chemical changes involv...
-Fat
In digestion the fat is split into fatty acids and glycerol which, however, upon absorption are recombined into neutral fat. It is believed that this recombination occurs during the passage of these d...
-Proteins
It is now believed that the hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids in the digestive tract is practically complete. The significance of this digestive cleavage lies not simply in the formation of more s...
-Utilization Of Protein In The Tissues
The proteins of the digested food, absorbed and distributed in the form of amino acids as described above, soon become available for nutrition; and among other functions they, like the carbohydrates a...
-Formation Of Carbohydrate From Protein
As early as 1876 Wolffberg tested the formation of carbohydrate from protein by fasting fowls for two days in order to free them from glycogen and then feeding for two days with meat powder which had ...
-Production Of Fat From Protein
There has been much controversy regarding the formation of fat from protein in the animal body. A number of observations by Voit which were believed to demonstrate such a production of fat were subjec...
-The Fate Of The Nitrogen In Protein Metabolism
It has already been shown that the nitrogen of the protein of food enters the circulation chiefly, if not wholly, as amino acids and is taken up as amino acids by the various body tissues. The amino a...
-Urea
The proteins, on being metabolized in the body, yield varying amounts of arginine, which may undergo hydrolysis into ornithine and urea. In this way a small part of the nitrogen of protein may reach t...
-Ammonia
As already noted, ammonia is evidently a normal precursor of urea, being changed to the latter in part in the muscles and other tissues generally and in part during its passage through the liver. In a...
-Uric Acid And The Purine Bases (Nucleic Acid Metabolism)
A part of the nitrogen of human urine is always in the form of uric acid and purine bases. These owe their origin either to the free purine substances of the food, such as the guanine and hypoxanthine...
-Distribution Of Excreted Nitrogen As Influenced By Level Of Protein Metabolism
The above statements regarding the distribution of the eliminated nitrogen among the different end products refer to results obtained upon an ordinary mixed diet containing the usual amount of protein...
-The Fate Of The Foodstuffs In Metabolism Carbohydrates. References
Abderhalden. Lehrbuch der Physiologische Chemie, Dritte Aufl. Abel, Rowntree and Turner. The Removal of Diffusible Substances from the Circulating Blood of Living Animals by Dialysis. Journal of Ph...
-Chapter VI. The Fuel Value Of Food And The Energy Requirement Of The Body
We have seen that carbohydrate after its absorption into the body may either be oxidized, or stored as glycogen, or transformed into fat; that fat may be oxidized or stored and that at least its glyce...
-The Fuel Value Of Food And The Energy Requirement Of The Body. Continued
Proteins when burned in the calorimeter give off their carbon as carbon dioxide, their hydrogen as water, and their nitrogen as nitrogen gas.* Thus the nitrogen contributes nothing to and takes nothin...
-Fuel Value Of Food Materials
If the composition of a food is known, its approximate fuel value is easily computed by means of the above factors. Thus milk of about average composition contains: Protein, 3.3 per cent; fat, 4.0 ...
-Energy Requirement In Metabolism - Methods Of Study And Amounts Required For Maintenance At Rest
We know definitely from accurate experiments that the physiological fuel values which have been deduced represent the energy which is actually obtained by the body from the food and which appears as...
-Respiration Experiments
Since the foodstuffs yield their energy through being oxidized in the body, it is evident that a measure of the energy metabolism can be obtained by finding either the amount of foodstuffs oxidized or...
-Carbon And Nitrogen Balance Experiments
From a comparison of the constituents of the food consumed (intake) and of the substances eliminated from the body (output), the material actually oxidized and the energy liberated in the oxidatio...
-Calorimeter Experiments
The most direct, and in some respects most convincing, way of ascertaining the energy metabolism is by the method of direct calorimetry. This consists in measuring the total energy expenditure of the ...
-Calorimeter Experiments. Continued
In recent years several different calorimeters, based on the principles of the apparatus just described but adapted in size and shape to different types of experimentation, have come into use. Notable...
