Martin, the name of five popes, of whom the following are the more important.

I. Martin I., Saint

Saint Martin I., horn at Todi in Tuscany about 600, died in the Tauric Chersonese (Crimea), Sept. 16, 655. He was elected July 5, 641), and energetically opposed the spread of Monothelitism. He opened the first council of the Lateran, Oct. 5,649, and had 20 decrees enacted condemnatory of the new heresy, as well as of a doctrinal edict called " Type," published by the reigning emperor Constans II., which forbade all controversy on the subject of one or two wills in Christ. He was consequently, by order of the emperor, held captive on the island of Naxos for 15 months (653-'4), and afterward carried to Constantinople, where he was publicly stripped of his clerical robes, led in chains through the city, and confined in a dungeon till March, 655, when he was sent to the Chersonese and left destitute of all means of subsistence. He is honored as a martyr in the Greek and Latin churches, and his feast is el sbrated on Nov. 12. There are 18 encyclical letters of this pope in the Bibliotheca Pa-trnm and Labbe's Concilia.

II. Martin IV. (Simon- De Brion)

Martin IV. (Simon- De Brion), born in Touraine about 1220, died in Perugia, March 28, 1285. By some he is designated as Martin II., but as the generality of writers consider the name Marinus identical with Martinus, the two popes bearing the former name are reckoned as Martin H. (Marinus I., died 884) and Martin III. (Marinus H died 946). Simon was a regular canon and treasurer of the church of St. Martin at Tours. Louis IX. appointed him chancellor in 1260; in 1262 he was created by Urban IV. cardinal priest of Santa Cecilia; and under Gregory X. he was apostolic legate in France. He was unanimously elected pope at Viterbo, Feb. 22, 1281, after a long and stormy conclave. The two powerful rival families of Orsini and Annibaldeschi bestowed on him the title of senator of Home which Martin transferred to Charles of Anion, king of Naples and Sicily, by whose influence he had been elected, and whom he encouraged to aspire to the throne of Constantinople The Greek emperor, Michael Palasologus, who had been unable or unwilling to effect a reunion of the eastern with the western church, was excommunicated.

Palaeologus joined the party of Pedro III. of Aragon, who also, having come with a fleet and army to take possession of Sicily, was excommunicated, and was deprived of the crown of Aragon, which was given by the pope to Charles of Valois, son of the king of France. A crusade was then preached against Pedro in France and Italy. All these measures turned out disastrously for the pope's policy, while his own persecution of the Italian Ghibellines caused wide dissatisfaction and revolts. During a popular rising in Orvieto in 1285, the violence of the governor obliged Martin to take refuge in Perugia, where he died. He was canonized by the people of Perugia, but not by the universal church.

III. Martin V. (Ottone Colonna)

Martin V. (Ottone Colonna), born in Rome about 1365, died there, Feb. 20,1431. He graduated in arts at the university of Perugia, and was sent by Boniface IX. as nuncio to the Italian courts. Innocent VII. created him cardinal and vicar of Rome. Under John XXIII. he was governor of the States of the Church. He Avas elected pope during the 41st session of the council of Constance (Nov. 11, 1417), and the next day published a bull on the Roman chancery, confirming the rules established by his predecessors, and apparently confirming the abuses complained of. A plan of reformation was submitted by the nations represented in the council. The pope presented a counter plan for debate, and meanwhile negotiated a separate concordat with each of the Transalpine powers. This broke up the council, which was solemnly closed on April 22, 1418. On Feb. 22 he published a bull condemning the Hussite doctrines, and proclaiming, at the prayer of King John I. of Portugal, a crusade against the Moors. On April 12 he issued a constitution forbidding all appeals from the pope to a general council, except in times of open schism. He departed from Constance May 16, and on his arrival in Milan he published a bull forbidding disturbance of Jews under any pretext, so long as they were guilty of no open offence against faith or morality.

He remained at Florence from February, 1411), till Sept. 15, 1420, entered Rome Sept. 22, and devoted himself to the restoration of industry and commerce and the pacification of Italy. In January, 1431, he sent Cardinal Cesarini to preside at the opening of the council of Basel; but he was himself stricken with apoplexy before the day appointed for that purpose. He was a great patron of learning; his own palace and those of his cardinals were free schools of science and art for the youth of Italy.

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I. Arthur

Arthur, a French archaeologist, born at Auray, Morbihan, in 1801, died in Ravenna in March, 1856. He became a Jesuit, and devoted himself exclusively to archaeology. Besides several other remarkable illustrated works, he published with Pere Cahier Vitraux peints de Saint Etienne de Bourges (imp. fol., Paris, 1842-'44), and Melanges d'archeologie (4 vols. 4to, Paris, 1848-'56). In 1856, in a competition of European architects, he was chosen to design and construct the proposed cathedral at Lille; and having gone to Ravenna to make some preliminary studies, he died there of pneumonia.

II. Felix

Felix, a French ecclesiastic, brother of the preceding, born at Auray, Oct. 4, 1804. He became a Jesuit, and in 1842 went to Canada to revive the mission there. He founded St. Mary's college, Montreal, over which he presided for many years; his architectural ability was displayed not only in that institution, but also in two adjacent churches. He collected material relating to the history of Canada, and contributed largely to the recent publications on that subject. He was next stationed at Quebec, but his eyesight becoming impaired, he returned to France, and has since been connected with a house of his order near Paris. His chief works are: Manuel du pelerin de Notre Dame de Bon Secours (Montreal, 1848); Relation des Jesuites, an enlarged translation of O'Callaghan's bibliography of that series (1850); a French translation with notes of Bressani's Breve relatione (Montreal, 1852); Mission du Canada, relations ine-dites (Paris, 1861); De Montcalm en Canada (1867); and Le R. P. Isaac Jogues (1873). He explored the Huron country and prepared a report upon it, and has assisted Carayon in his series of volumes on the Jesuit missions.