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Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol4-6



Volumes 4, 5 and 6 of a general reference work on architecture, carpentry, building, superintendence, contracts, specifications, building law, stair-building, estimating, masonry, reinforced concrete, structural engineering, architectural drawing, sheet metal work, heating, ventilating, etc.

TitleCyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol4-6
AuthorJames C. et al
PublisherAmerican Technical Society
Year1912
Copyright1912, American Technical Society
AmazonCyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building

Prepared by a Staff of Architects, Builders, Engineers, And Experts Of The Highest Professional Standing

Illustrated with over Three Thousand Engravings

Ten Volumes

-Foreword Vol4
WALTER REED ARMY GENERAL HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. Marsh & Peter, Architects, Washington, D. C. For plan, see next succeeding plate. PLAN OF WALTER REED ARMY ...
-Masonry And Reinforced Concrete. Part I. Masonry Materials
Masonry may be defined as construction in which the chief constructive material is stone or an artificial mineral product such as brick, terra-cotta, or ...
-Natural Stone And Its Characteristics
1. From the constructor's standpoint, any stone is good which will fulfil certain desired characteristics. These various characteristics are not found combined ...
-Testing Stone
6. Of the above four qualities, only two - durability and strength - are susceptible of laboratory testing, and even for these qualities the best known ...
-12. Limestone
Carbonate of lime forms the principal ingredient of limestone. A pure limestone should consist only of carbonate of lime. However, none of our natural stones ...
-13. Marble
When limestone is wholly crystalline and suitable for ornamental purposes, it is called marble; or, in other words, any limestone that can be polished is ...
-14. Dolomite
When the carbonate of magnesia occurring in limestone rises to about 45 per cent, the stone is then called dolomite. It is usually whitish or yellowish in ...
-15. Sandstone
Sandstones are composed of grains of sand that have been cemented together through the aid of heat and pressure, forming a solid rock. The cementing material ...
-16. Conglomerates
Conglomerates differ from sandstone only in structure, being coarser and of a more uneven texture. The grains are usually an inch or more in diameter.
-17. Granite
The essential components of the true granites are quartz and potash feldspar. Granites are rendered complex, although the essential minerals are but two in ...
-18. Trap Rock
Trap rock, or diabase, is a crystalline, granular rock, composed essentially of feldspar and augite; but nearly all contains magnetite and frequently olivine.
-19. Seasoning Of Stone
Stone, to weather well, should be laid with its bedding (lamination) horizontal, as it was first laid down by nature in the quarry. The stone, moreover, will ...
-20. Definition And Characteristics
The term brick is usually applied to the product resulting from burning moulded prisms of clay in a kiln at a high temperature. Common brick is not extensively ...
-25. Classification Of Common Bricks
Bricks are usually classified in three ways: (a) Manner of moulding; (6) position in kiln; (c) their shape or use. (a) The manner in which brick is moulded has ...
-26. Crushing Strength
The results of crushing tests of brick vary greatly, depending on the details of the tests made. Many reports fail to give the details under which these tests ...
-27. Fire Brick
Furnaces must be lined with a material which is even more refractory than ordinary brick. The oxide and sulphide of iron, which are so common (and ...
-28. Sand-Lime Brick
Within the last few years, the sand-lime brick industry has been developed to some extent. The materials for making this brick consist of sand and lime; and ...
-Concrete Building Blocks
29. The growth of the concrete block industry has been rapid. The blocks are taking the place of wood, brick, and stone for ordinary wall construction. They ...
-Cementing Materials
38. The principal cementing materials are Common Lime, Hydraulic Lime, Pozzuolana, Natural Cement, and Portland Cement. There are a few other varieties, but ...
-39. Common Lime
This is produced by burning limestone whose chief ingredient is carbonate of lime. Except in the form of marble, a limestone usually contains other substances - ...
-40. Hydraulic Lime
This is derived from limestones containing about 10 to 20 per cent of clay or silica, which is intimately mixed with the carbonate of lime in the structure of ...
-41. Pozzuolana Or Slag Cement
Pozzuolana is a form of cementing material which has been somewhat in use since very ancient times. Apparently it was first made from the lava from the volcano ...
-42. Natural Cement
Natural cement is obtained by burning an argillaceous or a magnesian limestone which happens to have the proper chemical composition. The resulting clinker is ...
-43. Portland Cement
Portland cement consists of the product of burning and grinding an artificial mixture of carbonate of lime and clay or slag, the mixture being very carefully ...
-Cement Testing
44. The thorough testing of cement, as it is done for the largest public works, should properly be done in a professional testing laboratory. A textbook of ...
-Cement Testing. Part 2
Weight of cement Specific Gravity = Displaced volume The flask during the operation is kept in water in a jar A in order to avoid variation in [the temperature ...
-Cement Testing. Part 3
* From the report of a committee of the American Society for Testing Materials. For this purpose the Vicat Needle, which has already been described, should be ...
-Cement Testing. Part 4
56. Storage Of The Test Pieces During the first 24 hours after moulding, the test pieces should be kept in moist air to prevent them from drying out. A moist ...
-Natural Cement
60. Definition This term shall be applied to the finely pulverized product resulting from the calcination of an argillaceous limestone at a temperature only ...
-Portland Cement
66. Definition This term is applied to the finely pulverized product resulting from the calcination to incipient fusion of an intimate mixture of properly ...
-Sand Testing
73. Sand is nearly always a constituent part of mortar and concrete. The strength of the masonry is dependent to a considerable extent on the qualities of the ...
-Broken Stone
81. This term ordinarily signifies the product of a stone crusher or the result of hand-breaking by hammering large blocks of stone; but the term may also ...
-Mortar
87. The term mortar is usually applied to the mixture of sand and cementing material which is placed between the large stones of a stone structure, although ...
-88. Common Lime Mortar
The first step in the preparation of common lime mortar is the slaking of the lime. This should be done by putting the lime into a water-tight box, or at least ...
-89. Natural Cement Mortar
This is largely used, especially when mixed with lime to retard the setting, in the construction of walls of buildings, cellar foundations, and, in general, in ...
-90. Portland Cement Mortar
A barrel of Portland cement will contain 370 to 380 pounds, net, of cement. Its capacity averages about 3.3 cubic feet, although with some brands the capacity ...
-91. Lime In Cement Mortar
Lime is frequently employed in the cement mortar used for buildings, for a combination of reasons: (a) It is unquestionably more economical; but if the ...
-92. Effect Of Re-Gauging Or Re-Mixing Mortar
Specifications and textbooks have repeatedly copied from one another a requirement that all mortar which is not used immediately after being mixed and before ...
-93. Proportions Of Materials For Mortar
(1) Lime Mortar. As previously stated in section 88, a barrel of unslaked lime should be mixed with about 8 1/2 cubic feet of water. This will make about 9 ...
-Concrete
Concrete is composed of a mixture of cement, sand, and crushed stone or gravel, which, after being mixed with water, soon sets and obtains a hardness and ...
-95. Compressive Strength of Concrete
The compressive strength of concrete is very important, as it is used more often in compression than in any other way. It is rather difficult to give average ...
-108. Practical Methods Of Concrete Proportioning
A rich mixture, proportions 1:2:4 - that is, 1 barrel (4 bags) packed Portland cement (as it comes from the manufacturer), 2 barrels (7.6 cubic feet) loose ...
-109. Methods Of Mixing Concrete
The method of mixing concrete is immaterial, if a homogeneous mass is secured of a uniform consistency, containing the cement, sand, and stone in the correct ...
-110. Wetness Of Concrete
In regard to plasticity, or facility of working and moulding, concrete may be divided into three classes: dry, medium, and very wet. Dry concrete is used in ...
-111. Transporting And Depositing Concrete
Concrete is usually deposited in layers of 6 inches to 12 inches in thickness. In handling and transporting concrete, care must be taken to prevent the ...
-112. Ramming Concrete
Immediately after concrete is placed, it should be rammed or puddled, care being taken to force out the air-bubbles. The amount of ramming necessary depends ...
-113. Bonding Old And New Concrete
To secure a water-tight joint between old and new concrete,requires a great deal of care. Where the strain is chiefly compressive, as in foundations, the ...
-114. Effects Of Freezing Of Concrete
Many experiments have been made to determine the effect of freezing of concrete before it has a chance to set. From these and from practical experience, it is ...
-115. Water-Tightness Of Concrete
Water-tight concrete, or concrete made water-tight by some kind of waterproof coating, is frequently required, either for inclosing a space which must he kept ...
-116. Sylvester Process
The alternate application of washes of castile soap and alum, each being dissolved in water, is known as the Sylvester process of waterproofing. Castile soap ...
-117. Asphalt Waterproofing
If asphalt is to be applied to a concrete surface, the concrete should be dry; and it will be found generally more satisfactory to coat the dry surface first ...
-118. Felt Laid With Asphalt
In waterproofing floors, roofs, subways, tunnels, etc., alternate layers of paper or felt are laid with asphalt, bitumen, or tar. These materials range from ...
-119. Medusa Waterproof Compound
Among the many patented waterproofing materials on the market is the Medusa. This compound is claimed to prevent efflorescence, as well as to make concrete ...
-Bitumen
120. Varieties One of the groups of mineral substances composed of different hydro-carbons, which are widely scattered throughout the world, is known as ...
-Preservation Of Steel In Concrete
123. Tests have been made to find the value of Portland cement concrete as a protection of steel or iron from corrosion. Nearly all of these tests have been of ...
-124. Cinder Vs. Stone Concrete
A compact cinder concrete has proven about as effective a protection for steel as stone concrete. The corrosion found in cinder concrete is mainly due to iron ...
-126. Tests By Professor Norton
Prof. Chas. L. Norton made several experiments with concrete bricks, 3 by 3 by 8-inch, in which steel rods, sheet metal, and expanded metal were imbedded. The ...