-Summary Of The Evidence Obtained By The Different Methods
A general view of the results obtained by all four of the methods described shows them to be strikingly consistent and leads to the conclusion that the food requirements of a young to middle-aged man ...
-Significance Of Basal Energy Metabolism
On account of the great importance of the fundamental energy expenditure both for the study of normal nutrition, and as a basis for comparison in the investigation of disease, the experiments above de...
-The Fuel Value Of Food And The Energy Requirement Of The Body. References
Armsby. Principles of Animal Nutrition, Chapters 7 to 10. Armsby. Food as Body Fuel. Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 126. Atwater. Methods and Results of Investigations on...
-Chapter VII. Conditions Governing Energy Metabolism And Total Food Requirement. Basal Metabolism Of The Adult
Activity, age, and size are the most important factors affecting the total food requirement of the body, but several other conditions, such as bodily constitution and environment, may have measurable ...
-Conditions Governing Energy Metabolism And Total Food Requirement. Internal Activities
The work of maintaining the respiration and circulation evidently involves a continual expenditure of energy. It is clear too that deep and rapid breathing or vigorous heart action must involve an inc...
-Does Mental Work Influence Energy Metabolism?
In any consideration of this question it is important to distinguish sharply between the nervous control of muscular conditions and the metabolism of the brain and nerve substance itself. As emphasize...
-Influence Of Muscular Work Upon Metabolism And Food Requirement
Muscular work is much the most important of the factors which raise the food requirements of adults above the basal rate necessary for mere maintenance. Accurate measurements by means of the calori...
-Quantitative Relation Between Work Performed And Total Metabolism
Theoretically it is possible to determine the mechanical efficiency of a man by dividing the mechanical effect of his work by the increase of energy metabolism which the work involves. This gives the ...
-Quantitative Relation Between Work Performed And Total Metabolism. Continued
In another series of experiments they subtracted from the expenditure of energy during work, the amount spent when the subject, instead of lying on a couch, sat on the ergometer and allowed the pedals...
-Influence Of Food Upon Energy Metabolism
Atwater and Benedict determined directly by means of the respiration calorimeter the heat production of the same man during five fasting experiments of one to two days each, and during a four-day expe...
-Regulation Of Body Temperature
Climate, season, housing, clothing, are all factors which may influence energy metabolism through their bearing upon the regulation of body temperature.* It is evident that the maintenance of the body...
-The Influence Of Age And Growth on Metabolism
From the fact that in animals of the same species, but of different size the heat production is proportional to the surface. In a child 2 years old weighing 25 pounds the energy metabolism is appro...
-The Influence Of Age And Growth on Metabolism. Continued
In estimating the food requirement of a family it is usually preferable to consider each child's energy requirement directly rather than to count the children as equivalent to fractions of the hypothe...
-Influence Of Sex on Metabolism
Whether sex shall be said to influence the energy requirement will depend upon our use of terms. Boys spend on the average more energy than girls, and men more than women, but it is doubtful if the di...
-Conditions Governing Energy Metabolism And Total Food Requirement. References
Anderson and Lusk. The Interrelation between Diet and Body Condition and the Energy Production during Mechanical Work. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 32, page 421 (1917). Armsby. Principles ...
-Chapter VIII. Factors Determining The Protein Requirement
Animal cells under all conditions of life are constantly breaking down proteins into simpler substances which the body eliminates. Since this breaking down or catabolism of protein does not stop eit...
-Protein Metabolism In Fasting
Since the diet has such a great influence upon the amount of protein metabolized, it might be expected that the basal protein metabolism could be observed best in fasting. But in fasting the energy me...
-Nitrogen Balance Experiments And The Tendency Toward Equilibrium At Different Levels Of Protein Intake
The estimation of the nitrogen balance has already been referred to as one factor in the determination of the total food requirement by means of metabolism experiments; and it has been shown that the ...
-Protein-Sparing Action Of Carbohydrates And Fats
It has been shown above that, in fasting experiments, the amount of stored glycogen and fat in the body exerts a sparing influence upon protein metabolism, the amount of protein catabolized ...
