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Principles And Practice Of Plumbing | by S. Stevens Hellyer



If a man may be judged by his appearance, much more may a workman be judged by his tools. In these days of strong competition the man in any-trade or profession who does not provide himself with the best tools, the most efficient appliances obtainable, for executing his work expeditiously and efficiently, does himself a great injustice...

TitlePrinciples And Practice Of Plumbing
AuthorS. Stevens Hellyer
PublisherGeorge Bell And Sons
Year1891
Copyright1891, George Bell And Sons
AmazonPrinciples and practice of plumbing

By S. Stevens Hellyer, Author of "The Plumber and Sanitary Houses," and "Lectures on the Science and Art of Sanitary Plumbing."

With Illustrations.

-Chapter I. Plumbers' Tools
If a man may be judged by his appearance, much more may a workman be judged by his tools. In these days of strong competition the man in any-trade or profession who does not provide himself with the ...
-Explanation Of Plate I
A. Cutting-out knife. B. Set of mallets - four sizes. C. Hornbeam dresser. D. Set of box-wood dressers - five sizes. E. Half round box-wood dressers - two sizes. F. Large size box-wood dressers. ...
-Explanation Of Plate II
A. Set of steel chisels, diamond points, and spikes. B. Fine and coarse rasps, and plumbers' brush, c. Iron ladles, two sizes. D. Two hatchet copper-bits. E. Set of screw-drivers - three sizes. F....
-Chapter II. Lead, And Some Of Its Uses
FOR the next edition of my work, The Plumber, and Sanitary Houses, my son, Mr. Bertram Hellyer, has searched through the records of the Patent Office and worked up a brief history of the apparatus i...
-Lead, And Some Of Its Uses. Part 2
I feel compelled to say something on the manufacture of lead pipes and castings before finally dismissing this weighty topic from our minds. Quite late into this century in the cities of London and...
-Lead, And Some Of Its Uses. Part 3
The width of the sheets varies with some of the different manufacturers; the usual width up to within the last few years has been with most of them 7 ft., the length being 33 ft. Many houses now make ...
-Chapter III. Tin And Its Allots
THE Latin for tin is stannum, whence the chemical symbol Sn. It has a specific gravity of 7-291, and melts at 442 F. Alloyed with lead it forms pewter and solder; with small portions of antimo...
-Chapter IV. Soldering Apparatus And Fire-Places
COTTON and Johnson's patent Torch is a very useful means of getting a good flame for making joints with a blow-pipe. 2. The Self-acting Blowing-lamp, illustrated in fig. 3, is all that a plumb...
-Chapter V. Lead Burning
THE following description of lead burning is taken from my Lectures. 1. A very valuable method of soldering metallic substances was invented in France, in 1838, by the Count de Richemont. This ai...
-Chapter VI. Lead Laying
OF all the metals for covering roofs there is none so yielding, so accommodating to the skilful worker, as lead. With it he can cover almost any form of woodwork on roof, spire, or turret. Turned, mou...
-Chapter VII. Lead Laying {Continued)
Breaks, Corners, and Cornices. TO boss up a corner out of a flat piece of lead, for the stand-up on each side to reach a height of 6 in., and to be of equal thickness all over, a surplus of lead equa...
-Chapter VIII. Lead Laying [Continued)
Cesspools and their Sockets, and Overflows. PERHAPS no piece of work varies so much in size and shape as a roof-cesspool. Many a young plumber, and old plumber too, for that matter, has found to his ...
-Chapter IX. Lead Laying (Continued)
Dormers and Drips. DORMERS are built in a great variety of sizes and shapes, and are placed in all sorts of positions; and they are treated and covered in a great variety of ways. So full of moulding...
-Chapter X. Lead Laying (Continued)
Flats and Gutters. TO prevent the boards warping and curling up at their edges, by the heat of the sun upon the lead flat, they should be of narrow widths and well seasoned; and they should be nailed...