-Fire Protection
127. The various tests which have been conducted - including the involuntary tests made as the result of fires - have shown that the fire-resisting qualities ...
-Methods Of Mixing Concrete
133. The two methods used in mixing concrete are by hand and by machinery. Good concrete may be made by either method Concrete mixed by either method should be ...
-134. Hand Mixing Concrete
The placing and handling of materials and arranging the plant are varied by different engineers and contractors. In general the mixing of concrete is a simple ...
-135. Mixing Concrete By Machinery
On large contracts the concrete is generally mixed by machinery. The economy is not only in the mixing itself but in the appliances introduced in handling the ...
-Steel For Reinforcing Concrete
137. Steel for reinforcing concrete is not usually subjected to so severe treatment as ordinary structural steel, as the impact effect is likely to be less; ...
-139. Types Of Reinforcing Steel
The reinforcing steel usually consists of small bars of such shape and size that they may easily be bent and placed in the concrete so as to form a monolithic ...
-142. Deformed Bars
There are many forms of reinforcing materials on the market, differing from one another in the manner of forming the irregular projections on their surface.
-143. Definitions
In the following paragraphs, the meanings of various technical terms frequently used in stone masonry, are clearly explained: Arris - The external edge formed ...
-143. Definitions. Continued
Grout - A thin mixture of cement, sand, and water, which is sometimes forced by pressure into the cracks in defective masonry or to fill cavities which have ...
-144. Classification Of Dressed Stones
Stone masonry is classified according to the shape of the stones, and also according to the quality and accuracy of the dressing of the joints so that the ...
-145. Stone Cutting And Dressing
Many of the requirements and methods of stone dressing have already been stated in the definitions given above. Frequently a rock is so stratified that it can ...
-146. Cost Of Dressing Stone
Although, as explained above, the cost of dressing stone should properly be estimated by the square foot of surface dressed, most figures which are obtainable ...
-147. Constructive Features - Bonding
It is a fundamental principle of masonry construction, that vertical joints (either longitudinal or lateral) should not be continuous for any great distance.
-148. Allowable Unit-Pressures
In estimating such quantities, the following considerations must be kept in mind: (a) The accuracy of the dressing of the stone, particularly the bed-joints, ...
-149. Cost Of Stone Masonry
The total cost is a combination of several very variable items as follows: 1. Value of quarry privilege; 2. Cost of stripping superincumbent earth or ...
-Brick Masonry Terms
Many of the terms employed in stone masonry, and of the directions for properly doing the work, are equally applicable to brick masonry, ana therefore will not ...
-150. Bonding Used In Brick Masonry
Some of the principles involved in the effect of bonding on the strength of a wall, have already been discussed under Stone Masonry. The other consideration is ...
-151. Constructive Features
On account of the comparatively high absorptive power of brick, it is especially necessary that they shall be thoroughly soaked with water before being laid in ...
-152. Strength Of Brickwork
As previously stated with respect to stone masonry, the strength of brick masonry is largely dependent upon the strength of the mortar; but, unlike stone ...
-153. Methods Of Measuring Brickwork
There is unfortunately a considerable variation in the methods of measuring brickwork, the variation depending on local trade customs. Brickwork is often paid ...
-Rubble Concrete
159. Rubble concrete includes any class of concrete in which large stones are placed. The chief use of this concrete is in constructing dams, lock walls, ...
-163. Methods
In depositing concrete under water, some means must be taken to prevent the separation of the materials while passing through the water. The three principal ...
-Clay Puddle
Clay puddle consists of clay and sand-made into a plastic mass with water. It is used principally to fill cofferdams, and for making embankments and reservoirs ...
-The Importance of Foundations
169. It would be impossible to over-emphasize the importance of foundations, because the very fact that the foundations are underground and out of sight ...
-170. Classification Of Subsoil
The character of soil on which it may be desired to place a structure, varies all the way from the most solid rock to that of semi-fluid soils whose density is ...
-171. Testing The Bearing Power
The first step is to excavate the surface soil to the depth at which it would be convenient to place the foundation and at which the soil appears, from mere ...
-172. Bearing Power Of Ordinary Soils
A distinction must be maintained between the crushing strength of a cube of rock or soil, and the bearing power of that soil when it lies as a mass of ...
-173. Rock
The ultimate crushing strength of stone varies greatly. The crushing strength is usually determined by making tests on small cubes. Tests made on prisms of a ...
-174. Sand And Gravel
Sand and gravel are often found together. Gravel alone, when of sufficient thickness, makes one of the firmest and best foundations. Dry sand or wet sand, when ...
-175. Clay
There is great variation in clay soils, ranging from a very soft mass which will squeeze out in all directions when a very small pressure is applied, to shale ...
-176. Soft Or Semi-Liquid Soils
The soils of this class include mud, silt, quicksand, etc., and it is necessary to remove them entirely or to reach a more solid stratum under the softer soil; ...
-177. Improving A Compressible Soil
The general method of doing this consists in making the soil more dense. This may be done by driving a large number of piles into the soil, especially if the ...
-178. Preparing The Bed On Rock
The preparation of a rock bed on which a foundation is to be placed, is a simple matter compared with that required for some soils on which foundations are ...
-179. Preparing The Bed On Firm Earth
Under this heading is included hard clay, gravel, and clean, dry sand. The bed is prepared by digging a trench deep enough so that the bottom of the foundation ...
-180. Preparing The Bed On Wet Ground
The chief trouble in making an excavation in wet ground, is in disposing of the water and preventing the wet soil from flowing into the excavation. In ...
-181. Footings
The three requirements of a footing course are: (1) That the area shall be such that the total load divided by the area shall not be greater than the allowable ...
-184. Beam Footings
Steel, and even wood, in the form of beams, are used to construct very wide offsets. This is possible on account of their greater transverse strength. The ...
-186. Steel I-Beam Footings
The method of calculation is the same as for wooden beams, except that, since the strength of I-beams is not readily computable except by reference to tables ...
-188. Design Of Pier Footings
The above designs for footings have been confined solely to the simplest case of the footing required for a continuous wall. A column or pier must be supported ...
-Types of Pile Foundations
190. Piles The term pile is generally understood to be a stick of timber driven in the ground to support a structure. This stick of timber is generally thought ...
-196. Wooden Bearing Piles
Specifications for wooden piles generally require that they shall have a diameter of from 7 to 10 inches at the smaller end, and 12 to 15 inches at the larger ...
-197. Bearing Power Of Piles
Pile foundations act in a variable combination of two methods of support. In one case the piles are driven into the soil to such a depth that the frictional ...
-201. Methods Of Driving Piles
There are three general methods of driving piles - namely, by using (1) a falling weight; (2) the erosive action of a water-jet; or (3) the force of an ...
-205. Splicing Piles
On account of the comparatively slight resistance offered by piles in swampy places, it sometimes becomes necessary to splice two piles together. The splice is ...
-206. Pile Caps
One practical trouble in driving piles, especially those made of soft wood, is that the end of the pile will become crushed or broomed by the action of the ...
-207. Sawing Off The Piles
When the piles have been driven, they are sawed off to bring the top of them to the same elevation so that they will have an even bearing surface. When the ...
-208. Finishing The Foundations
When the heads of the piles are above water, a layer of concrete is usually placed over them, the concrete resting on the ground between the piles, as well as ...
-209. Concrete And Reinforced-Concrete Piles
A recent development of the use of concrete and reinforced concrete is to construct piles of this material. A reinforced-concrete pile foundation does not ...
-210. Raymond Concrete Pile
The Raymond concrete pile (Fig. 57) is constructed in place. A collapsible steel pile-core is encased in a thin, closely-fitting, sheet-steel shell. The core ...
-211. Simplex Concrete Pile
The different methods for producing the Simplex pile cover the two general classifications of concrete piles - namely, those moulded in place, and those ...
-212. Steel Piles
In excavating for the foundation of a 16-story building at 14th Street and 5th Avenue, New York, a pocket of quicksand was discovered with a depth of about 14 ...
-213. Grillage
A pile supports a load coming on an area of the foundation which is approximately proportional to the spacing between the piles. This area, of course, is ...
-214. Cushing Pile Foundation
A combination of steel, concrete, and wooden piles is known as the Cushing pile foundation. A cluster of piles is driven so that it may be surrounded by a ...
-215. Cost of Timber Piles
In comparing the cost of timber piles and concrete or reinforced-concrete piles, the former are found to be much cheaper per linear foot than the latter. As ...
-216. Piles For The Charles River Dam
The first piles driven for the Cambridge (Mass.) conduit of the Charles River dam were on the Cambridge shore. On January 1, 1907, 9,969 piles had been driven ...
-217. Pile Foundation For Sea-Wall At Annapolis
The piles for constructing the new sea-wall at Annapolis, Md., ranged in length from 70 feet to 110 feet. On the outer end of the breakwater, piles 70 feet to ...
-218. Cofferdams
Foundations are frequently constructed through shallow bodies of water by means of cofferdams. These are essentially walls of clay confined between wooden ...
-219. Cribs
A crib is essentially a framework (called a birdcage by the English) which is made of timber, and which is filled with stone to weight it down. Such a ...
-220. Open Caissons
A caisson is literally a box; and an open caisson is virtually a huge box which is built on shore and launched in very much the same way as a vessel, and which ...
-221. Hollow Cribs Or Caissons
The foundation for a pier is sometimes made in the form of a box with walls several feet in thickness, but with a large opening or well through the center.
-222. Pneumatic Caissons
A pneumatic caisson is essentially a large inverted box on which a pier is built, and inside of which work may be done because the water is forced out of the ...
-Retaining Walls
223. A retaining wall is a wall built to sustain the pressure of a vertical bank of earth. The stability of the wall is a comparatively simple matter when ...
