Margaret Of Anou, queen of England, daughter of Rene, duke of Lorraine and count of Provence, and titular king of Sicily and Jerusalem, and of Isabella of Lorraine, born at Pont-a-Mousson, March 23, 1429, died at the chateau of Dampierre, Aug. 25, 1481. Her childhood was passed, amid the troubles that befell her family, in Italy, France, and Lorraine. Her hand was sought by the count do St. Pol and by the count de Nevers. Report of her beauty having reached Henry VI. of England, from a gentleman of Anjou, who acted under the inspiration of Cardinal Beaufort, her portrait was obtained for his inspec-tion. This decided the king's action, and com-missioners were appointed to negotiate a truce with France and Burgundy. Charles VII. favored the marriage, with the view of making it the basis of peace. Not only was no dowry asked with Margaret, but England ceded Anjou and Maine to Rene, who claimed them as his hereditary dominions. The war party in England, headed by the duke of Gloucester, opposed both the peace and the marriage, but the Beaufort party proved victorious; and Surffolk, who was elevated to a marquisate, married Margaret as Henry's proxy at Nancy m November, 1444. Margaret did not reach England until the next April, when her mar-nage took place in Titchfield abbey.

In 1447 occurred the death of the duke of Gloucester, of which she has been accused by some historians. She soon became unpopular, and the hughsh connected the loss of their French possessions with her marriage. The York family, taking advantage of the weakness of the king, aimed to obtain the crown, which belonged to their chief by the law of descent.

Margaret's only child, Edward, born Oct. 13, 1453, was said by her enemies to be either the offspring of adultery or a supposititious child. Prince Edward was born while his father was suffering from one of his tits of imbecility, and when the queen was at the head of the government. The duke of York was made protector, but on the restoration of the king's health he was dismissed, whereupon he asserted his right by an appeal to arms, and the Yorkists won the first battle of St. Albans, which restored them to power. Parliament censured the queen and her friends, but in 1456 Henry assumed his rights, and the government was virtually in Margaret's hands. Personal ill feeling between the queen and the earl of Warwick, the most powerful of the Yorkist leaders, caused a renewal of the war, and the Lancastrians were at first victorious; but the Yorkists rallied, defeated their foes, and obtained possession of the person of the king, who recognized York as his successor. Margaret fled with her son, first to Wales, and thence to Scotland. Receiving assistance from the Scotch, she returned to England, and was joined by her supporters in the northern counties.

York advanced to oppose her, and was defeated and slain at Wakefield. Marching to London, she defeated Warwick in the second battle of St. Albans, and released her husband. The Londoners would not admit her into their city, but recognized York's eldest son as king, by the title of Edward IV. She retreated north, and was followed by Edward. After the fatal battle of Towton, March 29, 1461, Margaret fled to Scotland with her husband and son. Thence she went to France, in the hope of obtaining aid from Louis XL, in which she met with little success. Pierre de Breze, seneschal of Normandy, armed in her support, and by his aid she landed in England, but accomplished nothing, and returned to Scotland. There she raised forces and invaded England, and at first obtained some successes, but was defeated in the battle of Hexham, in 1464. She returned again to Scotland, and afterward went to Flanders. After remaining some time at Bruges, she took up her residence in her father's dominions, where she superintended her son's education, aided by Sir John Fortes-cue. She visited the French court, at Tours, in 1469; and it was under the mediation of Louis XL that a reconciliation between her and the earl of Warwick was effected in 1470, the earl having broken with Edward IV. and fled from England. The earl's youngest daughter, Anne Neville, was betrothed to the queen's son, Edward of Lancaster. Warwick returned to England and marched to London; the Lancastrians were for the time triumphant; Edward IV. fled to the continent, and Henry VI. regained the throne.

Margaret prepared to return to England, but contrary winds delayed her purpose, and it was not till April 14,1471, that she landed at Weymouth, accompanied by her son. Warwick, however, had been defeated and slain on the same day in the battle of Bar-net, and the queen took sanctuary in Beaulieu abbey. Some of the Lancastrian leaders, who had a strong force, induced her to join them; and while seeking to effect a junction with their friends in Wales, they were assailed and defeated at Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471, by Edward IV. Margaret fell into the hands of the victor, her son having previously been slain. Her husband was put to death a few weeks later. She was imprisoned in the tower, and afterward at Windsor and at Wallingford, till Nov. 3, 1475, when she was ransomed by Louis XL, who paid 50,000 crowns for her liberty, her father having ceded Provence to him for the purpose. She formally renounced all the rights her English marriage had given her, and resided in deep seclusion at Reculee, near Angers, one of the possessions of her father, seldom leaving that retreat.

Her last days were passed in the chateau of Dampierre, to the lord of which her father at his death had consigned her. - See "Life and Times of Margaret of Anjou," by Mary Ann Hookham (2 vols., London, 1872).