Old Birnee

Old Birnee, the capital of the kingdom of Bornoo, in central Africa, 70 m. W. of Kuka, on the Komadugu Waube; pop. about 10,000. It is said to have formerly had 200,000 inhabitants. The ruins of the stone walls by which it was enclosed are still visible.

Old Man Of The Mountain

See Assassins.

Old Sarum

Old Sarum, an extinct city of "Wiltshire, England, 2 m. N. of Salisbury. It was an important settlement of the early Britons, afterward a Roman station, and the residence of the West Saxon kings. It was fortified by Alfred, and was made a bishop's see in the 11th century; but the cathedral having been removed to the present site of Salisbury or New Sarum in the reign of Henry III., in consequence of a local quarrel, the place was deserted, and has not now a single habitation, though traces remain of its walls, castle, and cathedral. It was endowed by Edward III. with the privilege of sending two members to the house of commons; the franchise accompanied the estate, and the proprietor, after it had lost all its inhabitants, continued to return the two members regularly until the passing of the reform act in 1832.


See Barneveldt.


Oldtown, a town of Penobscot co., Maine, on the W. bank of the Penobscot river, and on the European and North American and the Bangor and Piscataquis railroads, 12 m. N. of Bangor and 70 m. N. E. of Augusta; pop. in 1870, 4,529. It contains four villages. Upper Stillwater, Great Works, Pushaw, and Old-town. Its principal business is connected with the timber trade. A large boom was placed across the Penobscot some years ago at a cost of $100,000, to prevent timber from floating out to sea. About 250,000,000 feet of lumber are rafted annually, employing 200 hands.

The principal articles of manufacture are lumber, shingles, carriages, barrels, furniture, and saw-filing machines. One of the saw mills is among the largest in the world. There are Baptist, Congregational, Episcopal, Methodist, Roman Catholic, and Universalist churches. Oldtown was separated from Orono in 1840.

Ole Bul

See Bull, Ole Borxemaxx.

Olefiajvt Gas

See Carburetted Hydrogex.


Oleron (anc. Uliarus), an island of France, in the bay of Biscay, separated from the mainland by a strait which in its narrowest part is 1 m. wide, and lying opposite the mouth of the Charente, the N. W. point being in lat. 46° 3' N and lon. 1° 24' W.; greatest length 18 m., greatest breadth 7 m.; pop. about 20,000. It belongs to the department of Charente-Infe-rieure, and has five ports, La Flotte, St. Martin, La Oonarde, Loix, and Ars, besides the towns of Chateau and St. Pierre d'Oleron, the former of which is fortified. Except on the W, side, where it is much exposed, the island is generally fertile, producing grain, vegetables, and wine. Ship building and salt making are carried on. The island was successively the property of the counts of Anjou, the dukes of Aquitaine, the English, and the French.