-224. Theoretical Formulae
In spite of the unreliability of theoretical formulae, for the reasons given above, certain formulŠ which are here quoted without demonstration are sometimes ...
-226. Methods Of Failure
There are four distinct ways in which failure of a retaining wall may come about: (1) A retaining wall may fail by sliding bodily on its foundations or on any ...
-227. Determining The Resultant Pressure
Assume a very simple numerical case, as in Fig. 67. The weight of the wall and its line of action are very readily determined with accuracy. The base of the ...
-228. Empirical Rules
On account of the unsatisfactory nature of theoretical calculations, retaining walls are usually built by the application of purely empirical rules. Trautwine ...
-229. Failure Of Retaining Walls
It is a significant fact that a retaining wall may apparently withstand the pressure against it for a period of several years, and may then slowly and ...
-230. Placing Of Piers
The outline design of a long bridge which requires several spans, involves many considerations: (1) If the river is navigable, at least one deep and wide ...
-231. Usual Sizes And Shapes Of Piers
The requirements for the bridge seats for the ends of the two spans resting on a pier, are usually such that a pier with a top as large as thus required, and ...
-233. Abutment Piers
A pier is usually built comparatively thin in the direction of the line of the bridge, because the forces tending to produce overturning in that direction are ...
-234. Abutments
The term abutment usually implies not only a support for the bridge, but also what is virtually a retaining wall for the bank behind it. In the case of an arch ...
-Culverts
238. The terra culvert is usually applied to a small waterway which passes under an embankment of a railroad or a highway. The term is confined to waterways ...
-243. Double Box Culverts
A box culvert with a stone top is generally limited by practice to a span of 4 feet, although it would, of course, be possible to obtain thicker stones which ...
-244. End Walls
The ends of a culvert are usually expanded into end walls for the retention of the embankment. For the larger culverts, this may develop into two wing walls ...
-245. Plain Concrete Culverts
Culverts may be made of plain concrete, either in the box form or of an arched type, and having very much the same general dimensions as those already given ...
-246. Arch Culverts
Stone arches are frequently used for culverts in cases where the span is not great, and in which the design of the culvert (except for some small details ...
-247. Drainage Of Foundations
The excavation should be made to a sufficient depth so as to get below the frost line. The ground should be tamped thoroughly, and the excavation filled with ...
-248. Concrete Base
The concrete for the base of walks is usually composed of 1 part Portland cement, 3 parts sand, and 5 parts stone or gravel. Sometimes, however, a richer ...
-249. Top Surface
The wearing surface usually consists of 1 part Portland cement and 2 parts crushed stone or good, coarse sand, all of which will pass through a 1/4-inch mesh ...
-Concrete Curb
252. The curb is usually built just in advance of the sidewalk. The foundation is prepared similarly to that of walks. The curb is divided into lengths similar ...
-256. Introduction
The theory of flexure in reinforced concrete is exceptionally complicated. A multitude of simple rules, formulae, and tables for designing reinforced-concrete ...
-257. Statics Of Plain Homogeneous Beams
As a preliminary to the theory of the use of reinforced concrete in beams, a very brief discussion will be given of the statics of an ordinary homogeneous beam.
-258. Economy Of Concrete For Compression
The ultimate compressive strength of concrete is generally 2,000 pounds or over per square inch. With a factor of safety of four, a working stress of 500 ...
-259. Economy Of Steel For Tension
The ultimate tensile strength of ordinary concrete is rarely more than 200 pounds per square inch. With a factor of safety of four, this would allow a working ...
-260. Elasticity Of Concrete In Compression
In computing the transverse stresses in a wooden beam or steel I-beam, it is assumed that the modulus of elasticity is uniform for all stresses within the ...
-261. Theoretical Assumptions
The theory of reinforced-con-crete beams is based on the usual assumptions that: (a) The loads are applied at right angles to the axis of the beam. The usual ...
-262. Summation Of The Compressive Forces
The summation of the compressive forces is evidently indicated by the area of the shaded portion in Fig. 97. The curve v N is a portion of a parabola. The area ...
-263. Center Of Gravity Of Compressive Forces
This is also called the centroid of compression. The theoretical determination of this center of gravity is virtually the same as the determination of the ...
-264. Position Of The Neutral Axis
According to one of the fundamental laws of mechanics, the sum of the horizontal tensile forces must be equal and opposite to the sum of the compressive forces.
-265. Ratio Of Moduli
Theoretically there is an indefinite number of values of r, the ratio of the moduli of elasticity of the steel and the concrete. The modulus for steel is ...
-266. Percentage Of Steel
The previous calculations have been made as if the percentage of the steel might be varied almost indefinitely. While there is considerable freedom of choice, ...
-267. Resisting Moment
The moment which resists the action of the external forces is evidently measured by the product of the distance from the center of gravity of the steel to the ...
-269. Determination Of Values For Frequent Use
The above methods of calculation may be somewhat simplified by the determination, once for all, of constants which are in frequent use. For example, a very ...
-270. Straight-Line Formulae
The working unit-compressions for even the best grade of concrete are seldom allowed to exceed 600 pounds per square inch. An inspection of Fig. 93 will show ...
-271. Determination Of Values For Frequent Use
For 1:3:5 concrete, using as before r = 12, and with a working value for c = 500, and s = 16,000, we find from Equation 28 that the economical percentage of ...
-273. Table For Slab Computation
The necessity of very frequently computing the required thickness of slabs, renders very useful a table such as is shown in Table XVI, which has been worked ...
-274. Practical Methods Of Spacing Slab Bars
It is too much to expect of workmen that bars will be accurately spaced when their distance apart is expressed in fractions of an inch. But it is a ...
-275. Table For Computation Of Simple Beams
In Table XVII has been computed for convenience the ultimate total load on rectangular beams made of average concrete (1:3:5) and with a width of 1 inch. For ...
-276. Resistance To The Slipping Of The Steel In The Concrete
The previous discussion has considered merely the tension and compression in the upper and lower sides of the beam. A plain, simple beam resting freely on two ...
-277. Computation Of The Bond Required In Bars
From Equation 19 we have the formula that the resisting moment at any point in the beam equals the area of the steel, times the unit tensile stress in the ...
-278. Distribution Of Vertical Shears
Beams which are tested to destruction frequently fail at the ends of the beams, long before the transverse strength at the center has been fully developed.
-279. Methods Of Guarding Against Failure By Shear Or Diagonal Tension
The failure of a beam by actual shear is almost unknown. The failures usually ascribed to shear are generally caused by diagonal tension. A solution of the ...
-280. Detailed Design Of A Plain Beam
This will be illustrated by a numerical example. A beam having a span of 18 feet supports one side of a 6-inch slab 8 feet wide which carries a live load of ...
-281. Effect Of Quality Of Steel
There is one very radical difference between the behavior of a concrete-steel structure and that of a structure composed entirely of steel, such as a truss ...
-282. Slabs On I-Beams
There are still many engineers who will not adopt reinforced concrete for the skeleton structure of buildings, but who construct the frames of their buildings ...
-283. Reinforcement Against Temperature Cracks
The modulus of elasticity of ordinary concrete is approximately 2,400,000 pounds per square inch, while its ultimate tensional strength is about 200 pounds per ...
-Strength Of T-Beams
284. When concrete beams are laid in conjunction with overlying floor-slabs, the concrete for both the beams and the slabs being laid in one operation, the ...
-285. Resisting Moments Of T-Beams
These will be computed in accordance with straight-line formulae. There are three possible cases, according as the neutral axis is: (1) below the bottom of the ...
-289. Width Of Flange
The width (b') of the flange is usually considered to be equal to the width between adjacent beams, or that it extends from the middle of one panel to the ...
-290. Width Of Rib
Since it is assumed that all of the compression occurs in the slab, the only work done by the concrete in the rib is to transfer the tension in the steel to ...
-291. Numerical Illustrations Of T-Beams
Example1. Assume flint a 5-inch slab is supporting a load on beams spaced 8 feet apart, the beams having a span of 20 feet. Assume that the moment of the beam ...
-292. Approximate Formulae
A great deal of T-beam computation is done on the basis that the center of pressure of the concrete is at the middle of the slab, and therefore that the lever- ...
-293. Shearing Stresses Between Beam And Slab
Every solution for T-beam construction should be tested at least to the extent of knowing that there is no danger of failure on account of the shear between ...
-295. Shear In A T-Beam
The shear here referred to is the shear of the beam as a whole on any vertical section. It does not refer to the shearing stresses between the slab and the rib.
-296. Numerical Illustration Of Slab, Beam, And Girder Construction
Assume a floor construction as outlined in skeleton form in Fig. 107. The columns are spaced 16 feet by 20 feet. Girders which support the alternate rows of ...
-296. Numerical Illustration Of Slab, Beam, And Girder Construction. Continued
The total required area of 5.08 square inches may be divided into, say, 8 round bars 7/8 inch in diameter. These would have an area of 4.81 square inches. The ...
-297. Simple Footings
When a definite load, such as a weight carried by a column, is to be supported on a subsoil whose bearing power has been estimated at some definite figure, the ...
-298. Continuous Beams
Continuous beams are sometimes used to save the expense of underpinning an adjacent foundation or wall. These footings are designed as simple beams, but the ...
-299. Beam Footing
When a simple footing supports a single column, the center of pressure of the column must pass vertically through the center of gravity of the footing, or ...
-300. Essential Principles
The economy of a retaining wall of reinforced concrete lies in the fact that by adopting a skeleton form of construction and utilizing the tensional and ...
-302. Base-Plate
We shall assume that the base-plate has a width of one-half the height of the wall, or is 10 feet wide. If the inner face of the face-plate is 2 feet 6 inches ...
