Rose, the common name for plants of the genus rosa, the ancient Latin name, which has been adopted into most European languages. The genus gives its name to the family rosaceoe, which includes most of the cultivated fruits and many of the ornamental plants of northern climates, among which are herbs, shrubs, and trees, with simple or compound, usually alternate and stipulate leaves; flowers usually regular; the sepals mostly united, and often adherent to the ovary; petals four or five, inserted on the calyx, as are the usually numerous, distinct stamens; one to many pistils, distinct or (in the pear tribe) united with the calyx tube; seeds without albumen. About 70 genera are included in this family, which are grouped in several tribes; the characters of the important tribes are given in describing the plants belonging to them; the peach, cherry, and plum represent the tribe pruneoe; the almond represents the amygdaleoe; spiroea stands for another subtribe; the rubeoe are described under Raspberry; the strawberry represents another tribe; while the apple, pear, quince, and thorn are familiar representatives of the most important tribe, pomeoe.
In the tribe roseoe the only genus is rosa, which, while widely differing in appearance from the genera just referred to, has all the essential characters of the family in common with them. The species of rose are all shrubs, sometimes climbing, and generally prickly; they have alternate, odd-pinnate, and generally serrate leaves, with stipules united with the base of the petiole; flowers solitary, or in clusters at the ends of the branches; calyx with an urn-shaped tube, contracted at the mouth, and five spreading, often leafy lobes; petals five, spreading, and with the numerous stamens inserted on the edge of the hollow, thin disk that lines the calyx tube; pistils numerous, concealed in and attached to the lower part of the disk, their hairy ovaries becoming bony akenes in fruit; in ripening, the enlarged calyx becomes fleshy, often colored, and forms a fruit popularly known as hip or hep. The foliage, stems, and calyx in some species bear aromatic glands. There are few genera in which so much confusion exists in regard to species as in the rose, the plants being very variable even in the wild state; about 180 species have been described, and many more enumerated, but the best authorities admit only about 30; in the limited area of Great Britain some botanists find 20 species, while others reduce these all to five.
Probably the next revision of the genus will reduce the North American species to six or eight, though several more have been described; of these, three are frequent in the northern states. Our most common wild rose on dry soils is the dwarf rose (rosa lucida); it is from 1 to 3 ft. high, the stems with bristly prickles, the depressed-globular hip smooth when ripe; this varies greatly in wet soil, and forms of it have been described as distinct species; it blooms from May to July, while the swamp rose (R. Carolina) blooms from June to September; this has stems 4 to 7 ft. high, armed with stout hooked prickles, and the fruit is somewhat bristly; it is found in low moist grounds as well as in swamps. These two are the common wild roses in the eastern states, and extend as far south as Florida. The early wild rose (R. blanda), 1 to 3 ft. high, is nearly unarmed, or has a few straight deciduous prickles; the flower stalks and calyx, which are glandular bristly in both the preceding, are in this smooth and glaucous; this is a northern species found as far as Hudson bay; it extends from Vermont along the northern border to California, and has been described under several names.
The prairie, Michigan, or climbing rose (R. setigera), our only scandent species, makes shoots 15 to 20 ft. long in a season; it has stout, nearly straight prickles; leaves with only three to five leaflets; the abundant flowers, produced in July, are deep rose-colored, changing to white; unlike any other native species, this has its styles united in a column and projecting beyond the calyx tube; common in rich soil from western New York, westward and southward, and sometimes cultivated, though not so often as the double varieties derived from it. - A few exotic species are more or less naturalized; the best known is the sweetbrier (R. rubiginosa), which is here used to illustrate the structure of the genus. It is about 6 ft. high, but may be trained much higher; its stems have strong, hooked prickles, with some smaller awl-shaped ones; the doubly serrate leaflets have the under surface downy and clothed with russet glands, which, especially when bruised, give off a characteristic and pleasant fragrance; the small pink flowers are mostly solitary, with a pear-shaped hip. This is sometimes called eglantine, a name which was formerly applied to roses in general.
