Apple-Tree, the common, or Pyr us malus, L. is too well known in this country, to require a minute description. It frequently grows to the height of twenty or thirty, feet, and produces a considerable variety of fruit. Botanists are of opinion, that the wilding, or crab-apple of the woods and hedges, is the original kind, from the seeds of which the apple now cultivated was first obtained.

The varieties of this species are multiplied to some hundreds, in different places, all having been first accidentally procured from the . or kernels of the fruit, and then increased by grafting upon crabs, or any kind of apple-stocks. Notwithstanding the numerous sorts, not above forty, or fifty, are reared in the nursery. Their fruit arrives at full growth in successive order, from July to the end of October, but comes to maturity only after gathering; and several of the winter kinds, may be preserved for many months.

Apples serve as excellent, fruit for the dessert, the kitchen, and for making cyder. The following, which are most esteemed for eating, are ranged according to the successive order in which they ripen : the white juncating, marga-pple, summer pearmain, summer queening, embroidered apple, golden rennet, summer white calville, summer red calville, silvor pippen, aromatic pippen, lareinette grise, la haute bonte, royal russet-ing, Wheeler's russet, Sharp's russet, the spine apple, golden pippen, nonpareil, and pomme d'api. Those for culinary use, are, the codling, summer marygold, summer red pearmain, Holland pippen, Kentish pippen, courpendu, Loan's pear-main, the French rennet, French pippen, royal russet, monstrous rennet, winter pearmain, pome vio-let te, Spencer's pippen, the stone pippen, and oaken pippen. Those most esteemed for making cyder, are, the Devonshire royal wilding, red-streak apple, whitsour, Herefordshire under-leaf, John-apple, or deux ames, everlasting hanger, and gennet moyle.

Among all the fruit growing in this country, says a celebrated botanical writer, apples justly deserve the preference. In raising these useful trees for orchards, or fields, whether for cyder or baking, the wild crab-kernels are the most suitable, as they yield hardy stocks, which are better able to endure cold and coarse lands, take firmer root, and produce larger trees. Where these seeds cannot be conveniently procured, the kernels of common apples may be substituted, especially with a view of ingrafting them. Although the former do not bring forth trees bearing the same kind of apples, yet they thrive without grafting, and their hard fruit may, notwithstanding its astringent and acid properties, be advantageously converted into cyder.

Culture. - The method of propagating the cyder fruit-trees in Herefordshire, is by grafting. Very large, and even old trees, may be grafted, so as to bear fine heads of other sorts; and thus they will produce a crop of fruit quicker than by any other method. New orchards are raised by planting well-grown crab-stocks, and grafting them the year after.

If the trees are full sized, the tops of them must be cut off in winter, otherwise when grafted, they will, as it is termed, bleed so much, that the grafts will not suc-ceed. The trees should not be cut down to the trunk, but as many branches must be left as look kind above, where it branches out about the thickness of one's arm; the tops of these must be taken off, about two or three feet above the part where they project from the trunk. Good crab-stocks, for raising new orchards, generally cost from Is. 6d. to 4s. each, according to their quality.

Linnaeus considers the apple and the quince as species of the pear-tree, or Pyrus, all the varieties of which are hardy, and will succeed in any common garden soil, if planted in a free situation. They are propagated by grafting and budding upon any kind of pear-stocks, occasionally upon quince, and sometimes upon white-thorn stocks.

Apples of every kind may be reared in the manner above described : and, according to Dr. Anderson, the pure paradise-stock is the best graft. They will not thrive, however, in a low and moist soil, where they are apt to canker, and speedily decay. In a friable loam, they generally prosper extremely well.

Pruning.—If a tree be very old, and much incumbered, the stumps, with all the decayed, rotten, and blighted branches, should be carefully removed: but, instead of delaying this operation till the trees become too old, it ought to be commenced even in the nursery, and regularly continued ; as, by the use of medications, the wounds will heal, without causing any blemishes.

When the trees are so luxuriant, as not to bear those prolific spurs from which the fruit proceeds, the too abundant flow of their juices must be checked by the following method :—the tops of most of the shoots are to be pruned off in August, the bark perpendicularly slit-ted in different places, and the trunk cut about one-tiiird through with a saw, but so as not to injure the heart. For the first year, or two, after this experiment, the tree will not bear more fruit than usual, but afterwards its production will be adequate to every expectation.

From this operation, a still further benefit may be derived. When there is a superabundance of moisture, the trees are liable to be covered with moss, which affords shelter for caterpillars and other insects; but this process in a great measure cures it, especially if the moss be carefully scraped off, or rubbed with a coarse, wet cloth.

The pruning of the tops diverts the channel of circulation, and accelerates the growth of the fruit-bearing shoots 5 while the cutting of the trunk, across, moderates the great rise of nourishment, or sap. Thus the sawed part will over-grow in so complete a manner, that it cannot be discerned, except from the freshness of its bark.

Apple Blossoms are, in some seasons, injured by the devastations of an uncommon number of insects, produced from a species of black flies which deposit their eggs in the bud, at its first opening; and which, by feeding on the heart of the bud, soon occasion it to con-tract, and drop. To remedy this fatal effect, Mr. C. Gullett advises to collect heaps of long dung, wet straw, weeds, etc. 3 to dispose them in different parts of the orchard ; and set fire to the heaps in that quarter from which the wind blows, so that the smoke may thoroughly fumigate all the trees. Thus the insects, which are supposed to be brought by the wind, will be prevented from depositing their eggs.