-303. Buttresses
The total pressure on a vertical strip one foot wide is 6,400 pounds. For a panel of 15 feet, this equals 96,000 pounds; and its moment about the base of the ...
-304. L-Shaped Retaining Walls
Retaining walls of very moderate height may be constructed in L-shaped sections without buttresses, by thickening the walls at the base, and by using ...
-305. General Principles
The practical applications of the principles of reinforced concrete which have already been discussed, have been almost exclusively those required for ...
-306. Curtain Walls
Vertical walls which are not intended to carry any weight, are sometimes made of reinforced concrete. They are then called curtain walls, and are designed ...
-307. Box Culverts
The permanency of concrete, and particularly reinforced concrete, has caused its adoption in the construction of culverts of all dimensions, from a cross- ...
-309. Methods Of Reinforcement
The laws of mechanics, as well as experimental testing on full-sized columns of various structural materials, show that very short columns, or even those whose ...
-310. Design Of Columns
It may be demonstrated by theoretical mechanics, that if a load is jointly supported by two kinds of material with dissimilar elasticities, the proportion of ...
-311. Hooped Columns
It has been found that the strength of a column is very greatly increased and even multiplied by surrounding the column by numerous hoops or bands or by a ...
-312. Effect Of Eccentric Loading Of Columns
It is well known that if a load on a column is eccentric, its strength is considerably less than when the resultant line of pressure passes through the axis of ...
-313. Design
The extreme durability of reinforced-concrete tanks, and their immunity from deterioration by rust, which so quickly destroys steel tanks, have resulted in the ...
-316. Imperfections
To give a satisfactory finish to exposed surfaces of concrete is a rather difficult problem. Usually, when the forms are taken down, the surface of the ...
-317. Plastering
Plastering is not usually successful, although there are cases where a mixture of equal parts of cement and sand has apparently been successful; and when ...
-318. Mortar Facing
The following method has been adopted by the New York Central Railroad for giving a good finish to exposed concrete surfaces: The forms of 2-inch tongued-and- ...
-319. Masonry Facing
Concrete surfaces may be finished to represent ashlar masonry. The process is similar to stone-dressing; and any of the forms of finish employed for cut stone ...
-320. Stone Or Brick Facing
A facing of stone or brick is frequently used for reinforced concrete, and is a very satisfactory solution of the problem of finish. The same care is required ...
-321. Granolithic Finish
Several concrete bridges in Philadelphia have been finished according to the following specifications; and their appearance is very satisfactory: Granolithic ...
-322. The Acid Treatment
This treatment consists in washing the surface of the concrete with diluted acid, then with an alkaline solution. The diluted acid is applied first, to remove ...
-323. Dry Mortar Finish
The dry mortar method consists of a dry, rich mixture, with finely crushed stone. The concrete is usually composed of 1 part cement, 3 parts sand, and 3 parts ...
-324. Cast Slab Veneer
Cast concrete slab veneer can be made of any desired thickness or size. It is set in place like stone veneer, with the remainder of the concrete forming the ...
-325. Mouldings And Ornamental Shapes
Concrete is now in demand in ornamental shapes for buildings and bridges. They may be either constructed in place, or moulded in sections and placed the same ...
-326. Colors For Concrete Finish
Coloring matter has not been used very extensively in concrete work, except in ornamental work. It has not been very definitely determined what coloring ...
-Colored Mortars
Colors Given to Portland Cement Mortars Containing Two Parts River Sand to One Part Cement Dry Material Used Weight of Dry Coloring Matter to 100 Lbs. of ...
-328. Finish For Floors
Floors in manufacturing buildings are often finished with a 1-inch coat of cement and sand, which is usually mixed in the proportions of 1 part cement to 1 ...
-329. Efflorescence
The white deposit found on the surface of concrete, brick, and stone masonry is called efflorescence. It is caused by the leaching of certain lime compounds, ...
-330. Laitance
Laitance is whitish, spongy material that is washed out of the concrete when it is deposited in water. Before settling on the concrete, it gives the water a ...
-331. Concrete Plant
No general rule can be given for laying out a plant for concrete work. Every job is generally a problem by itself, and usually requires a careful analysis to ...
-332. Concrete Mixers
The best concrete mixer is the one that turns out the maximum of thoroughly mixed concrete at the minimum of cost for power, interest, and maintenance. The ...
-333. Automatic Measures For Concrete Materials
Mechanical measuring machines for concrete materials have not been very extensively developed. One difficulty is that they require the constant attention of an ...
-334. Source Of Power
In each case the source of power for operating the mixer, conveyors, hoists, derricks, or cableways must be considered. If it is possible to run the machinery ...
-335. Power For Mixing Concrete
A vertical steam engine is generally used to operate the mixer. The smaller sizes of engines and mixers are mounted on the same frame; but on account of the ...
-336. Gasoline Engines
Gasoline engines are used to some extent to operate concrete mixers. Their use so far has been limited chiefly to portable plants such as are used for street ...
-338. Friction Crab Hoist
A friction crab hoist of the Ransome type is illustrated in Fig. 135. The same engine that drives the mixer can be used to operate the crab hoist. By means of ...
-339. Electric Motors
Very often the cycle of operation of a hoist is of an intermittent character. The power required is at a Table XX. Tables Of Sizes Of The Lambert Hoisting ...
-340. Hoisting Lumber And Steel
In constructing large rein-forced-concrete buildings, usually a separate hoist is used to hoist the steel and lumber for the forms. This hoist may be equipped ...
-341. Hoisting Buckets
In building construction, concrete is usually hoisted in automatic dumping buckets. The bucket is designed to slide up and down a light framework of timber, as ...
-342. Charging Mixers
The mixers are usually charged by means of wheelbarrows, although other means are sometimes used. Fig. 140 shows the type of wheelbarrow generally used for ...
-343. Transporting Concrete
Concrete is usually transported by wheelbarrows, carts, cars, or derricks, although other means are frequently used. It is essential, in handling or ...
-344. Boilers
Upright tubular boilers are generally used to supply steam for concrete mixers and hoists operated by steam engines, when they are isolated. For the smaller ...
-346. Plant For Ten-Story Building
The plant used by Cramp & Company in constructing a reinforced-concrete building for the Boyertown Burial Casket Company, Philadelphia, will be described, to ...
-347. Plant For The Locust Realty Company Building
The plant used for constructing a five-story reinforced-concrete building, 117 feet by 200 feet, for the Locust Realty Company, by Moore & Company, Inc., is a ...
-348. Concrete Plant For Street Work
A self-propelling mixing and spreading machine has been found very desirable for laying concrete base for street pavements. Fig. 148 illustrates a plant of ...
-349. Concrete Block Machines
There are two general types of hollow concrete block machines on the market - those with a vertical face and those with a horizontal face. In making blocks ...
-350. Sand Washing
It becomes necessary sometimes to wash dirty sand when clean sand can be secured only at a high cost, while the dirty sand can be easily obtained. If only a ...
-351. General Requirements
In actual construction work, the cost of forms is a large item of expense and offers the best field for the exercise of ingenuity. For economical work, the ...
-352. Forms For Columns
In constructing columns, the forms are usually erected complete, the full height of the columns; and concrete is dumped in at the top. The concrete must be ...
-354. Forms For Locust Realty Company Building
The forms used in constructing the building for the Locust Realty Company (the mixing plant has already been described), present one rather unusual feature.
-355. Cost Of Forms For Buildings
An analysis of the cost of forms for an eight-story building is given by R. E. Lamb (Concrete Engineering, December, 1907). The basis of his estimate is made ...
-356. Cost Of Forms For Garage
Some interesting cost data are given by Mr. Reygondeau de Gratresse, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. (Engineering-Contracting, October 30, 1907), on the cost of forms ...
-357. An Adjustable Clamp
Fig. 164 illustrates an adjustable clamp for holding forms together. It is commonly used to hold the plank forming the sides of a beam or girder in place; it ...
-358. Forms For Conduits And Sewers
Forms for conduits and sewers must be strong enough not to give way, or to become deformed, while the concrete is being placed and rammed; and must be rigid ...
-360. The Blaw Steel Forms
The Blaw collapsible steel forms,asshown in Fig. 167, appear to be the only successful steel forms so far in general use. There have been many attempts to ...
-Centers For Arches
362. The centers for stone, plain concrete, and reinforced-concrete arches are constructed in a similar manner. A reinforced-concrete arch of the same span and ...
-363. Classes Of Centers
There are two general classes of centers - those which act as a truss; and those in which the support, at the intersection of braces, rests on a pile or ...
-364. Safe Stresses In Lumber For Wooden Forms
In Table XXI are given the safe loads which may be placed on beams of long-leaf yellow pine, of various depths, on various spans. *From Handbook of the Cambria ...
-366. Safe Loads On Wooden Columns
The values given in Table XXII are based on the formula: P = Fx700+ 15c 700 + 15c + c2 in which, P = Ultimate strength of timber in pounds per square inch; F = ...
-367. Form For Arch At 175th Street, New York
In constructing the 175th Street Arch in New York City, the forms were built so that they could be easily moved. The arch is elliptical and is built of hard- ...
-309. Bending Details
The full bending details of the bars should be made before the reinforcing steel is ordered for any rein-forced-concrete work that is to be constructed. It has ...
-370. Tables For Bending Bars
The usual outfit for bending the bars cold consists of a strong table, a vise, and a lever with two short prongs. The outline to which the bar is to be bent is ...
-371. The Hunt Bender
The bar-bending device shown in Fig. 175 was devised by Mr. R. S. Hunt, C. E., and has been used by him to bend 1 1/4-inch bars. In bending bars of this size, ...
-372. Beams And Girders
Fig. 176 shows the bending details of the bars for a beam or girder in which six bars are required for the reinforcement three of which are turned up, one at a ...
