Java, an island of the Indian archipelago, the most important colonial possession of the Netherlands in the East Indies, and the most fertile and prosperous tropical island in the world, situated between lat. 5° 52' and 8° 46' S., and Ion. 105° 11' and 114° 33' E. It is bounded N. by the sea of Java, which separates it from Borneo; E. by a strait 2 m. wide, which separates it from the island of Bali; S. by the Indian ocean; and W. by the strait of Sunda, which separates it from Sumatra. Its length from E. to W. is 666 m., and its breadth varies from 56 to 135 1/2 m.; area, 49,197 sq. m., or including the adjacent island of Madura, 51,-336 sq. m. It is the fourth island of the archipelago in point of size, being exceeded in area by Borneo, Sumatra, and Celebes. The coast line of Java is about 1,600 m. in extent, and is remarkably destitute of harbors, especially on the S. side, where there are but two ports, Pachitan and Chalachap. On the N. coast the chief harbors are those of Batavia and Surabaya, but there are many open roadsteads with good anchorage, and the want of landlocked harbors is little felt in the calm waters of the Java sea, where hurricanes are unknown, and storms occur only at the change of the monsoons.

On the S. side there is no safe anchorage, the coast being bold and the ocean very deep, while a heavy and dangerous surf rolls continually on the shore. - The geological formation of Java is highly volcanic. A range of mountains runs from one end of the island to the other through the centre, with peaks varying in height from 4,000 to 12,000 ft. The highest is Semiru, 12,235 ft.; Slamat is 11,329 ft.; six other peaks are each over 10,000 ft. high, six others over 9,000 ft., and ten others from 5,000 to 9,000 ft. Among these peaks are 38 volcanoes, some of which are in constant activity. The most remarkable of these is in the Tenger, "wide " or "spacious " mountains, in the E. part of the island. It rises from a very large base in a gentle slope with gradually extending ridges. The summit, seen from a distance, appears less conical than that of the other volcanoes, and is about 8,000 ft. high. The crater is more than 1,000 ft. below the highest point of the mountain. It is the largest crater on the globe, with perhaps the single exception of that of Kilauea in the Hawaiian islands.

The shape of the crater is an irregular ellipse with a minor axis of 3 1/2 and a major axis of 4 1/2 miles, and it forms an immense gulf with a level bottom covered with sand, which the Javanese call Laut Pasar, or "sandy sea." From its centre rise three cones several hundred feet in height, one of which, called Brahma, is in almost constant activity. South of the great central range is another range of mountains from 3,000 to 8,000 ft. in height, which skirts the S. coast. It is composed of volcanic materials, chiefly basalt, and is called by the Javanese Kandang, or " war drums," from the peculiar columnar form of its rocks. The volcano Papandayang in this range threw out in a single night, in 1772, ashes and scoriae spreading over an area of 7 m. radius a layer 50 ft. thick, destroying 40 native villages and 3,000 people. On July 8, 1822, the volcano Galunggong, a few miles N. E. of Papandayang, destroyed everything within a radius of 20 m. Five days later a second eruption followed, and the total loss of life in both was 20,000 persons. The S. shore of the island is in many places bounded by steep piles of trap. Low ranges of limestone occur in the eastern part, and in the extreme west a few granite bowlders are occasionally found.

Hot springs are numerous at the bases of the volcanoes, and some of them are impregnated with carbonic acid. In the lowlands there are mud volcanoes, which furnish muriate of soda. The principal elevated plains of Java are those known as Solo and Kediri, which comprise the central districts, and in the west that of Bandong. These plains are fertile and well watered by streams from the mountains, which afford an abundant supply for irrigation. There is also a long alluvial tract running along the N. side of the island, which may be regarded as a continuous plain, and many of the mountain valleys are also spacious and fertile. - There are a few small and beautiful lakes among the mountains, and some extensive marshes, which in the rainy season become lakes, and are navigated. The largest of these is in the province of Banyumas, and is close to the S. shore. The island, however, is abundantly watered. The rivers on the N. side are very numerous, but are none of them navigable for large vessels, being all more or less obstructed by bars of mud or sand at their mouths. They are, however, of great use for irrigation, and contribute largely to the immense agricultural capacity of the island.