-Protein-Sparing Action Of Carbohydrates And Fats. Continued
The food of the first period consisted of meat, milk, butter, bread, sugar, coffee, beer. That of the second period contained the same amounts of meat, milk, bread, coffee, and beer, but less sugar, m...
-Protein Requirement In Normal Nutrition
From what has been said above it will be apparent that, within rather wide limits, the greater the amounts of carbohydrates and fats eaten, the smaller will be the amount of protein required to mainta...
-Difference Between Minimum Requirement And Standard Allowance Of Protein
It may be well to point out here the distinction between the amount of protein actually required on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the amount which it may be thought best to allow in the planni...
-Influence Of The Choice Of Food on Protein Requirement
When isolated proteins are fed singly, striking differences in nutritive value appear, as has been shown in Chapter III (Proteins). In view of this fact it may seem strange that in the experiments hit...
-Influence Of Muscular Exercise on Protein Requirement
At one time it was supposed that muscular power was generated at the expense of muscle substance and this, of course, necessitated the belief that muscular work always increased protein metabolism. Si...
-Protein Requirement In Relation To Age And Growth
If a man at moderately active work takes a diet which furnishes 3000 Calories and 75 grams of protein, he is taking 10 per cent of his calories in the form of protein. Of course the protein requiremen...
-Factors Determining The Protein Requirement. References
Atwater and Benedict. Comparison of Fats and Carbohydrates as Protectors of Body Material. Bulletin 136 (pages 176-187), Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Dept. Agriculture. Benedict. The Influe...
-Chapter IX. Inorganic Foodstuffs And The Mineral Metabolism. The Elementary Composition Of The Body
From various estimates by different writers the average elementary composition of the human body may be presumed to be approximately as follows: Oxygen 65. per cent ...
-Metabolism Of Chlorides - Use Of Common Salt
Except for the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, practically all the chlorine involved in metabolism enters, exists in, and leaves the body in the form of chlorides - much the greater part as So...
-Metabolism Of Sulphur
Plants absorb sulphates from the soil and use the sulphur in the synthesis of proteins. Minute quantities of inorganic sulphates may be taken by man in food and drink, but by far the greater part of t...
-Metabolism Of Phosphorus
Phosphorus compounds are as widely distributed in the body and as strictly essential to every living cell as are proteins. Phosphates are constantly excreted from the body even after long fasting. ...
-Interrelations Of Phosphates, Phosphoproteins, And Phosphatids
Phosphates, nucleoproteins, and phosphatids are all prominent as body constituents. The insoluble phosphates constitute the chief mineral matter of bone; while soluble phosphates are essential cons...
-Interrelations Of Phosphates, Phosphoproteins, And Phosphatids. Continued
In cow's milk the greater part of the phosphorus appears to exist as phosphate, but there can be no doubt that the milk phosphorus as a whole is available for the needs of the young of the species, es...
-Estimation Of The Phosphorus Requirement
Since phosphorus compounds are essential to all the tissues of the body, the growth of new tissue requires a storage of phosphorus along with that of protein, but aside from this it is evident that th...
-Phosphorus In Food Materials And Typical Dietaries
A comparison of the amounts of phosphorus contained in the food of typical American families with the amounts metabolized in the experiments above mentioned indicates that a freely chosen diet does no...
-Metabolism Of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium
The distribution of sodium and potassium in the body and some of their mutual relations in metabolism have been referred to in the section on the chlorides. The distribution and functions of calcium h...
-The Calcium Requirement
Calcium constitutes a larger proportion of the body weight (about 2 per cent) than does any other of the inorganic elements. It is very unevenly distributed in the body, over 99 per cent of the tota...
-The Calcium Requirement. Continued
Lusk also emphasizes the importance of a diet rich in calcium for pregnant women, especially during the last ten weeks of pregnancy, when the fetus is storing calcium at a rapid rate. He cites * the d...
-Calcium Content Of Typical Foods
The table on the following page shows the comparative richness in calcium of a number of staple articles of food. It will be seen that there are enormous differences in the calcium content of diffe...