-Chapter XI. Lead Laying (Continued). Hips And Ridges, And Laps And Passings
Hips And Ridges Like the Siamese twins, it is difficult to separate the one from the other. The hip should be divided into equal parts, but no piece of lead should exceed 10 ft., and is much better a...
-Chapter XII. Lead Laying {Continued). Rolls And Bays
Wood-Rolls - Bossed Ends - Intersections - Seam-Rolls - Copper Tacks and Lead Bays. FOR flats and lead coverings to roofs with slight falls, wood-rolls are better than seam-rolls, as the former not o...
-Lead Laying {Continued). Rolls And Bays. Continued
13. The edge of the lay-down should be trimmed to run parallel with the roll. A slovenly trimmed edge is a disgrace to the plumber. One of the legs of a pair of compasses stuck into a narrow wood guid...
-Chapter XIII. Lead Laying (Continued)
Step-Flashings, Secret Gutters, and Soakers. FOR keeping out the rain on the sides of sloping roofs, where the slates or tiles butt against brick walls, or against chimneys, or other wall projections...
-Chapter XIV. Lead Laying - (Continued)
Etcetera. FOE, securing hip, ridge, curb, and apron-flashings in their places, lead tacks should be fixed 2 1/2 in. or 3 in. wide, and of a strength 1 lb. to the superficial foot heavier than the fla...
-Chapter XV. Joint-Making
A FIRST brief in the bag of a young barrister can hardly delight him more than the first set of tools in the brand new bag does a young plumber. And the heart of the young barrister can hardly beat fa...
-Joint-Making. Continued
Fig. 35. - Branch Joint, too Long and too Heavy. 11. The length (Art. 24) of a joint being determined by the length of the shaving of the pipes to be joined together, there can be no difficulty in ...
-Chapter XVI. Joint-Making (Continued)
Underhand and Upright Joints. BEFORE preparing the ends of pipes for joining together, well straighten and round up the pipes. Rasp off and feather the outer edge of the inner pipe, and scrape off th...
-Chapter XVII. Joint-Making {Continued)
Block Joints, Flange Joints, and Branch Joints. A BLOCK JOINT is a wiped soldered joint, both uniting and supporting pipes fixed vertically in a chase; and when such joints are properly made there is...
-Joint-Making {Continued). Continued
Fig. 47. Fig. 48. 11. In forming an opening in a lead soil or main waste-pipe to receive a branch pipe, cut an elongated hole in the main pipe, about half the size of the end of the branch pipe ...
-Chapter XVIII. Joint-Making (Continued)
Copper-bit Joints, Blow-pipe Joints, and Astragal Joints. TO acquire the necessary skill to make a wiped soldered joint has cost the skilful joint-wiper so much time, so much pain - for has he not of...
-Chapter XIX. Elbow Joints And Pipe-Bending
IN my lectures to plumbers ten years ago, I expressed my sorrow that any man calling himself a plumber should be obliged to resort to solder - to an elbow joint - when circumstances compelled him to a...
-Elbow Joints And Pipe-Bending. Continued
Fig. 64. - Showing where Lead is Wanted in Bending (g, h), that point, for though it would not melt, the lead would become brittle and break in the bending. When water dropped upon the pipe assumes a ...
-Chapter XX. Non-Cleansing Plumbers' Traps
THE young plumber having in the days of his apprenticeship or mateship and improvership acquired the knowledge of joint-making and pipe-bending, is then in a position to assist in the execution of the...
-Non-Cleansing Plumbers' Traps. Continued
In fig. 72 an illustration is given showing the internal surfaces drawn to scale of a closet D-trap, omitting the soldered angle, but showing where the surfaces would become coated over with filth. Th...
-Chapter XXI. Self-Cleansing Plumbers' Traps
TO examine and criticise the various traps fixed by plumbers throughout the United Kingdom would need more space than is contained between the covers of this book; but having in the previous chapter d...
-Self-Cleansing Plumbers' Traps. Continued
4. The quantity of water for closets graciously allowed by the Water Companies of the Metropolis is two gallons. How can so small a quantity be discharged quickly enough through a Waste-preventing app...
