Robert Henry

Robert Henry, a Scottish historian, born in the parish of St. Ninian's, Stirlingshire, Feb. 18, 1718, died near Edinburgh, Nov. 24, 1790. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and was afterward master of the grammar school of Annan till in 1740 he was licensed as a preacher. He was pastor of a Presbyterian congregation at Carlisle from 1748 to 1760, at Berwick-upon-Tweed from 1760 to 1768, and afterward in Edinburgh. His principal work is a "History of Great Britain" (6 vols., Edinburgh and London, 1771-93). It extended to the death of Henry VIII., and was continued to the accession of James I. by J. P. Andrews (London, 1794).

Robert Henry Newell

Robert Henry Newell, an American humorist, born in New York, Dec. 13, 1836. He was literary editor of the " New York Mercury " from 1858 to 1862, and was employed by the " World " from 1869 to 1874, when he became editor of the " Hearth and Home" weekly journal. He has published, under the pseu-donyme " Orpheus C. Kerr," a series of letters on the civil war (4 vols. 12mo, 1862-'8); " The Palace Beautiful and other Poems" (1865); " Avery Glibun," an American romance (1867); "The Cloven Foot," an adaptation of "The Mystery of Edwin Drood " to American scenes and characters (1870); a second volume of poems entitled "Versatilities" (1871); and "The Walking Doll," a humorous novel of New York life (1872).

Robert James

Robert James, an English physician, born at Kinverston, Staffordshire, in 1703, died in 1776. He was educated at St. John's college, Oxford, studied medicine, and after practising in Sheffield, Lichfield, and Birmingham, removed to London. He is principally known as the inventor of the fever powder called "James's powder." He is the author of "A Medicinal Dictionary" (3 vols, fol., London, 1743-'5), in the preparation of which he was assisted by Dr. Samuel Johnson; of a posthumous publication entitled " Vindication of the Fever Powder;" and of treatises on the practice of physic, canine madness, etc. The preparation of his powder was kept a secret for many years, but it is now known to be composed of oxide of antimony and phosphate of lime, and is called antimonial powder.

Robert Joseph Potmer

Robert Joseph Potmer, a French jurist, born in Orleans, Jan. 9, 1699, died there, March 2, 1772. He was judge successively of the court of the Chatelet in Orleans and of the pre-sidial, and in 1749 professor of French law. His principal work is his Pandectce Justini-anecB in Novum Ordinem digestm (3 vols, fol., Paris and Chartres, 1748-'52). His treatise on "Maritime Contracts" has been translated by Caleb Cushing (Boston, 1821); "Contracts of Sale," by L. S. Cushing (Boston, 1839); and "The Law of Obligations or Contracts," by W. D. Evans (Philadelphia, 1840).

Robert Longland

See Langland.

Robert Macnish

Robert Macnish, a Scottish physician, born in Glasgow, Feb. 15, 1802, died there, Jan. 16, 1837. He studied medicine in Glasgow and Paris, and contributed to several Scottish magazines, especially to "Blackwood" under the title of " The Modern Pythagorean," a series of tales and sketches, which were issued separately in 1837. He also published " The Anatomy of Drunkenness" (1827), one of the first works in which the subject was discussed from a purely physiological standpoint; "The Philosophy of Sleep" (1830); a "Book of Aphorisms" (1833); and an "Introduction to Phrenology" (1835).