The dog rose (R. canina) of Europe, which occurs in some parts of Pennsylvania, is the common brier of England, and is found throughout Europe and Russian Asia; it is close to the sweetbrier, but has no aromatic glands; in England this is largely used as a stock upon which to bud the finer kinds of roses. The most important introduced species is the Cherokee rose, which Michaux, regarding it as indigenous, described as R. loevigata, but it is now certain that it is a Chinese species (R. Sinica), introduced into Georgia and South Carolina before the revolution; it has every appearance of a foreign species, and is found in China, where it is the common wild rose; it is a vigorous climber, reaching the tops of tall trees, and hanging in shoots and festoons 20 to 40 ft. long; the otherwise smooth stems have strong, sharp, curved prickles, and its leaves, usually of only three leaflets, glossy and evergreen; the flowers, which appear in the greatest profusion in early spring, are large, single, and of a peculiarly clear and pure white. This has proved to be one of the most valuable of all hedge plants for the southern states; hedges made over 50 years ago are still in full vigor.
Cuttings are set in the hedge row, 3 ft. apart; the growth of the first year is the next winter cut back to within a foot of the ground; after this the long and vigorous shoots are allowed to grow and are directed on the line of the hedge, where they pile up and interlace to form an impenetrable barrier. Cultivators near Boston have found the Cherokee rose admirable for the greenhouse, the great abundance of the flowers and their purity compensating for their singleness. Another Chinese rose used in the southern states for hedges, and somewhat naturalized, is the Macartney rose (R. bracteata), introduced into England by Lord Macartney in 1795; it is barely hardy in England, but in the southernmost states is evergreen, and differs from the foregoing in having the stems downy as well as prickly, and its calyx covered by leafy bracts; in low rich soils it is preferred as a hedge plant to the Cherokee. - The foregoing wild or naturalized roses are botanical species in their normal form, with single flowers; the roses of our gardens and greenhouses are for the most part varieties obtained by selection and by hybridizing and crossing, and this has been continued so long that often all traces of their original parentage are concealed.
Bud variation is remarkably frequent in the rose; a bud will often produce a shoot upon which the flowers, and even the leaves, are in form and color unlike those upon the rest of the plant; these bud variations may be propagated by cuttings or by budding, and several of our well known kinds were thus obtained. The most prized garden roses are double; i. e., instead of the five petals of the wild flower, these are multiplied indefinitely; some roses are so double that no stamens can be seen, while others are only partly double; the doubling is due (in good part, at least) to the conversion of stamens into petals (see Plant); any partly double rose will show the gradual metamorphosis from the proper stamen through intermediate states to the fully developed petal, as indicated in the accompanying diagram. - In the enumeration of cultivated roses, a garden rather than a strictly botanical classification is most convenient.
The prairie rose (R. setigera) has been mentioned as a native species; from this Samuel Feast of Baltimore and others have obtained our most valuable climbers, hardy from Canada to the gulf, and producing a great profusion of showy though scentless flowers; they are evidently crossed with foreign kinds; the Queen of the Prairies is the best known of these, and will grow in any soil; another is the Baltimore Belle; and there are several others of the prairie group with flowers from white to deep rose. The evergreen rose (R. sempervirens) has given rise to another race of climbers; it is the wild rose of Italy, where, as in other warm climates, it is evergreen, but not so in the north, where some of its varieties are hardy and others tender; it has very bright green leaves, and in its wild state produces an abundance of single white flowers; its best double variety is féli-cité perpétuelle. The Ayrshire roses, of which there are pink sorts, are varieties of this; they grow with great vigor, producing shoots 20 to 30 ft. long, and are useful for covering walls, banks, and other objects.