-Relations Of The Inorganic Elements To Each Other
It is evident from what has already been seen that the custom which has been more or less prevalent of referring to the ash or mineral matter of a food as if it were a substance is wholly illogical an...
-Output Of Inorganic Elements During Fasting
In view of the relationships discussed above it is of interest to examine the absolute and relative excretion of the different elements as recently reported by Benedict for a subject who fasted for th...
-The Maintenance Of Neutrality In The Body
One of the interesting relationships among the ash constituents of foods is that between the acid-forming and the base-forming elements, since this has a direct bearing upon the important problem of t...
-The Maintenance Of Neutrality In The Body. Continued
Phosphates are regularly present in blood and urine in notable amounts. From what has already been seen regarding the reaction of the blood, it may be inferred that in it the primary and secondary pho...
-Inorganic Foodstuffs And The Mineral Metabolism. References
Abderhalden. Lehrbuch der Physiologische Chemie, 3 Aufl., Vorlesungen 34-37. Anderson. The Organic Phosphoric Acid Compound of Wheat Bran, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 20, pages 463, 475, ...
-Chapter XI. Iron In Food And Its Functions In Nutrition
The amount of iron contained in the body is small, but its functions are of the highest importance. As previously noted, the iron content of the adult man or woman is estimated at only 0.004 per cent,...
-Iron In Food And Its Functions In Nutrition. Part 2
Socin demonstrated the superiority of the iron of egg yolk over iron chloride by dividing a number of mice into groups, some of which were fed on a mixture of iron-free food and iron chloride, while o...
-Iron In Food And Its Functions In Nutrition. Part 3
These investigations having shown that inorganic iron is at least to some extent absorbed and carried to organs which take part in the production of hemoglobin, it became of especial importance to det...
-The Iron Requirement Of The Body
A very brief summary of the leading facts regarding the normal nutritive relations of iron may well precede the discussion of the amount required. Iron is an essential element of hemoglobin and of ...
-Iron In Foods
Little weight can be attached to such statements regarding the iron content of foods as are based upon the data obtainable from the ordinary tables of ash analyses, since these have usually been obtai...
-Iron in Grain Products
Iron in combination with protein matter is found in considerable quantity in the cereal grains, but the greater part of it is in the germ and outer layers, and so is rejected in the making of the fin...
-Iron in Vegetables And Fruits
Not many direct studies upon the iron compounds of the fruits and vegetables have been made, but Stoklasa has separated from onions an iron-protein compound very similar to the hematogen obtained by B...
-Iron In Food And Its Functions In Nutrition. References
Abderhalden. Physiological Chemistry, English Edition, Chapter 17; Third German Edition, Chapter 35. Bunge. Physiological and Pathological Chemistry, Chapter 25. Gaule. Resorption von Eisen und ...
-Chapter XII. Antiscorbutic And Antineuritic Properties Of Food
Recent investigations have shown that food furnishing sufficient amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and inorganic foodstuffs may not always prove permanently adequate. Some at least of the food...
-Antiscorbutic And Antineuritic Properties Of Food. Continued
Hoist and Frohlich, studying experimental scurvy in guinea pigs, find that some foods such as cabbage show a marked loss of antiscorbutic power as the result of simple heating or slow drying, while ot...
-Infantile Scurvy (Barlow's Disease)
An investigation conducted by the American Pediatric Society in 1898 showed that infants developing scurvy had in nearly all cases been fed with heated milk or with proprietary foods. Infantile scu...
-Antineuritic Properties Of Food
Our knowledge of the antineuritic properties of foods has been obtained through the study of beriberi in man or of experimental beriberi in fowls or pigeons. While the symptoms of beriberi are variabl...
-Attempts To Isolate An Antineuritic Substance
Such experiments were greatly facilitated by the fact, discovered by Eijkmann in 1897, that fowls develop a diseased condition closely resembling beriberi in man, when they are fed exclusively upon po...
-Relation Of Chemical Structure To Antineuritic Action
Williams has attacked this problem by synthesizing substances of known structure and testing them for curative action upon polyneuritic pigeons. Since such chemical examinations as had been made in co...