The largest river in Java is the Solo, which rises in one of the low ranges on the S. side of the island, and after a winding course of 356 m. empties by two mouths into the narrow strait which separates Java from the W. end of the island of Madura. This river is navigable all the year by small boats, and by large ones in all the months except August, September, and October. The second river in size is called by the natives the Brantas, but is known to Europeans as the river of Surabaya. It rises like the Solo in the low southern range of mountains, receives many affluents, and empties by five mouths into the Madura strait, after passing by the city of Surabaya and contributing to form its harbor. - The seasons in Java are divided into the wet season, which begins with October and ends with March, and during which westerly winds prevail, and the dry, which includes the rest of the year, and is characterized by easterly winds and fair weather. These periodical winds, the N. W. and S. E. monsoons respectively, set in somewhat irregularly, and even during their prevalence there is sometimes dry weather in the wet season and wet weather in the dry. At the equinoxes the weather is generally tempestuous, and thunder storms at that period are frequent and sometimes destructive.

The temperature of the island is equable, the thermometer in the lowlands seldom rising above 90° or falling below 70°. Snow never falls even on the highest mountain peaks, but in the coldest weather ice a few lines thick is sometimes seen at great elevations, where the thermometer falls to 27°. At the height of 4,000 ft. in the mountain valleys there is a delightful climate, healthful to the European constitution, and favorable to the growth of northern fruits and vegetables. The general climate of the island is in point of salubrity equal to that of any tropical country; and in places where malaria formerly prevailed, as in Batavia and Cheribon, the evil has been clearly traced to the neglect of watercourses, and has been ameliorated by proper attention to drainage. - The metals found in Java are inconsiderable in quantity and value, and no veins are worked. The uncultivated portions of the island, with the exception of a few small tracts and shore districts, are covered with forest, and at all seasons a luxuriant verdure overspreads nearly the whole land. The chief variety in the vegetation is caused by differences of elevation. On the low coast are found cocoanut palms, bananas, aroideae, ama-ranthacece, poisonous euphorbiaceae, and leguminous plants.

At the height of 1,000 ft. ferns preponderate and magnificent forests of slender bamboos grow spontaneously. At a greater height are forests of fig trees, with tall trunks, spreading branches, and thick foliage; and the ferns here increase in number and size, and often grow to the height of several feet. Above the region of fig trees is that of oaks and laurels, with abundant melastomas and orchidaceous plants. At the height of 6,000 ft. the tropical character of the vegetation disappears, and is succeeded by rubiaceae, heaths, conifers, and a vegetation closely allied to that of the temperate zone. Cryptogamous plants are extensively multiplied; mushrooms are abundant, and mosses and lichens cover the ground. - The animal life of Java is as varied and abundant as its vegetation. Among the 100 species of mammalia enumerated as inhabiting the island are nine species of quadrumana, the Bengal tiger, leopards, a peculiar species of rhinoceros (R. Son-daicus), the wild ox (bos Sondaiciis), the wild hog, several species of deer, and 22 species of bats. Among the domestic animals are the ox, the buffalo, the horse, the goat, and a few sheep.

Of birds there are known to be upward of 170 distinct species, among which are the peacock, the green jungle cock, partridges, quail, and many species of pigeons and herons. There are but two species of Javan parrots. Birds of prey are numerous, including falcons, owls, and carrion crows. Serpents are frequently met with, and more than 20 species are regarded as venomous. Other reptiles of common occurrence are crocodiles, lizards, the green frog, the toad, and the land tortoise. Sea turtles are found in the waters adjacent to the island. Fish are plentiful along the coast, but those of the rivers are of inferior quality as food. - Though in reality Java is wholly possessed by the Dutch, two native kingdoms, comprising together not more than 1/14 of the island, have been suffered to retain a nominal existence, under the control of the Dutch officials. These are the dominions- of the senaan or emperor of Surakerta, and the sultan of Jokjokerta. The rest of the island, with Madura, is divided into 23 provinces, called residencies.