The musk rose (R. moschata) is a native of Asia, where it grows to a great size; its cultivated varieties are treated as climbers by training up their shoots; the flowers, later than those of any other, are in large clusters, white or yellowish white, and very fragrant, especially in the evening; the "white musk cluster" is the best known variety. The many-flowered rose (R. multiflora), from Japan and China, has furnished a race of climbers, most of which are not hardy north of the middle states; it has large clusters of small, scentless, white and pale purple flowers; the Seven Sisters, or Grevillei, is one of the best varieties. The Boursalt roses are supposed to be from this, crossed with some hardier species; they are hardy, rampant growers, with long red stems, and produce a profusion of blush or crimson-purplish flowers, which are odorless. The Banksia or Lady Banks's rose (R. Banksioe), from China, is (at the north, at least), only a greenhouse climber; it has very glossy foliage, and umbels of double small roses, not larger than the flower of a double cherry, white or buff, and with a violet fragrance.
Under this not very definite title are included those non-climbing kinds which, without regard to their origin, bloom but once in the season; some of these are but little removed from their normal form, such as the Scotch roses, which originated from the Burnet rose (R. pimpi-nellifolia) of temperate Europe and Asia; they grow from 1 to 2 ft. high, and are exceedingly prickly; their leaflets are small, roundish, and smooth, and their small flowers, abundantly produced all along the stem, are about two weeks earlier than other garden roses. The first double variety was found near Perth, Scotland, and has been reproduced abundantly by seed, giving white, pink, and yellow sorts; there are between 200 and 300 named varieties; among the most distinct are Countess of Glasgow, pink, William IV., pure white, and Yellow Scotch. The yellow brier (R. eglanteria), closely related to the sweetbrier, produces double yellow, buff, and orange varieties, among which are Harrison's yellow, the best known yellow rose, but inferior to the Persian yellow.
The yellow rose (R. sulphurea) of Persia and the far East, also known as the yellow Provence, produces large full double flowers, of a fine transparent yellow; it is rarely seen in our gardens, it being of doubtful hardiness, and very difficult to cultivate, the buds spoiling before opening. The cinnamon rose (R. cinna-momea), from Europe, is rarely met with except in old country gardens, from which it has in some places escaped and become partially naturalized; it has brownish red bark, a few prickles, and small double but badly shaped flowers with a cinnamon-like fragrance; it is closely related to the wild R. blanda. The white rose (R. alba), from central Europe, is very near the dog rose, and has given several white and blush varieties. The common summer or June roses are from the French or Provence (R. Gallica), the hundred-leaved or cabbage (R. centifolia), and the damask rose (R. Damascena); while these are distinct in their typical forms, they are much confused in the garden varieties, and the most skilled rosarians are unable to trace them to their original species.
While these old-fashioned roses have been largely displaced by more recent kinds, none exceed them in beauty and fragrance, or in the abundance of flowers during their short season. - The pompone or button roses are dwarf, small-flowered forms of the hundred-leaved. The most striking varieties are those known as moss roses, in which the glands and bristles upon the flower stalk, and especially upon the calyx, are developed as a substance resembling moss; this was supposed to be due to injury by insects, until it was found that the peculiarity was reproduced by seeds. The first moss rose was introduced into England from Holland in 1596, and until early in the present century it was the only variety known; and although more than 100 others have since been introduced, the old or common moss is not exceeded by any in the abundance and beauty of its mossiness. Celina and Lane's are good varieties, and some of the newer kinds have good flowers when full-blown. A favorite sort, the crested moss (cristata of the catalogues), unlike the others, is said to be a variety of the Provence; its calyx lobes are fringed by a broad and much cut crest, rather than the fine mossiness of the other kinds.