-373. Slab Bars
To secure the advantage of a continuous slab, it is very often required that a percentage of the slab bars, usually one-half, shall be turned up over each beam.
-374. Stirrups
Fig. 180 shows the bending of the bars for stirrups. The ends of the stirrups rest on the forms and support the beam bars, which assist in keeping these bars ...
-375. Column Bands
In Fig. 181 two types of column bands are shown. Type a shows bands for a square or a round column; and type b, bands for a rectangular column. The bar which ...
-376. Spacers
Fig. 182, Spacers for holding the bars in place in beams and girders, have been successfully used. These spacers are made of heavy sheet iron. They are ...
-377. Unit-Frames
Among the patented methods of fastening the bars together for beams and girders, is the Unit Girder Frame System. The loose bars are bent and made into a frame ...
-Bonding Old And New Concrete
The place and manner of making breaks or joints in floor construction at the end of a day's work, is a subject that has been much discussed by engineers and ...
-378. Methods Of Making Bonds
First Method. Fig. 184 shows a sectional view of one method of making a break at the end of the day's work, which has been used very extensively and ...
-381. Buck Building
Fig. 187 shows the typical structural floor-plan, above the first floor, of a building constructed for .J. C. Buck at Fifth and Appletree Streets, Philadelphia.
-Completed Concrete Piles
The five piles in the center are to serve as the foundation for a chimney. A comparison with the barrel shown in the picture will give an accurate idea of the ...
-382. Mershon Building
Fig. 193 shows the plan of the foundations and the typical layout of the structural members for each floor of a building constructed by Cramp & Company on the ...
-383. Erben-Harding Company Building
The exterior and interior of a factory building, designed and constructed by Wm. Steele & Sons Company for the Erben-Harding Company, Philadelphia, are shown ...
-384. Swarthmore Shop Building
In constructing the new shop building at Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, in 1906, concrete blocks were used for the side walls, and the floors ...
-385. Apartment House
In designing a reinforced-concrete apartment house which was constructed at Juniper and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, it was desirable to have a floor system ...
-387. The Mcgraw Building
The McGraw Building, New York City, completed in 1907, is a good example of a reinforcedconcrete building. The building has a frontage of 126 feet and a depth ...
-388. Fridenberg Building
In Fig. 206 are shown the plans of stairs constructed in the Fridenberg building at 908 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. This building is 24 feet by 60 feet, and ...
-389. General Electric Company Building
An interesting feature of a large reinforced-concrete building constructed for the General Electric Company at Fort Wayne, Ind.,is the design of the lintels.
-390. Water-Basin And Circular Tanks
Figs. 208 and 209 illustrate sections of the walls of the pure water basin and the 50-foot circular tanks which have been partly described in Part I under the ...
-392. Bronx Sewer, New York
In Fig. 211 is shown a section of one of the branch sewers that is being constructed in the Borough of the Bronx, New York City. A large part of this sewer is ...
-393. Girder Bridge
The reinforced-concrete bridge shown in Fig. 212 was constructed near Allentown, Pennsylvania, in 1907. Fig. 212, Girder Bridge near Allentown, Pa. This type ...
-Masonry And Reinforced Concrete. Part V. Theory Of Arches
394. The mechanics of the arch are almost invariably solved by a graphical method, or by a combination of the graphical method with numerical calculations.
-398. Statics Of A Linear Arch
We shall assume that the lines in Fig. 215 by which we have represented forces F, G, H, and K represent struts which are hinged at their intersections with the ...
-399. Graphical Demonstration Of Laws Of Statics By Student
The student should test all this work in Statics by drawing figures very carefully and on a large scale, in accordance with the general instructions as ...
-400. Equilibrium Polygon With Horizontal Closing Lines
In Fig. 216, have been drawn the same forces A, B, and C, having the same relative positions as in Fig. 215. The lines of action of the two vertical forces R' ...
-401. Equilibrium Polygon For Non-Vertical Forces
The above method is rendered especially simple, owing to the fact that the forces are all vertical. When the forces are not vertical, the method becomes more ...
-402. Definitions Of Terms Pertaining To Arch Masonry
The following are definitions of technical terms frequently used in connection with the subject of arch masonry (see Fig. 218): Abutment - The masonry which ...
-Kinds Of Arches
403. Arches are variously described according to the shape of the intrados, and also according to the form of the soffit: Basket-Handled Arch - One whose ...
-Voussoir Arches
404. Definition A voussoir arch is an arch composed of separate stones, called voussoirs, which are so shaped and designed that the line of pressures between ...
-405. Distribution Of The Pressure Between Two Voussoirs
The unit-pressure on any joint is assumed to varv in accordance with the location of the center of pressure, as is illustrated in Fig. 219. In the first case, ...
-407. Depth Of Keystone
The proper depth of keystone for an arch should theoretically depend on the.total pressure on the keystone of the arch as developed from the force diagram; and ...
-409. Plotting The Reduced Load Line
We shall assume that the earth or cinder fill on top of the arch has a thickness of one foot at the crown, and that it is level on top. We shall also assume ...
-410. Drawing The Load Line For The First Condition Of Loading
When the load is uniformly distributed over the entire arch, the load is symmetrical, and we need to consider only one-half of the arch. The sections of the ...
-412. Test For The Third Condition, Involving Concentrated Load
The method of making this test is exactly similar to that previously given; but on account of a load eccentrically placed, the force diagram will be more ...
-414. Location Of True Equilibrium Polygon
In the above demonstration, it is assumed that the true equilibrium polygon will pass through the center of each abutment, and also through the center of the ...
-415. Design Of Abutments
The force diagram of Fig. 223, which shows the pressures between the voussoirs of the arch, also gives, for any condition of loading, the pressure of the last ...
-417. Determination Of Load On A Voussoir
The previous determinations have been confined to arches which are assumed to be acted on solely by vertical forces. For flat segmental arches, or even for ...
-417. Determination Of Load On A Voussoir. Part 2
Fig. 226. Resultant Forces Acting on Voussoirs of a Full-Centered Arch. We shall assume that the arch carries a railroad track and a heavy class of traffic.
-417. Determination Of Load On A Voussoir. Part 3
Forces Nos. 1 to 17 are drawn in the force diagram of Fig. 227 at the scale of 4,000 pounds per inch. Forces 1 to 8, inclusive, have a resultant whose ...
-419. Intensity Of Pressures On The Voussoirs Of The Arch
An inspection of the equilibrium polygon for the first condition of loading, shows that it passes everywhere within the middle third. The maximum total ...
-420. Stability Of The Pier Between The Arches
The stability of the pier on the right-hand side of the arch in Fig. 227, is determined on the assumption of the concentrated locomotive loading on the left- ...
-421. Technical Meaning
All of the previous demonstrations in arches have been made on the basis that the arch is made up of voussoirs, which are acted on only by compressive forces.
-422. Advantages And Economy
The durability of concrete, and the perfect protection that it affords to the reinforcing steel which is buried in it, give a great advantage to these ...
-423. Elements Of Integral Calculus
It has been found impracticable to develop the theory of elastic arches without employing some of the fundamental principles of integral calculus; but an ...
-424. Classification Of Arch Ribs
Arch ribs may be classified in three ways: first, those which have fixed ends and no hinges; second, those which have a hinge or joint at each end; and third ...
-426. Moment Of Inertia Of Any Section
Assume that Fig. 229 represents a portion of the cross-section of an arch at any point, the particular portion having a total depth h equal to the thickness of ...
-428. Position Of VM
We may locate vm by satisfying Equation 51, which may be written dxz = 0. But this integral is represented by the shaded area (Fig. 231), which is the ...
-429. Weight And Thickness Of Arch
Theoretically, this should be known before any calculations are made; but since the weight of filling and pavement are always large, and their unit-weight is ...
-430. Intrados
The span and rise are frequently predetermined. Fortunately this method is applicable to almost any form of curve, if the change in curvature is not too ...
-431. Dimensions Of Arch
We shall apply the above principles to the design of a segmental arch having a span of 60 feet and a rise of 15 feet. To find the radius for the intrados which ...
-432. Position Of Vm
When the center line of the rib is a parabola, we may lay off vm by drawing it at a height 2/3 of the rise above the line OB. Even when it is a circle, it is ...
-433. Laying Off The Load Line
We shall assume that the arch carries a filling of earth or cinders weighing 100 pounds per cubic foot, that the top of this filling is level, and that it has ...
-434. Trial Equilibrium Polygon
Commencing at the point 0, we draw the segments of the trial equilibrium polygon parallel with the rays in the force diagram which run from the point O1 ,to ...
-435. Pole Distance Of The True Equilibrium Polygon
It is necessary to satisfy Equation 58. We shall consider in this case that the various points in the arch-rib curve and in the special equilibrium y z' yz' z' ...
-436. Locating The True Equilibrium Polygon
We know that the segments of the true equilibrium polygon must be parallel with the rays of the force diagram which has its pole at O3, and also that it must ...
-437. Maximum Moment Under This Loading
An inspection of the diagram shows what might be expected, that the maximum moment occurs on the right-hand side of the arch, nearly under the center of the ...
-438. Maximum Thrust Due To This Loading
The thrust at airy-point of the arch is measured by the projection onto the tangent to the arch at that point, of the corresponding ray of the force diagram.
-439. Shear At Any Section
The shear at any section is measured by the projection onto the normal to the arch rib, of the corresponding ray of the force diagram. It is seldom that the ...
-440. Temperature Stresses
The provision which should be made for temperature stresses in a concrete arch, is often a very serious matter, for the double reason that the stresses are ...
-441. Stresses Due To Rib Shortening
The compression in a rib results in shortening the arch rib very slightly; and this produces precisely the same effect in altering the moment as an equivalent ...
-442. Testing This Arch For Other Loading
A live load of 200 pounds per square foot over the entire arch would unquestionably increase the thrust over the entire arch, especially at the abutments. The ...