-Antiscorbutic And Antineuritic Properties Of Food. References
Baumann and Howard. Mineral Metabolism of Experimental Scurvy of Guinea Pig. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Vol. 153, page 650 (1917). Braddon. The Cause and Prevention of Beriberi. B...
-Chapter XIII. Food In Relation To Growth And Development And The Dietary Deficiencies Of Some Individual Articles Of Food
Nutritive Requirements Of The Growing Organism The upper limit of the size of an animal is determined by heredity. The stature to which an animal may actually attain, within this definitely fixed ...
-Growth-Promoting Substances In Food
Hopkins * found that the addition of very small amounts of milk to diets otherwise composed of purified foodstuffs sufficed to a fat-soluble substance carried by butter-fat and the fat of egg yolk and...
-Influence Of Restricted Food Supply. (1) Energy
When a diet of such character as would ordinarily meet all requirements is fed to a growing animal in amounts too small to meet the growth requirement, it is plain that such restriction may result in ...
-Influence Of Restricted Food Supply. (2) Protein
As explained in earlier chapters (text and figures, pages 55-68 and 224-226), it was shown by Osborne and Mendel that with a diet adequate in all other respects any one of a number of purified protein...
-Influence Of Restricted Food Supply. (3) Ash Constituents
Ash constituents have long been recognized as playing an important part in the growth of young animals and of these, as we have already seen, the elements most likely to be deficient are calcium, phos...
-Influence Of Restricted Food Supply. (4) Vitamines Or Food Hormones
Osborne and Mendel (1913) found that the use of highly purified salts in rations of isolated food substances resulted in less growth than when salts of only ordinary purity were fed. This suggested to...
-Dietary Deficiencies Of Individual Articles Of Food
McCollum and his associates are now applying the above conceptions to the. study of the dietary deficiencies of individual articles of food. In a recent paper * they present their plan of investigatio...
-Dietary Deficiencies Of Individual Articles Of Food. Continued
The oat kernel, according to McCollum's investigations, contains protein of poorer quality than either the maize or wheat kernel. When all other dietary factors are properly adjusted, nine per cent of...
-Food In Relation To Growth And Development And The Dietary Deficiencies Of Some Individual Articles Of Food. References
Ackroyd and Hopkins. Feeding Experiments with Deficiencies in the Amino Acid Supply. Biochemical Journal, Vol. 10, page 551 (1916). Aron. Nutrition and Growth. Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. 6...
-Chapter XIV. Dietary Standards And The Economic Use Of Food
The General Problem Of A Dietary Standard It is sometimes asked whether a normal appetite does not indicate, as well as can any dietary standard, the amount of food which is desirable for an indivi...
-Dietary Standards And The Economic Use Of Food. Continued
In America, dietary standards have been discussed chiefly by Atwater, Chittenden, and Langworthy. Atwater, in his later writings,* ceasing to make distinction between fats and carbohydrates as sources...
-Energy Allowances For Adults
It has been shown in a previous chapter that different normal individuals of similar age and physique are substantially alike in their energy requirement when performing equivalent amounts of muscular...
-Energy Allowances For Children
Food allowances or dietary standards for children differ from those for adults in that they must provide not only for all expenditures but also for growth. Recently a considerable number of accurate m...
-The Problem Of A Standard For Protein
In attempting to set a standard for the amount of protein in the dietary we find no such definite and satisfactory basis for judgment as in the case of total food (or fuel) value. There is no indicati...
-Opinions Regarding The Value Of Liberal Protein Diet
Liebig believed that fats and carbohydrates were burned in the body primarily to supply it with warmth, and that protein alone served as the source of muscular work and other forms of tissue activity....
-Opinions Regarding The Value Of Liberal Protein Diet. Continued
Benedict argued that general experience in animal feeding favors the use of liberal quantities of protein, and that while men may for some months reduce the proportion of protein in their diet very m...
-Protein Standards For Children And For Family Dietaries
Little can be said with confidence regarding the best amount of protein for children after the nursing period. In practice well-planned dietaries for children usually contain between 10 and 15 per cen...