The most popular garden roses are the remon-tants, more generally known as hybrid perpet-uals, an incorrect name, as they are not perpetual bloomers, but produce abundantly in June, and after a season of rest bloom again in autumn; they have also been called autumnal roses, but the varieties differ greatly in their ability to flower a second time, and the French term remontant (growing again) is adopted by the best rosarians. This class of roses is the result of various crossings of other classes derived from the China or India rose (R. Indica), and includes also a strain of the damask rose; they have great size, the most brilliant colors, and exquisite fragrance, with perfect hardiness; the great show roses and those of the rose fanciers are found here, and are the kinds referred to as having so generally superseded the old June roses; it being a mixed race, varieties quite unlike in appearance are comprised in it, and they differ according to the preponderance of one or another parent. They are numbered by hundreds, and the list receives annual additions through the labors especially of the French, and to some extent of the English growers; Baron Provost, General Jacqueminot, Giant of Battles, Jules Margot-tin, and La Reine are well known and fine examples of this class.
There are a few moss roses which, having a tendency to bloom a second time, are classed as remontant moss. - The Bourbon rose, first obtained on the isle of Bourbon by a cross between the China and a damask variety, is a race including some magnificent kinds, but they are not so generally hardy as the preceding; they are abundant bloomers, and are useful for forcing; the Souvenir de Malmaison, everywhere a standard of perfection, belongs here, as does Her-mosa, so much valued for forcing.
The Bourbons are classed among the ever-blooming roses, but they are less constant than the China roses, which are varieties of R. Indica and prized for the abundance and brilliancy of their flowers; they are too tender for northern winters, but are easily protected by bending down the stems and covering them with sods, or by placing them in a frame and covering with leaves; the readiness with which they may be multiplied makes them the cheapest of all roses, and they are much used for bedding out in summer, where they flower in the hot months; they are well adapted to greenhouse culture, and are the easiest of all to grow in the window garden; they are popularly known as monthly roses, and are given in some catalogues as Bengal roses. Agrippina, Daily Blush, Daily White, and Mrs. Bosanquet are among the best of this class. - Tne Noisette roses originated with M. Noisette, a florist at Charleston, S. C., who in 1817 crossed a musk rose (R. moschata) with the pollen of a tea rose; they are for the most part climbers, and have the habit of blooming in clusters of the musk; these have been again crossed with the tea, and varieties produced which are exceedingly difficult to classify.
Some of the Noisettes are nearly hardy at the north, while others are very tender; Lamarque is the best known, being everywhere popular as a greenhouse climber; its sulphur-yellow flowers are produced in great abundance; Chromatella and Solfaterra are choice varieties, both darker yellow than Lamarque, which is their parent. - The tea or tea-scented roses are from a variety of the China rose (R. Indica, var. odo-rata); they have long buds, semi-double flowers, and a fragrance resembling that of green tea. A blush and a yellow tea rose were brought from China early in the present century, and from these have proceeded a large and increasing class, all of great delicacy of color; some make long branches and are adapted for pillars or rafters; they are more tender than any others, and require the same protection as the China roses. Buds of tea roses are in great request for winter decorations, and near the principal cities large houses are devoted to rose forcing; the colors are white, buff, salmon, and various shades of yellow and rose, with combinations of these in the same flower.
Among the most popular of the tea roses are Bon Silene, Gloire de Dijon, Isabella Sprunt, Pactole, Safrano, and White Tea; the grand yellow rose, Maréchal Niel, is by some classed as a tea, and by others as a Noisette; it is a rampant grower, and produces freely enormous flowers of a fine golden color, which deepens to the centre. - Propagation and Cultivation. New varieties of roses are sometimes obtained from the seed of flowers which have been cross-fertilized, but cultivators, knowing the tendency of flowers so far removed from their normal state to vary, sow seeds from any good variety. Though in very double flowers the stamens may be quite obliterated, the pistils usually remain serviceable, and such may be fertilized with other pollen. The seed should be sown as soon as ripe and exposed to changes of weather, and the plants which appear will in some cases flower the same year, in others not until the next. Established varieties are multiplied by cuttings, by layering, by suckers, and by budding or grafting.