-443. Testing An Arch With Variable Moments Of Inertia
It has already been indicated how the equations on which the arch theory is based may be simplified when the moment of inertia is constant. The above problem ...
-444. General Principles
The construction of hinged arches of reinforced concrete is very rare, but is not unknown, and will probably come into greater use when their advantages are ...
-445. Arch Of Two Hinges
The third of Equations 48 must be satisfied, which practically means that Equation 54 must be satisfied. This means that we must find a trial equilibrium ...
-447. Description Of Two Reinforced-Concrete Arches
In Figs. 234 and 235 are shown the details and sections of two reinforced-concrete arches having fixed abutments, which have been recently erected. The first ...
-448. Stone Arch
In Fig. 236 is shown a stone arch on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad at Pelhamville, N. Y. This arch was constructed over a highway, and the length ...
-Practical Masonry And Reinforced Concrete Test Questions
In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of the various methods ...
-Foreword Vol5
MADISON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY. McKim, Mead & White. Architects, New York. For plan, see next succeeding plate. PLAN OF MADISON SQUARE ...
-Table Of Contents V5
VOLUME V Steel Construction . . . . By E. A. Tucker Page *11 Structural Elements of a Building - The Enclosing Walls - Interior Columns and Bearing Partitions - ...
-Steel Construction. Part I. The Structural Elements Of A Building
From the structural point of view, a building consists of the following parts: 1. The foundations. 2. The enclosing walls. 3. The columns and bearing ...
-The Enclosing Walls
Exterior walls, in general, are of five kinds: 1. Masonry walls of brick or stone, supporting their own weight and the adjacent floor and roof loads. 2.
-Interior Columns And Bearing Partitions
These are classed together because, either jointly or separately, they serve to carry to the foundations the portion of the loads not carried by the wall ...
-The Floors
The elements of the floor are: 1. The arch, which receives the load directly. . 2. The beams, between which the arch springs. 3. The girders, carrying the ...
-The Roof
A roof is essentially the same as a floor as regards the elements of construction. Its peculiar features are the pitch, openings for skylights, etc., support ...
-Use Of Handbooks On Steel
The steel used in a building is in the form of single pieces, or combinations of one or more pieces, to which the general term shapes is applied. All shapes ...
-Use Of Handbooks On Steel. Continued
Fig.37. COVER ANGLE. Fig.38 OBTUSE ANGLE. Fig.39 SAFE ANGLE. The square root angles are used where it is necessary to eliminate the fillet. The cover angles ...
-Use Of Tables
Since all steel designs are dependent upon the use of the foregoing shapes, it will be seen that it is necessary to refer constantly to tables containing their ...
-Use Of Tables. Part 2
In practice, spans not exceeding twenty times the flange width are not considered to require side support. In some cases there must be made still another ...
-Use Of Tables. Part 3
If the fibre stress in the beam due to the loading was less than 16,000, the deflection would be obtained by multiplying the result given in the table by the ...
-Use Of Tables. Part 4
These different functions can all be calculated quite readily, and it is important that the student should understand how these are obtained. For this purpose ...
-Use Of Tables. Part 5
Since the radius of gyration depends on the moment of inertia and the area of section, it follows that for a given section, the radius of gyration about two ...
-Building Laws And Specifications
The requirements of the Building Departments of different cities vary considerably as regards detail matters, but are in quite close agreement on points ...
-Building Laws And Specifications. Continued
One reason for this variation in factors of safety for different materials is that certain materials vary more than others in their internal structure; and ...
-The Steel Frame
The problems to be met with in laying out the steel frame and designing the different elements are never twice the same but, vary with each special case.
-The Steel Frame. Continued
The location and position of the main interior columns having thus been fixed, the next thing is to locate any columns whose position is dependent on special ...
-Fireproof And Fire-Resisting Materials
The functions of fire-resisting materials are threefold: 1. To carry loads. 2. To protect all structural steel 3. To serve as noncombustible partitions or ...
-Floor And Roof Arches
Terra Cotta Floor and Roof Arches. Burnt-clay products include brick, porous tile, and hard or dense tile. The latter two are commonly called terra cotta. The ...
-Floor And Roof Arches. Part 2
Plate III shows types of Expanded Metal Floor Construction. Fig. 54 shows System No. 9, which can be adapted to long spans. It is not the general type of this ...
-Floor And Roof Arches. Part 3
The strength of this system is considered to be simply that of the concrete arch, the wire center being intended merely for the support of the concrete until ...
-Floor And Roof Arches. Part 4
The Building Departments of all cities have required special and severe tests of full-sized arches to be made before allowing any of the types to be used in ...
-Floor And Roof Arches. Part 5
The results of some tests made under different conditions are here given: A fire and water test on a concrete expanded metal floor composed of 6 1/2 inches of ...
-Selection Of System
Not any single system, probably, would be used in all cases even if the designer were to choose without any conditions affecting his selection. Some systems ...
-Hollow Brick Fob Flat Arches
Width of Span Between Beams. Depth of Arch. Weight per Square Foot, 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet 0 inches. 6 inches. 27 pounds. 4 0 ,, 4 6 ,, 7 ,, 29 ,, 4 6 ,, 5 ...
-Partitions
Partitions are of terra cotta, wire lath and plaster, and plaster board. Illustrations of each are given by Plate VI, Figs. 71 to 77. The element of strength ...
-Partitions. Continued
The wire lath partitions cannot be considered fireproof until they are plastered. Here, accordingly, the plaster forms an essential feature of the partition; ...
-Steel Construction. Part II. Beams And Girders
Determination of Loads, The first step in the calculatior of a beam or girder is to determine the exact amount of load to be carried, and its distribution.
-Steel Construction. Part II. Beams And Girders. Part 2
If the wall is solid above the opening for a height greater than the span of the opening, the masonry, if of brick, will arch to some extent and thus relieve ...
-Steel Construction. Part II. Beams And Girders. Part 3
YOUNGLOVE BUILDING, EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVELAND, OHIO. Watterson & Schneider, Architects, Cleveland, Ohio. This Structure, Built in 1906 at a Cost of about $40, ...
-Steel Construction Problems For Practice
1. Given a 15-inch 60-lb. beam on a span, center to center of bearings, of 22 feet 6 inches. Required the safe load uniformly distributed at a fibre stress of ...
-Columns
A column ordinarily has to carry only vertical loads. There are conditions in which it has to resist lateral forces, but these will be taken up under the heads ...
-Columns. Part 2
To facilitate the erection, connections of beams to columns should always be by a shelf having the proper shear angles under, rather than by side connections.
-Columns. Part 3
Plate IX. COLUMN Schedule Story heights. Cols. Nos 1.2.3.4.7.9.11. 12.13.1718.20. 21.22.26 Cols. Nos 5.6.8.10.14.15. 16,19.23.24.25. 27.28.34 Cols. Nos 29. 30.
-Trusses
For spans under 35 feet, a riveted or beam girder is ordinarily-more economical than a truss, unless the conditions of loading are peculiar. Selection of Type.
-Connections And Details Of Framlng
Figs. 121 to 126 show types of connections of beams to girders and columns. Connections to girders are nearly always of these standard forms, which are the ...
-Connections And Details Of Framlng. Part 2
TYPICAL FLOOR-PLAN OF STEEL WORK IN OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY, CHICAGO. Frost & Granger, Architects; E. C. & R. M.
-Connections And Details Of Framlng. Part 3
In inspecting cast iron, tests must be made to determine whether or not it comes up to the requirements of the specifications as regards quality. Inspection ...
-Connections And Details Of Framlng. Part 4
Each piece must be detailed fully, with cuts, punchings, and framings clearly shown. In general, a standard size beam sheet, column sheet, and girder sheet are ...
-Carnegie Steel Company
Fig. 149. Individual estimators have different methods of separating the different classes of material. The following are the general divisions of material: I.
-Foundations
There are three general types of foundations. (1) Spread foundations. (2) Foundations to bed rock by piers or caissons. (3) Pile foundations. The form of ...
-Foundations. Part 2
The factor of safety should be from 2 to 12, varying with the accuracy of the knowledge of the loads to be carried and with the closeness with which the ...
-Foundations. Part 3
Moist clay in inclined strata is liable to slide when loaded. Clay mixed with sand or gravel will bear more load than pure clay. Sand will bear more load than ...
-Foundations. Part 4
While the concrete and imbedded steel beams in a footing are undoubtedly much stronger than the simple beams, it is not customary to figure the beams in such ...
-High Building Construction
Origin of the Types. Iron has been employed extensively in buildings for many years. The first building in this country of what is now known as the skeleton ...
-High Building Construction. Continued
The effect of wind blowing against the exposed surface of a building is (1) To produce an overturning moment tending to tip the whole building over, (2) To ...
-Hill Building Construction
This term must not be confused with mill construction. The latter term applies to what is sometimes called slow burning construction. This is a construction ...
-Steel Construction, Part III. Definitions And Abbreviations
In all structural steel detailing certain abbreviations are so commonly used that it is essential at the outset for the student to be familiar with them. The ...
-Steel Construction, Part III. Definitions And Abbreviations. Continued
Eye Bars. These are used in pin connected trusses and structures to take care of tensile strains. The heads at each end are formed by upsetting machines and ...
-Purpose And Use Of Details
A shop drawing is a drawing which gives all the information necessary to lay out, cut, punch, and rivet the piece shown. It is the medium by which instructions ...
-Purpose And Use Of Details. Part 2
In the case of columns, girders and trusses, this practice would not do, as the details are too complicated and it is necessary to show all details exactly in ...
-Purpose And Use Of Details. Part 3
Fig. 189. It is very important to show on all shop drawings the diameter of rivets to be used in the work, and if different sizes of rivets or rivet noles for ...