The principal cities are Batavia, the capital, Bantam, Buitenzorg, Cheribon, Sama-rang, Surabaya, Surakerta, and Jokjokerta. The native population of Java comprises two distinct nations, the Sundese and the Javanese. The Sundese occupy the western end of the island, and are greatly inferior in number to the Javanese, as well as less advanced in civilization. They speak a distinct language, the Sundese, while nine tenths of the entire native population speak Javanese. Both classes are of the Malayan race. They are generally about two inches shorter than the men of the Mongolian and Caucasian races, with round faces, wide mouths, high cheek bones, short and small noses, and small, black, deep-seated eyes. The complexion is brown with a shade of yellow, and is never black. The hair of the head is thick, black, lank, and harsh, and is either scanty or altogether wanting on other parts of the body. A few short, straggling hairs compose the beard. The natives are not active, and make but poor runners or wrestlers. They are described as peaceable, docile, sober, simple, industrious, straightforward, and truthful.

Java is one of the most densely peopled countries of the world, the population, inclusive of Madura, amounting, according to a census taken at the end of 1872, to 17,298,-200, being 337 persons to the square mile. Of these, 28,926 were Europeans, 185,758 Chinese, and 22,032 Arabs and other foreign orientals. The Javanese are almost entirely occupied in agriculture. There is a small class of fishermen on the N. coast, and a few artisans in the towns, but the great bulk of the people live directly or indirectly by the cultivation of the land, in which they have made greater progress than any other Asiatic nation except the Chinese and Japanese. The chief cereal is rice, of which with the aid of irrigation, industriously and almost universally applied, two crops are raised in a year. Java is one of the principal coffee-growing countries of the world. The coffee plantations are situated at an elevation of 2,000 ft. and upward, and are conducted under the supervision of the colonial government. The cultivation of sugar is next in importance; indigo, cotton, pepper, tea, and tobacco are also raised. The mechanic arts among the Javanese are not so far advanced as their agriculture.

About 30 crafts are practised among them, of which the principal are those of the blacksmith or cutler, the carpenter, the sheath maker, the coppersmith, the goldsmith, and the potter. Bricks and tiles are largely made. The carpenters are skilful in house and boat building. They make boats of all sizes, from fishing canoes up to vessels of 50 tons, and under European superintendence build large ships. The ordinary dwellings of the people are built of a rough frame of timber, thatched with grass or palm leaves, and with walls and partitions of split bamboo. The Javanese excel all other nations of the Indian archipelago in the working of metals. They are especially skilful in the manufacture of the national weapon, the kris or dagger, which is worn by every man and boy above 14 years as part of his ordinary costume, and by many ladies of high rank. They make also excellent gongs of brass, and these with other musical instruments of the same metal have long been exported to the neighboring countries. The only native textile material woven by the Javanese is cotton, of which they make a stout durable calico, and this is purely a domestic manufacture, carried on exclusively by the women.

From raw silk imported from China, the silkworm not being reared in Java, a coarse cloth is woven also by the women. Paper of the nature of the ancient papyrus is a manufacture peculiar to the Javanese. In science the people have made little progress, possessing only a rude notion of astronomy and a slight knowledge of arithmetic. Their architecture at the present day hardly deserves the name, though the country abounds with remarkable remains of temples built many centuries ago by the ancestors of the present inhabitants. In number and beauty these structures are probably unsurpassed by the architectural remains of any country in the world, but the action of tropical vegetation is rapidly destroying them. The most extensive and interesting of these ruins are at Brambanam, near the centre of the island, at Borobodo, 80 m. westward, and at Gunong Prau, 40 m. southwest of Samarang.' At Brambanam are the " thousand temples," consisting of 296 small temples arranged in five concentric parallelograms, and forming a quadrangle of 540 by 510 ft, exactly facing the cardinal points. The celebrated temple of Borobodo is a vast domed structure erected on an inconsiderable elevation.