-Chapter XXII. The Loss Of Water-Seal In Traps
THE sole purpose for which a trap is employed is to prevent any passage of air into a house through a pipe which has been fouled by dirty water, soapy water, or by excrementitious discharges; and he w...
-The Loss Of Water-Seal In Traps. Part 2
Fig. 93. - Showing a Stack of Waste-Pipe, with Three Slop. Sinks upon it, as used for Testing Syphonage of Round-Pipe Traps. 5. I have made a few extracts from the Lectures, which will be found on ...
-The Loss Of Water-Seal In Traps. Part 3
Fig. 94a. - Showing Stack of Soil-Piping as used for testing syphonage and Back-Pressure. (2e.) With the Anti-D-trap fixed at B, instead of the Narrow-band D-trap, the result, in a similar trial, was...
-Chapter XXIII. Loss Of Water-Seal In Traps, And Trap-Ventilation
(continued). IT may not be without some interest to theorize a little on the cause of the loss of water-seals in traps by syphonage and back-pressure. Trap-syphonage is chiefly caused by the removal ...
-Loss Of Water-Seal In Traps, And Trap-Ventilation. Continued
5. How great the current of air may be in a 4 in. pipe of great height with a plug-like discharge of water into it on the ninth or tenth floor of a twelve-storied building, the men who have stood in a...
-Chapter XXIV. Lining Cisterns And Sinks With Lead
IN the days, not so long ago, when wood cisterns were built into very confined places, a plumber often showed more ingenuity in wriggling himself out of a cistern, after he had lined it with lead, tha...
-Lining Cisterns And Sinks With Lead. Continued
The other side and end are put in, in a similar way to that just described. The edges or overlaps returning upon the side and end already lined, should be carefully cut off with a chipping-knife when ...
-Chapter XXV. Pipe-Fixing
BEFORE preparing the ends of lead pipes for soldering, the pipes should be carefully rounded and straightened up on the bench, and all bruises and indentations taken out of them. To accomplish this it...
-Chapter XXVI. Rain-Water And Rain-Water-Pipes
1. WHERE sewage is utilized for irrigation, and also where liquid sewage is discharged into soakage-cesspools, the rain-water and the surface-water should be kept out of the soil-drain; except that in...
-Chapter XXVII. Soil-Pipes And Their Disconnection And Ventilation
1. IN seamless lead pipe for soil-pipe, rain-water-pipe, cold water wastes, and services - where the water would not act on them, or acting would not hurt anybody - the plumber rejoices in the use of ...
-Soil-Pipes And Their Disconnection And Ventilation. Part 2
In my works, when cast-iron soil-pipe is insisted upon, for inside work I require that the pipe shall be that known as underground water-main, the thickness being nowhere less than 3/8 in. For outside...
-Soil-Pipes And Their Disconnection And Ventilation. Part 3
(a) In a building of great height, with closets on the upper and lower floors entering a stack, to prevent syphon-age of the closet traps the pipe should be of larger size than in the case of a. two, ...
-Chapter XXVIII. History Of Water-Closets
I HESITATE to burden this work with matters which the reader may consider better left outside, but as a brief history of the first use of places of convenience inside a house may not be without inte...
-History Of Water-Closets. Continued
1 Beckman's Inventions, vol. i. pp. 277-281 (1846). 2 Letters from Scotland (1760). 3 Footnote, Cook's First Voyage, vol. ii. p. 281. The king of dykes! than whom no sluice of mud With deep...
-Chapter XXIX. Water-Closets (Continued)
ABOUT a century ago a founder in Soho sought to improve the pan-closet, but notwithstanding his improvement, and the many other improvements made in it since that time, it is still the most unsanitary...
-Water-Closets (Continued). Continued
Fig. 125. - WAter-Battery Wash-out Closet: Basin and Trap in two pieces. In many cases, especially where the atmosphere of the house is warmer than that of the closet, the polluted air of the clos...
-Chapter XXX. Water-Closets {Continued)
IN public buildings and for general purposes, where the closets would be in constant use - to prevent evaporation of the water-seal of the trap - I should be content to fix self-cleansing wash-down cl...