-Standards For The Calcium, Phosphorus, And Iron Content Of The Dietary
Formerly dietary standards took no account of the ash constituents because it was assumed that dietaries furnishing sufficient energy and protein would always be adequate as regards the inorganic el...
-The Unidentified Essentials
Of the unidentified fat-soluble and water-soluble substances essential to normal metabolism we have as yet no direct quantitative measures, either of the proportions in which they occur in food or are...
-Limitations Of Dietary Standards
At the risk of repetition let it be clear that too much weight must not be attached to any of the so-called dietary standards, i.e. to any attempt to state the requisites of an adequate diet in terms ...
-The Economic Use Of Food
True economy in the use of food must be physiological as well as pecuniary economy. The diet must supply amply all the requirements of nutrition (not merely the appetite nor the need for energy and pr...
-The Economic Use Of Food. Part 2
That the writer does not regard the usual distribution of expenditure for food in American families as being either inevitable or ideal may be indicated by the fact that in his own household, consisti...
-The Economic Use Of Food. Part 3
Individual articles of food may be given score values or composite valuations in a similar manner. Thus if 100 Calories be given a value of 40 on the scale of 100, and such quantities of protein,...
-The Economic Use Of Food. Part 4
It therefore seems advisable to spend at least as much for fruit and vegetables as for meat and fish; also to spend at least as much for milk as for meat (or for milk and cheese as for meat and fish)....
-Dietary Standards And The Economic Use Of Food. References
Armsby. The Food Supply of the Future. Science, Vol. 30, page 817 (1909). See also Ibid., Vol. 46, pages 160-162 (1917). Atwater. Methods and Results of Investigation on the Chemistry and Economy o...
-Appendix A. Nomenclature And Classification Of Proteins
Joint Recommendations of the Committees on Protein Nomenclature of the American Physiological Society and American Society of Biological Chemists. Since a chemical basis for the nomenclature of the...
-Appendix B. Composition Of Foods
Explanation Of Headings Food as purchased may or may not consist entirely of edible material. When an article of food contains inedible matter or refuse, this may be stated separately and the compo...
-Table I. Edible Organic Nutrients And Fuel Values Of Foods
Food Protein (NX6.25) PER CENT Fat PER CENT Carbo-hydrate per CENT Fuel Value per Pound Calories 100 Calorie Portion g...
-Table II. Ash Constituents Of Foods In Percentage Of The Edible Portion
(Compiled from Various Sources). Food Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Potassium (K) Sodium (Na) Phosphorus (P) Chlorine (Cl...
-Table III. Protein, Calcium, Phosphorus, And Iron In Grams Per 100 Calories Of Food Material
(Estimated from data compiled from various sources). Food Protein Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) Iron (Fe) CaO P2O5 ...
-Food Products
By HENRY C. SHERMAN Professor of Food Chemistry in Columbia University. Illustrated, cloth, 12mo, 594 pagest $2.25 A comprehensive, descriptive text-book on the general subject of foods. The fir...
-Methods Of Organic Analysis
By HENRY C. SHERMAN, Ph.D. Professor of Food Chemistry in Columbia University. Author of Chemistry of Food and Nutrition. Illustrated, cloth, 8vo, $2.40 Some Reviews That a substantia...
-A Laboratory Manual Of Foods And Cookery
By EMMA B. MATTESON Instructor in Home Economics, George Peabody College for Teachers. AND ETHEL M. NEWLANDS. Director of Home Economics, The Buffalo Technical High School. Cloth, 12mo, xi...
-Feeding The Family
By MARY SWARTZ ROSE. Illustrated, $2.10. This is a clear and concise account in simple every-day terms of the ways in which modern knowledge of the science of nutrition may be applied in ordinar...
-A Laboratory Hand-Book For Dietetics
By MARY SWARTZ ROSE, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition, Teachers College, Columbia University. Cloth, 8vo, $1.10. Investigations into the quantitative requirements of the hum...







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