As very serious apprehensions were lately entertained in the cyder comities, that the. moss growing on apple-trees, and the millions of insects which harbour in it, might be destructive to orchards, we shall here insert another remedy discovered by Mr. Tench, of the Mi-nories: "Take a quantity of un-slacked lime, mix it with as soft water as your situation will furnish, to the consistency of very thick white-wash; this mixture, with a soft paint brush, apply to your apple-trees, as soon as you judge the sap begins to rise, and wash the. stem and large boughs well with it, observing to have it done in dry weather, that it may adhere, and withstand rain: you will find, that in the course of the ensuing summer, it will remove all the moss and insects, and give to the bark a fresh and green appearance, and that the tree will shoot much new and strong wood ; at least, it did so in Nova Scotia. The trial is simple, and can neither be attended with much expence, trouble, or danger."

In justice to Mr. Forsyth, His Majesty's gardener at Kensington, we cannot omit to mention his composition, used for the same purpose, and, perhaps, of superior efficacy, if the nature of its ingredients be considered : To one hun dred gallons of human urine, and one bushel of lime, add cow-dung sufficient to bring it to the consistence of paint----After having carefully brushed off all the moss, the infected trees should be anointed with this mixture, about the latter end of March; which simple precaution, it is said, fully answers the desired effect.

Concerning the physical properties of apples, it deserves to be stated, that beside their aromatic qualities, they are wholesome and laxative, when fully ripe. In diseases of the breast, such as catarrhs, coughs, asthmas, consumption, etc. they are of considerable service to neutralize the acrimony, and attenuate the viscidity of humours : for these beneficial purposes, however, they ought not to be eaten raw, but either roasted, stewed, or boiled. Even crab, or wood-apples, may be usefully employed in decoctions, which, if drank plentifully, tend to abate febrile heat, as well as to relieve painful strictures, in pectoral complaints.

With regard to their sensible properties, apples have been divide ed into spicy, acidulated, and watery. To the first class belong the various species of rennet, which possess a most delicate, flavour, contain the least proportion of water, and, on account of their vinous nature, are not apt to excite, flatu-lency. Pippens, on the contrary, though affording more nutriment than the former, are more fibrous, and consequently require a more vigorous stomach to digest them : hence they may be ranked under the second class. Lastly, those sweet and tender apples which are very juicy and palatable, are the least nt to be eaten in a raw stale, unless with the audition of bread or biscuit: when baked, or dried in the open air, as is customary on the continent, they make an ex-cellent substitute for raisins or plums, in puddings, pyes, and other dishes prepared of flour.

Sour apples may be much improved, both in taste and quality, by either baking, or digesting them in a close vessel by steam, over a very slow fire : thus the saccharine principle is disengaged, and they undergo a complete change.

As apples are very liable to decay, especially in hard winters, various methods of preserving them have been tried, with different degrees of success.

One of the best expedients to preserve them for winter use, is, to let them remain upon the trees till there be danger of frost, to gather. them in dry weather, and lay them in large heaps to sweat for a month, or six weeks. At the end of that time, they should be carefully examined, those which have the least appearance of decay removed from the others, the sound fruit wiped dry, and packed in large dry jars, and then closely stopped, in order to exclude the access of air. If this plan be properly followed, the fruit will keep sound for a Jong time: it is, however, frequently impossible to procure a sufficient number of jars for this purpose ; hence, in considerable quantities, the following methods are generally adopted:

In North America, as well as in Germany, apples are often preserved during the most severe frosts, by placing them in an apartment immediately under the roof of the house, but without a fire; a linen cloth being thrown over them, re the frost commences. This experiment, however, has not succeeded in Britain.

In some parts, a coarse linen cloth is spread upon the floor of an upper room, and a layer of apples is placed on it; this is covered with a cloth of a similar texture, on which another layer is spread, and again covered: in this manner the pile may be increased to any height, with alternate strata of linen and fruit; after which a cloth, of sufficient dimensions to communicate with the floor on every side, is thrown over the whole heap. This practice has been attended with success.

Another method is, to put a layer of apples, and a layer of dried alternately in a basket, or box (the latter is considered the best, as it admits less air), and cover them closely. The advantage of fern, in preference to straw, is, that it does not impart a musty taste.

Apples, in small quantities, may be preserved for a greater length of time by the following, than by any of the before-mentioned pro-cesses. - first, completely dry a glazed jar, then put a few pebbles at the bottom, fill it with apples, and cover it with a piece of wood exactly fitted, and fill up the interstices with a little fresh mortar. The pebbles attract the moisture of the apples, while the mortar excludes the air from the jar, and secures the fruit from pressure.

This useful fruit may likewise be occasionally preserved from frost, by placing one or two tubs, or pails of water, in the room where apples are stored, taking C3re daily to break the ice, and, if thick, to renew the water, which, having a much stronger attraction for cold, protects the apples.

Gathering. — This fruit should be gathered with the hand, carefully placed in baskets; reject-ing those which spontaneously fall, as unfit for long keeping. Moving the apples, in order to examine them whether sound, is likewise injurious to their preservation.