-Determination Of Shearing Value Of Rivets
The resistance of a rivet to shearing along one plane is the area of the rivet multiplied by the shearing strength of the metal per unit of area. If d - the ...
-Determination Of Bearing Value Of Rivets
In this case it is the metal which bears on the rivet or which the rivet bears on, which has to be considered; this is in compression and liable to failure, ...
-Standard Connections
As previously stated, beam connections to girders and columns are generally made after standard forms for the different size beams. From an inspection of these ...
-Standard Connections. Part 2
A good many designers use only one stiifener under a beam or girder, and as the load to the stiffener comes from the outstanding leg, this brings a moment on ...
-Standard Connections. Part 3
Fig. 196. The first set of holes from the left-hand end in the web is for the connection of an 8-in. beam framed to this beam. Note that 5 5/16 in., the ...
-Detailing From Framing Plan
The student should now become familiar with detailing from a framing or setting plan. Fig. 199 shows such a plan upon which is all the information necessary to ...
-Detailing From Framing Plan. Continued
Fig. 203. Fig. 204. As the beam is a 15-in. beam, while on one side is a 12-in. terra cotta arch, it is necessary to provide an angle on this side. The bottoms ...
-Column Details
There are five main features in the detailing of a column. 1. The base or foot of the column. 2. The shaft or the line members composing the column. 3. The cap ...
-Column Details. Part 2
In the case of the web view, it is generally necessary to show what is on both sides of the web, as except in special cases, one elevation only of the web is ...
-Column Details. Part 3
Where box columns are used, it is better to keep the spacing back to back of channel the same throughout all sections. If this is less in the upper sections, ...
-Column Details. Part 4
Taking one rib and the base half way on each side between the next rib would give a section at the box, which may be taken as the fixed end, similar to Fig.
-Column Details. Part 5
10750 - 399 L r in which L = length of column in feet r = least radius of gyration. For example, suppose we wish to select a size of pipe suitable for ...
-Steel Construction. Part IV. Riveted Girders
Functions of Flanges and Web. Riveted girders are made up of two general parts (a) - the top and bottom members - which are termed, respectively, the top and ...
-Allowable Values
For Buildings: ft (tension) = 15,000 pounds per square inch, net area. fc (compression) = 12,000 pounds per square inch, gross area, reduced for ratio of ...
-Steel Construction Problems #1
1. Determine by the method previously described the bottom flange section of a girder 28 inches deep between centers of gravity of flanges, and having a ...
-Steel Construction Problems #2
1. Given a girder 50 feet long, having a flange section of two angles 6 x 4 x 1/2, and 2 cover-plates 10 x inch. Construct a parabola on this length as an axis, ...
-Steel Construction Problems #3
1. Determine the pitch at end of girder having a reaction of 60,000 pounds, with web-plate 30 inches deep and inch thick. Assume effective depth between center ...
-Steel Construction Problems #4
1. As an illustration of the use of the exact formula for pitch of rivets, the following problem will be worked out: Take the girder given in the problem ...
-Steel Construction Problems #4. Part 2
In many cases, even the loading on the girder might not be given. In such case, it would have to be calculated from the general plans showing amount and ...
-Steel Construction Problems #4. Part 3
One plate must, of course, be made the full length of the girder. The length of the other plate is determined as previously described, and a length added at ...
-Steel Construction Problems #5
Make a complete shop detail, at a scale of 3/4 inch to 1 foot, of a single-web plate girder 30 feet long clear span, resting on a brick wall at each end and ...
-Steel Construction Problems #5. Part 2
Gussets should always be cut as closely as possible, both for neatness in appearance and for saving in weight. In detailing, always show gussets, where ...
-Steel Construction Problems #5. Part 3
In a similar manner, taking moments about the intersection of the top chord and the diagonal, leaves only the moment of the bottom chord stress to be ...
-Steel Construction Problems #5. Part 4
Choosing the Sections. The fiber stresses used here are tension, 15,000 lbs.; compression, 12,000 lbs., reduced by Gordon's formula. Both top and bottom chords ...
-Steel Construction Problems #6
Determine all the stresses and suitable sizes to use for a truss loaded as shown in Fig. 283, and resting on a brick wall at each end. The load consists of ...
-Structural Drafting Part I. Drafting Room Equipment And Practice
Introduction. Structural drafting may be defined as the art of making drawings of certain objects and placing thereon dimensions and other notes which when ...
-Structural Drafting Part I. Drafting Room Equipment And Practice. Part 2
Great care should be taken in making the changes that no dimensions or other notations written upon the drawing by the checker are rubbed off. The checker then ...
-Structural Drafting Part I. Drafting Room Equipment And Practice. Part 3
A small paper clamp should be attached to the scale a short distance from the center opposite the end where the scale which the draftsman is using is situated.
-Structural Drafting Part I. Drafting Room Equipment And Practice. Part 4
In some cases tracing paper is used in making small unimportant drawings. This paper should be of good quality in order that it may stand erasing, since ...
-Ordering Of Material
Since the ordering of material is of great importance it will be discussed here somewhat at length. Although this is usually done by men of considerable ...
-Ordering Of Material. Continued
Multiple Lengths. In cases where there are several pieces of the same size and length, they may, for convenience in handling, be ordered in one piece at the ...
-Detailing - General Instructions
Lettering. In order that the drawing may give the necessary information and that no mistakes should occur in the reading of the drawing by the shopmen or ...
-Detailing - General Instructions. Part 2
Fig. 34. Guide Sheet for Obtaining Correct Slant in Letters. The only manner in which a person can become proficient in lettering is through practice. A piece ...
-Detailing - General Instructions. Part 3
Fig. 39. Correct Method of Indicating Shop Rivets. Notation Used. As stated before, the feet and inches should always be given when a multiple space is given.
-Detailing - General Instructions. Part 4
Care should be taken in case of castings to add 1/8 inch more to those values given. Rivets may have two full heads or may have one or both heads countersunk ...
-Detailing - General Instructions. Part 5
St=12,500X0.6013 = 7,510 pounds which is less than the amount required to strain its head up to the maximum allowable. Fig. 45. Drawing of Standard Rivet.
-Detailing - General Instructions. Part 6
Table XIII. Loop Bars. Allowance For One Loop. American Bridge Company Standards (All dimensions in inches) American Bridge Company practice requires the ...
-Detailing - General Instructions. Part 7
As in the case of Fig. 49c and 49d the clearances at one end will be 1/4 inch and at the other end may be more, and should be, in order that the distances l1 ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods
Detailing of Angles. The line upon which the rivets are spaced is the gauge line. The standard gauges given in Table VII should not be departed from unless ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 2
If the stress in a member is great, the number of rivets will necessarily be large. In such cases the thickness of the plate may be made thicker than 3/8 inch ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 3
Fig. 56. Methods of Determining Number of Rivets in Connection Plate from the Diagonal. Other problems may be solved in a similar manner. The rivet spacing in ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 4
Fig. 63. Method of Bringing Beams to the Same Level on Main Girders. The centers of all groups of field holes above the bottom of the beam should be given. Tie ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 5
Plate III. Work-Shop Drawing of a Roof Truss. Plate IV Work-Shop Drawing Showing Detail of Top and Bottom Lateral Bracing of a Roof Truss. 21'-10 1/2 +2 (1 1/2 ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 6
Plate V. Stress Sheet of a Single-Track Deck-Girder Span. Plate VI. Stress Sheet for Plate-Girder Span. (9) The rivet spacing curve should be constructed if it ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 7
Web Splices. Web splices may be of two forms, viz, that as indicated on Plate VIII which takes shear only, and the moment web splice. The proper manner to ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 8
Since the single gauge is used in the top flange and, according to the stress sheet, two rivet holes are taken out of each angle, it is possible to space the ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 9
After all the spacing in the cover plates has been determined, it may be necessary to change it slightly in order to allow for better spacing in the connection ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 10
Fig. 7S. Detailing of Angles in Lateral Systems. Each different angle, as in the case of stiffeners, should have a different mark. In such cases the mark is ...
-Structural Drafting. Part II. Detailing Methods. Part 11
WEST ELEVATION OF MUNICIPAL OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE CITY OF NEW YORK FROM ARCHITECT'S DRAWING. McKim, Mead and White, Architects, New York Ground Floor Plan ...
-Practical Steel Construction Test Questions
In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia, numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of* the various methods ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Steel Construction. Part I. Continued
15. Make out a bill of material for the head of the column shown by Fig. 127; scene measurements, assuming drawing to be made to a scale of one inch equal to ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Structural Drafting Part I
1. Define engineer of plant, chief draftsman, squad boss, and tracers, and give their duties. 2. How is the work handled in a drafting room? 3. Describe the ...
-Foreword Vol6
HOME FOR KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS, DECATUR, ILL. H. V. von Hoist and Lorin A. Rawson. Architects, Chicago, III. Reproduced from competition drawing. For plan, see ...
-Mechanical Drawing. Part I
The subject of mechanical drawing is of great interest and importance to all mechanics and engineers. Drawing is a method of showing graphically the minute ...
-Mechanical Drawing. Part I. Part 2
In using a very hard lead pencil a light pressure should be used as otherwise the chisel edge will make a deep impression in the paper which cannot be erased.
-Mechanical Drawing. Part I. Part 3
Fig. 11. Testing 45 Angle (45 Triangle). Triangles are used in drawing lines at right angles to the T-square, Fig. 12, and at an angle with the horizontal, Fig.
-Mechanical Drawing. Part I. Part 4
Fig. 20. Compasses Set for Drawing Circles. Fig. 21. Details of Compass Joint. Fig. 22. Pentagonal Shank and Socket. Fig. 23. Circular Shank and Socket. In ...