-Chapter XXXI. Water-Closets (Continued)
TO make a reliable connection of an earthenware closet or an earthenware closet-trap to a lead soil-pipe is generally a work of great difficulty; and if the thousands of such connections which have be...
-Chapter XXXII. Water-Closets (Continued)
ELSEWHERE I have enlarged upon the advantages gained by exposing closets to view, as in the now much-used pedestal kind - whether of the wash-out or wash-down pattern - but though an open closet posse...
-Chapter XXXIII. Slop-Sinks And Draw-Off Sinks
A SLOP-SINK should be fixed on every alternate floor, if not on every floor of a dwelling-house, on which there are many bedrooms, and where they are likely to be much occupied. Where there is no such...
-Slop-Sinks And Draw-Off Sinks. Continued
To make the joint, open the end of the under and outer pipes by driving a mandril (or a gradation of sizes) into it for a depth of about 7 in., taking care to keep the mandril true all the while; and ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Scullery Sinks
THE general sink in the scullery, into which all kinds of liquids and matter are emptied, from green-water to greasy matters, should be made of a non-absorbent material, such as stoneware or fire-clay...
-Chapter XXXV. Baths And Lavatories
IN discussing the many things which the sanitary plumber requires to know before he can properly sanitate a house, it is most refreshing to be able to turn to a branch of the subject which in itself i...
-Baths And Lavatories. Continued
Fig. 153. - Showing Bath, Lavatory, and Draw-Off Sink discharging into one Waste-Pipe, aerially disconnected from the Drain, K, with Anti-Syphoning Pipe, N, and Ventilation-Pipe, P, incomplete. The sl...
-Chapter XXXVI. Urinals
URINE is difficult to treat, as it cannot be caught like grease and made to float, for it settles down upon everything it touches or comes into contact with. It can only be got rid of by copious flush...
-Chapter XXXVII. Water And Its Storage
PLUMBERS are so partial to water, that however deficient they may be in other branches of plumbing knowledge, they ought not to be deficient in the knowledge of water and its storage. As I have said i...
-Water And Its Storage. Continued
I now exhibit two pieces to the Academy: one comes from the service-pipe of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, laid down in 1670, at the time when the pump of the Bridge of Notre Dame was erected; it is the...
-Chapter XXXVIII. House-Drains
THE plumber, to be fully equipped with the knowledge of sanitary plumbing, and to be up to date, must ever continue a learner, for though he has not now, as in the days that are gone, or are vanishing...
-House-Drains. Continued
Although manufacturers are now making their stoneware pipes with more care, it is still extremely difficult to get perfect pipes, especially country-made pipes. At the very time I am writing this, in ...
-Chapter XXXIX. House-Drains (Continued). Disconnection And Ventilation
THE value of disconnection is now so generally understood that it would be a waste of words to discuss the necessity of trapping off sewers and cesspools, and aerating the drains. We are now so near...
-House-Drains (Continued). Disconnection And Ventilation. Part 2
Fig. 169. - Section of a 6 in. Ventilating Drain-Syphon, with Tapering Pipes, and Brick Air-Shaft. Fig. 170. - Section of the Drain - Sentinel Disconnecting Trap. 9. A manhole cover is shown a...
-House-Drains (Continued). Disconnection And Ventilation. Part 3
Fig. 176. - Scott-Moncrieff's Cast-Iron Drainage-Trap. 17. In ventilating a drain the inlets and outlets should be so arranged that the air in every part of the drain should be constantly changed. ...
-Technological Handbooks
The excellent series of technical handbooks. - Textile Manufacturer. The admirable series of technological handbooks. - British Journal of Commerce. Messrs. Bell's excellent technical series. - ...
-Technological Handbooks. Continued
BOOKBINDING. A Practical Treatise on the Art. By J. W. Zaehnsdorf. With 8 coloured Plates and numerous diagrams. Second Edition, Revised. 5s. No more competent writer upon his art could have been fo...
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