It is a connected series of terraced walls, composed of seven tiers one above another, and all surmounted by a triple circle of 72 towers surrounding the dome. It is 620 ft. square, and rises to a height of about 100 ft. The walls are profusely ornamented with sculpture. Wallace says that the amount of human labor and skill expended on the great pyramids of Egypt sinks into insignificance when compared with that required to complete this sculptured hill temple in the interior of Java. The temples on the mountain of Gunong Prau are reached by four flights of stone steps from different directions, there being more than 1,000 steps in each flight. Of the other fine arts, music is the one in which the Javanese have made the greatest progress. They are passionately fond of it, and have generally fine musical ears. Their melodies are wild, plaintive, and interesting, and more pleasing to the European ear than any other Asiatic music. They have wind and stringed instruments, but their most common instruments are drums and gongs. In religion the Javanese are Mohammedans, which faith was established by Arab conquerors in the 15th century, and has entirely displaced Brahmanism and Buddhism, the ancient religions of the country, except among a few people in the Tenger mountains.

During the rule of the Portuguese in the 16th century, the Catholic missionaries formed some native congregations, of which a few remnants are still left. The Dutch government showed itself decidedly opposed to all missionary labor, and Protestant missions were therefore not begun until the island passed in 1811 under the rule of England. After the restoration of the Dutch administration, all missionaries but the Dutch were in 1842 forbidden to perform missionary labors, but the Dutch missionary societies were allowed to establish missions. The results of their labors are as yet of no great importance. The number of missionaries in 1872 did not reach 20, who partly belonged to the Reformed and partly to the Mennonite church. The Roman Catholics have a vicar apostolic at Batavia, and 16 priests. - The commerce of Java is transacted chiefly at the ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Surabaya. Among the principal exports are coffee, sugar, rice, indigo, tea, tobacco, spices, India rubber, birds' nests, camphor, and rattans.

In 1871 the value of the merchandise and specie exported was £7,604,691, and that of the imports was £4,489,693. About one half of the rice exported and four fifths of the other exports go to the Netherlands. In June, 1872, the length of railroads in operation was 161 m., and in January, 1873, the number of telegraph offices was 38. There was regular connection with the other islands of the archipelago by means of 15 steamers belonging to the Netherlandish India steamboat company. - The most important feature of Javanese society is the village, which forms a complete body politic, with considerable powers of self-government. Its officers are elected by the people, and are charged with the collection of the taxes and the maintenance of public order. At the time of the conquest two native sovereigns, a sultan and an emperor, ruled the island, one in Java and the other in Sunda. When the Netherlands government acquired the Dutch East India company's title to its possessions in the East, it appropriated to the crown all unoccupied lands, and secured to the descendants of the native sovereigns and their vassal rulers their titular rank and the rights of regents; but placed with each a Dutch resident, whose "recommendations " have always been obeyed as orders.

The governor general acts as viceroy, receiving his directions from the Hague, and is assisted by a vice president and a council of four appointed by the king of Holland. The governors of Amboyna, Borneo, Celebes, and Sumatra, and the army and navy in the Dutch possessions in the archipelago, are under his orders. In Batavia there is a high court of appeal for criminal and civil cases among the Europeans, and the Javanese have native courts, presided over in some instances by Europeans. There are government primary schools in all the large towns, and in each residency there are salaried vaccinators and physicians. While the native rulers, who receive large annuities from the government, have the name of regents, the residents or assistant residents, with a controller, all of whom must be natives of the Netherlands, superintend the government plantations, directing what seed shall be sown, the wages to be paid, when the harvest shall be gathered, and the prices of products. This culture system, introduced in 1832, satisfies and employs the natives, defrays the entire expense of the local administration, and returns an annual revenue of $5,000,000 to the treasury at the Hague. In 1872 the total revenue of the colony was 121,258,300 guilders, and the total expenditure 108,164,690 guilders, leaving a surplus in guilders of 13,093,-610 for that year.

