Linear Expansion By Heat Between 0&Deg; And 1000&Deg; C

Lead...... 0.00301

Tin........ 000273

Zinc (forged). 0.00220

Silver..... 0.00199

Gold...... 0.00138

Wr'ht iron 0.00119

Platinum.. 0.00063


See Brachiopoda.


Linkoping, a town of Sweden, capital of the lan of the same name, or Ostergothland, 108m. S. W. of Stockholm; pop. in 1869, 7,154. It is the seat of the governor of the lan and of a bishop, has a gymnasium with a library of 30,000 volumes and valuable collections of coins and antiquities, three churches, a castle, and considerable trade and industry. Several Swedish diets were held here.


Linlithgow, a town and royal and parliamentary burgh of Scotland, capital of Linlithgowshire, on Linlithgow loch, and on the Union canal and the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, 17 m. W. by N. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 3,689. It was a place of much importance as early as the beginning of the 12th century, and contains the ruins of a splendid palace, the nucleus of which was built by Edward I. of England, and in which Mary queen of Scots was born; it was burned by Hawley's dragoons in 1746. There is also an ancient church, founded by David I., and now considered one of the most perfect specimens of Gothic architecture in Scotland.

Ruins of Linlithgow Palace.

Ruins of Linlithgow Palace.

Linlithgowshire, Or West Lothian

Linlithgowshire, Or West Lothian, an E. county of Scotland, bordering on the frith of Forth and the counties of Edinburgh, Lanark, and Stirling; area, 126 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 41,191. The coast is low and the waters shoal; but there are small harbors at Queensferry, Borrowstounness, Newhalls, and Port Edgar. In the south are extensive heaths and mosses, and elsewhere the surface is varied with knolls and undulations. The principal rivers are the Almond and Avon. Coal, limestone, freestone, and granite are plentiful, and there are iron works at Borrowstounness. Agriculture is in an advanced state, but there are few manufactures. The principal towns are Linlithgow, Queensferry, Bathgate, and Borrowstounness.

Lionel S Beale

Lionel S Beale., an English physiologist, born in London about 1825. He graduated at the university of London in 1851, and is professor of general physiology and morbid anatomy at King's college. He established in 1857 the "Archives of Medicine," contributed actively to the "Lancet" and other periodicals, and has written "How to Work with the Microscope" (3d ed., 1866); "Microscopism in its Application to Medicine" (3d ed., 1867); "Kidney Diseases, Urinary Deposits, etc." (3ded. enlarged, 1868); "Protoplasm, or Life, Matter, and Mind" (enlarged ed., 1870); "Diseased Germs, their Supposed Nature" (1870); "Physiological Anatomy;" "Anatomy of Man," etc.

Lionello Spada

Lionello Spada, an Italian painter, born in Bologna in 1576, died in Parma in 1622. He received his earliest education in the school of the Carracci, where he was employed while a boy as a color grinder; subsequently he became a pupil of Caravaggio. After executing important works in Reggio, Moderni, and Parma, he entered the service of Ranuccio, duke of Parma. His masterpiece is "San Domenico burning the proscribed Books of the Heretics".