Plants which have been potted for the purpose are forced into growth by the florists in early spring, and cuttings are taken of the young and slightly hardened wood; another set of cuttings may be made from the tender shoots formed by roses in the open ground in August, and still another from the ripened wood in October, setting them in a cold frame, and when freezing weather comes on covering them with leaves; the majority of such cuttings will be well rooted in early spring. Layering is a ready method of multiplying hardy roses. (See Layering.) In Europe, where the climate allows rose culture to reach a greater perfection than with us, it has been found that the finest flowers are obtained when the rose is budded on some stock with vigorous roots; the common brier or dog rose, and the Manetti rose, so called from the Italian who raised it from seed, are the usual stocks; the bud is inserted in the ordinary manner (see Budding), near the ground, unless standard or tree roses are wanted, when the stocks are budded at 4 or 5 ft. high.
Budded roses are in little favor in this country, as in our severe winters the plant may be killed quite to its insertion in the stock, and our hot summers induce the stocks to throw up abundant suckers, which weaken the growth of the budded rose and are a constant source of annoyance. Our rose growers prefer roses on their own roots, except for the few varieties which will only bloom freely on other stocks. The tree or standard roses are imported in large numbers every year, but seldom survive the first winter. Roses may be grafted, but this is rarely done. - The soil for roses can hardly be too rich; the hardy kinds may be planted in autumn or in spring; the tender kinds may be set out as soon as frosts are over; in planting, all weak growth should be cut out, and the strong stems shortened to a few buds. Each spring the hardy sorts should have their stems pruned according to their vigor, the weakest being cut out altogether, and the others shortened from one third to one half. Climbing roses need only to have the old wood thinned out. - Few flowering plants have so many enemies as the rose.
Aphides or plant lice may be killed by tobacco water; the rose slug, the larva of selandria rosoe, must be treated to frequent syringing of whale-oil soapsuds, or infusion of white hellebore; the rose bug (macrodactylus subspi-nosus), which eats the buds, can only be conquered by hand picking. - The China, Noisette, tea, and other tender roses are grown in greenhouses and window gardens; for greenhouse management reference must be made to works on florioulture. Roses for house blooming should be potted by September, all the flower buds being removed and the pots kept in a cool place until well established; only the China and tea varieties are likely to give good results, and these will need constant care, as they are very apt to be infested by plant lice and the red spider; tobacco smoke or tobacco water is the remedy for the one, and frequent showering of the leaves with water on both sides for the other. - Uses. Roses have long been used in medicine, and two kinds of rose leaves or petals are officinal in the pharmacopoeias of the present day.
Red rose leaves are the unexpanded flowers of the Provence rose (R. Gallica) collected and dried; they are mildly astringent; their infusion by the addition of a small portion of sulphuric acid turns a brilliant crimson, and is used as a medium for soluble medicines. The confection or conserve of roses, formerly prepared by beating one part of the fresh petals with three parts of sugar, is now made from the powdered dried petals, with honey and rose water; it is used as the base of blue pill, and as a vehicle for other medicines. The hundred-leaved rose (R. centifolia) is sometimes used for the preparation of rose water, 8 lbs. of the petals and two gallons of water being placed in a still, and one gallon of rose water distilled off. The petals are sometimes preserved by heating them with twice their weight of salt, to be distilled when required. Most of the rose water now in use is prepared from the oil of roses. In Europe the ripe hips of the dog rose (R. canina) are used to prepare a confection; the hairy akenes being separated, the pulpy portion, beaten up with about twice its weight of sugar, forms the confection of dog rose, used for the same purposes as the conserve of roses.
Oil, attar, or otto of roses is by far the most important commercial product of the rose. (See Attar of Roses.) - The works on general floriculture treat of the rose; the leading special works are: "The Book of Roses," by Francis Park-man (Boston, 1866); "Propagation, Cultivation, and History of the Rose," by Samuel B. Parsons (New York, 1869); "A Book about Roses," by S. Reynolds Hole (London, 1870); and "The Amateur's Rose Book," by Shirley Hibberd (London, 1874).
Sweetbrier Rose (Section of Flower and the Fruit).
Transformation of Stamens into Petals.
Double Rose (Noisette).