The culture system involves the forced labor of the natives in the cultivation of coffee and sugar, but the legislature of Holland has enacted a law by virtue of which the forced cultivation of the sugar cane will cease in the year 1890. The title to the greater part of the land in the country is in the government. - The history of Java previous to the 11th century of our era is involved in fable and obscurity. It is only certain that long before that period the Javanese had acquired a considerable degree of civilization. About the 11th century, or, according to some conjectures, several centuries earlier, Java was visited by the Hindoos, either as emigrants or conquerors, who founded kingdoms and converted the natives to Brahmanism. Java was first made known to the western world in the latter part of the 13th century by Marco Polo, who, however, did not visit the island. Luigi Barthema (Var-tomanus) was the first European who landed at Java. He passed 14 days there in 1506; and he represents the natives as cannibals who even sold their children to be eaten by the buyers.

The Hindoos and their religion remained dominant in the island from the end of the 13th to that of the 15th century, when Mohammedanism, which had for a century or two been zealously propagated by Arabs, Persians, Malays, and Hindoo Mohammedans, who came as merchants or settlers, gained a complete ascendancy over Brahmanism. In 1475 a Mohammedan prince raised himself to supreme power over nearly the whole island, and founded a dynasty which still exists in the small kingdoms which are permitted by the Dutch to remain in nominal independence. Bantam, the last of the Hindoo states, was conquered in 1480. The Portuguese visited Java in the 16th century, and entered into commercial negotiations with the natives. The Dutch first came to Java about 1595 as traders. In 1610 they obtained permission to build a fort at the native village of Jacatra, near the site of the present city of Batavia. Both the Portuguese and the English, who had established a factory at Bantam, yielded to their supremacy. They soon became involved in war with the native rulers, and in 1677 obtained a considerable territory.

From that period to 1830 they carried on four great wars with the natives, the first of which, begun in 1674, lasted for 34 years; the second, which began in 1718, for 5 years; the third, which began in 1740, for 15 years; and the fourth, which began in 1825, for 5 years. The third was begun Sept. 26, 1740, by a dreadful massacre of the Chinese settlers at Batavia, of whom 10,000 were killed in two days. In 1749 the principal Javan monarch conferred the sovereignty of the island upon the Dutch, by an official deed to the Dutch East India company. In 1811 the British, being at war with Holland, then a portion of the French empire, sent a fleet and army against Java, which was conquered without much opposition and held till 1816, when it was restored to Holland. By a decree of the Dutch government, slavery was totally abolished on Sept. 20, 1859, in all their colonies in India. It had never prevailed among the native Javanese, and the number of slaves in the island amounted only to a few thousands, mostly natives of other islands of the archipelago and of Africa, and held by European masters.

In 1860 the Swiss auxiliary soldiers, aided by natives, mutinied; they were soon reduced to submission, and many were executed. - Sir T. Stamford Raffles's "History of Java " (2 vols. 4to, London, 1817) is a standard work. The natural history of Java has been treated by Blume, Flora Javae necnon Insularum Ad-jacentium (3 vols, fol., Brussels, 1826-'36), and by Dr. T. Horsfield in his "Zoological Researches in Java and the Neighboring Islands " (London, 1824). Junghuhn is the author of several works on the natural history and geography of Java, the most important of which was published in Amsterdam in 1850 (3d Ger. ed., Leipsic, 1852). Interesting recent descriptions of Java are given by Albert S. Bick-more, in "Travels in the East Indian Archipelago" (New York, 1869); by A. R. Wallace, in "The Malay Archipelago " (London and New York, 1869; and in W. H. Seward's "Travels around the World" (New York, 1873).

Temple of Borobodo.

Temple of Borobodo.