Salem, a city and the county seat of Salem co., New Jersey, on a creek of the same name, 3 m. from its mouth in the Delaware river, 32 m. in a direct line and 44 m. by rail S. S. W. of Philadelphia; pop. in 1850, 3,052; in 1860, 3,865; in 1870, 4,555; in 1875, 4,459. The creek is navigable to this point by vessels of 50 tons. There is regular communication with Philadelphia by steamer and by the West Jersey railroad. The city owes its prosperity chiefly to the rich agricultural resources of the surrounding country. It contains manufactories of glassware for druggists' use, oil cloth, carriages, etc., fruit-canning establishments, ship yards, a national bank, two building associations, seven public and six private schools, two weekly newspapers, and eleven churches.
Salem, a town and the county seat of Roanoke co., Virginia, on the Roanoke river and the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railroad, 145 m. W. by S. of Richmond; pop. in 1870, 1,355, of whom 500 were colored; in 1875, about 2,000. It is at the head of the valley of Virginia, between the Blue Ridge and Alleghany mountains, and is celebrated for its health-fulness, mild climate, and fine scenery. It is a favorite summer resort. In the immediate vicinity are sulphur and chalybeate springs, and within a radius of 30 m. are seven of the most celebrated mineral springs in Virginia. The Valley railroad, in course of construction, is to terminate here. The town has several hotels, a national bank, two free schools (white and colored), two weekly newspapers, and Baptist, Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches. It is the seat of Roanoke college, Lutheran, founded in 1853, which has beautiful grounds and three fine brick buildings. There are collegiate, normal, and preparatory departments; and select courses may be pursued. The library contains about 13,000 volumes. The college has extensive chemical and philosophical apparatus and a large cabinet of minerals.
In 1874-'5 it had 9 instructors and 167 students (84 collegiate, 40 select and normal, and 43 preparatory). The number of alumni in 1875 was 133. The theological seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran church, founded at Lexington, S. C., in 1830, was removed to Salem in 1873.
Salem, a city and the county seat of Marion co., Oregon, capital of the state, beautifully situated on the E. bank of the Willamette river, and on the Oregon and California railroad, 50 m. S. of Portland; pop. in 1870, 1,139; in 1875, about 6,000. The river is navigable to this point during three fourths of the year, and steamers run regularly to Portland. The city is surrounded by a fertile prairie. Mill creek enters the river at this point, and its rapid fall affords good water power. There are flouring mills, tanneries, machine shops, founderies, a woollen mill, a linseed oil mill, and other manufactories. The city has two private banks, one daily and three weekly newspapers, and eight churches. It is the seat of Willamette university and of three state institutions, the penitentiary, deaf-mute school, and institute for the blind. It was settled in 1834, incorporated in 1853, and became the state capital in 1860.
Salem, a district of British India, in the province of Madras, bordering on Mysore, North and South Arcot, Trichinopoly, and Coimbatore; area, 7,617 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 1,963,243. It includes the high table land of Barramahl, which produces teak, sandal, and rose wood, and cedar in great abundance. The principal river is the Cavery. Artificial sheets of water or tanks for irrigation are numerous. Iron ore is abundant, and mines of chromate of iron have been extensively worked at the foot of the Sheevaroy hills. The district is the principal seat of the Indian steel manufacture. Cotton, tobacco, indigo, coffee, and rice are extensively cultivated. The capital is Salem, 170 m. S. W. of Madras; pop. about 25,000. Silk and cotton are manufactured here.