-Mechanical Drawing. Part I. Part 5
Scales. The scales used for obtaining measurements on drawings are made in several forms, the most convenient being the flat, with beveled edges, and the ...
-Mechanical Drawing Part II. Geometrical Definitions
A point is used for marking position; it has neither length, breadth, nor thickness. Lines A line has length only; it is produced by the motion of a point. A ...
-Solids
A solid has three dimensions - length, breadth, and thickness. The most common forms of solids are polyedrons, cylinders, cones, and spheres. Polyedrons A ...
-Cylinders
A cylinder is a solid having as bases two equal parallel curved surfaces and as its lateral face the continuous surface generated by line connecting the bases ...
-Cones
A cone is a solid bounded by a conical surface and a plane which cuts the conical surface. It may be considered as a pyramid with an infinite number of sides, ...
-Spheres
A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface, every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the center. The diameter is a straight line ...
-Conic Sections
If a plane intersects a cone the geometrical figures thus formed are called conic sections. A plane perpendicular to the base and passing through the vertex of ...
-Odontoidal Curves
Gears have their teeth cut by a machine so as to conform to certain shapes which will bring about smoothness of running when the gears are in mesh. The curves ...
-Geometrical Problems
The problems given in Plates IV to VIII inclusive have been chosen because of their particular bearing on the work of the mechanical draftsman. They should be ...
-Problems 5 and 6. To Draw A Perpendicular To A Line Front A Point In The Line
First Method. When The Point Is Near The Middle Of The Line Draw the line A C about 3 1/2 inches long and assume the point P near the middle of the line. With ...
-Problems 8 and 9. To bisect a given angle
First Method. When The Sides Intersect Draw the lines 0 C and 0 A - about 3 inches long - forming any angle of 45 to 60 degrees. With 0 as a center and any ...
-Problems 8 and 9. To bisect a given angle. Part 2
Proof. Since the triangle 0 C D is an equilateral triangle by construction, the angle C 0 D is one-third of two right. angles and one-sixth of four right ...
-Problems 8 and 9. To bisect a given angle. Part 3
PLATE VIII MARLBORO FLAT BUILDING, MILWAUKEE, WIS. Fernekes & Cramer, Architects, Milwaukee, Wis. Walls of Continental Paving Brick; Entrances and all ...
-Mechanical Drawing Part III. Projections. Orthographic Projection
Principles. Orthographic projection is the art of representing objects by casting their outlines upon two planes at right angles to each other, so that from ...
-True Length Of Lines
In Fig. 102 is given the plan and elevation of a square pyramid standing on the horizontal plane. The height of the pyramid is the distance A B. The slanting ...
-Profile Plane
A third plane perpendicular to both coordinate planes, and hence to the ground line, is called a profile plane. This plane is vertical in position, and may be ...
-Representation Of Objects
In Fig. 108 there is represented a rectangular prism or block, whose length is twice the width. The elevation shows its height. As the prism is placed at an ...
-Rotation Of Objects
Frustum of a Square Pyramid. In Fig. 112 is shown the plan and elevation of the frustum of a square pyramid, placed with its base on the horizontal plane. If ...
-Architectural Lettering
Architectural lettering may be divided into two general classes. The first is for titling and naming drawings, as well as for such note and explanations as it ...
-Letter Forms
It may be said that practically all the lettering now used in architectural offices in this country is derived, however remotely it may seem in some cases, ...
-Letter Forms. Continued
Fig. 3. Title from Competitive Drawings for the Taunton Public Library,. Albert Randolph Ross, Architect. In drawing a letter that is to be incised in stone it ...
-Letter Composition
After acquiring a sufficient knowledge of letter forms, the student is ready to begin the study of lettering. While a knowledge of architectural beauty of form ...
-Letter Spacing
There is a workable general rule that may be given for obtaining an even color over a panel of black lettering; that is if the individual letters are so spaced ...
-Minuscule Or Shall Letters
In taking up the use of the small or minuscule letter, a word of warning may be required. While typographical work may furnish very valuable models for ...
-Architectural Inscription Lettering
The use of a regular Classic letter for any purpose necessitates the reversion to and the study of actual Classic examples for spacing and composition. In ...
-Classic Roman Letters
In any letter cut in stone, or cast in metal, it is not the outline of the letter that is seen by the eye of the observer, but the shadow cast by the section ...
-Classic Roman Letters. Continued
ALPHABET OF MODERN CAPITAL LETTERS OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CHARACTER. Suitable for cutting at a small size (i. e. 1 1/8 inches high) in stone. LETTERING FROM ...
-Gothic Lettering
Gothic lettering is extremely difficult, and has little practical use for the architectural designer or draftsman. It is often appropriate, but it is quite ...
-Drawing Examination Plates
In addition to the following Examination Plates the student is expected to make careful reproductions of the lettering in this Instruction Paper. These plates ...
-Architectural Drawing. Part I
The Study Of Architectural Drawing Includes Preparatory Work In Use Of Instruments, Mechanical Drawing, The Working Out Of Problems In Descriptive Geometry, ...
-Architectural Drawing. Part I. Continued
Two triangles are required, one 30 degrees to 60 degrees, and one of 45 degrees. Triangles are made of wood, hard rubber or celluloid. Materials for Wash= ...
-Line Drawing
Character of Line. The thickness of the line in drawing should be the same throughout its length, except occasionally in perspective rendering. The line may ...
-The Importance Of Axes In Architectural Drawing
The axis is the key of a design or of any composition. An axis in geometry is a line which separates into two equal parts any symmetrical plane figure, or the ...
-The Importance Of Axes In Architectural Drawing. Part 2
In all which has preceded, the drawing has been laid out along the lines of the axes. But besides these are some conventional methods by which the drawing of ...
-The Importance Of Axes In Architectural Drawing. Part 3
Consider, for example, two windows, one in direct elevation and the other projected at an angle. It is evident that the direct elevation permits the study of ...
-The Importance Of Axes In Architectural Drawing. Part 4
Take for example a cylindrical body like the shaft of a column. It is easy to distinguish on this cylinder cast shadows and shades. The cast shadows are those ...
-Rendering In Wash
All studies and completed exhibition drawings in the architectural schools are tinted in India ink or water-color. This is done to show the shadows, and to ...
-Method Of Procedure
Stretching Paper. All drawings on which washes are to be laid should be stretched, as described in the Mechanical Drawing, Part 1. Fig. 16. Nest of Saucers.
-Method Of Procedure. Part 2
Studio. RESIDENCE OF MRS. R. D. LAWRENCE, SPRINGFIELD, ILL. Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111. For Other Exterior Views, See Page 218. Building ...
-Method Of Procedure. Part 3
It is a good plan, before starting to render a drawing, to make a small pencil sketch to determine the tone values which the various surfaces should have, so ...
-A Few Water Color Hints For Draftsmen
Many draftsmen who are strong in drawing, are very weak in color work. The reason for this is, in most cases, that the colors are not fresh, that the brush is ...
-Preliminary Studies In Architectural Design
Methods of Study. Different designers work up their drawings in individual ways. Good results are, as a rule, accomplished by getting ideas on paper, comparing ...
-Method Of Starting A Problem At The Ecole Des Beaux Arts, Paris
At the School of Fine Arts, in Paris, when a problem is given to the students, they are obliged to work one day by themselves getting out the scheme of the ...
-Exhibition Drawings
Exhibition or show drawings consist of plans, elevations, sections, and perspectives; the drawings are in line, pencil, pen and ink, or color; and all are ...
-Sketching
We have considered drawings made on a drawing board with T-square and triangles. There is another way of drawing, that is, by sketching. The sketch is the most ...
-Measured Work
There are two occasions for making measurements of old buildings; one, when it is proposed to make alterations; the other, for the sake of study, making ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Architectural Drawing. Part I
Materials required: H H, F, and B B pencils. Erasers: A large soft rubber, and a firm one; also an ink eraser and erasing shield. Set of instruments, including ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Architectural Drawing. Part I. Continued
Plate II This plate is to be drawn three times the size of plate B. The section of the mouldings is to be drawn first, then lines drawn at an angle of 45 from ...
-Notes On Theory Of Design
Composition. It is impossible to formulate laws of composition which, even if faithfully observed, will absolutely insure satisfactory results. That is to say, ...
-Design Of The Dwelling
The plan of the modern residence began to be worked out in the 18th century. There is a treatise on architecture published at that time by Blondel, who says ...
-Various Stages In Building A House
The point where the majority of people, who know nothing about architecture, come in contact with the architect, is when they make up their minds to build ...
-Various Stages In Building A House. Continued
*Note: - There is a great difference between quarter-inch scale (i.e. 1/4 inch =1 foot) and quarter scale, or one-quarter of full size (i.e., 3 inches = 1 foot) ...
-Buildings For Offices
The plan must be laid out so as to obtain the largest possible amount of space available; it must be made with reference to the constructive requirements.
-Practical Example: A Colonial House
Conditions. A business man, having purchased a lot sufficiently large to give him space on all sides, wishes to build a colonial house containing nine rooms.
-Practical Example: A Colonial House. Part 2
Fig. 28 Basement Plan. Fig. 28 shows the basement plan of the residence. Dimensions are all given to the outside of the underpinning rubble wall, which in this ...
-Practical Example: A Colonial House. Part 3
Attic and Roof Plan. The attic, as shown in Fig. 31, is left unfinished, with the exception of the hall at the top of the back stairs. The location of the tank ...
-Practical Example: A Colonial House. Part 4
Attic Framing Plan. On this drawing (Fig. 37), the roof plate is shown, and also the location of the hard pine ledger-board. The partition caps of the story ...
-Practical Example: A Colonial House. Part 5
Fig. 44. Fig. 45. Detail of General Window Frames. Fig. 45 shows the method of laying out a full-size detail of a window box. Such a drawing is one of the ...
-Practical Example: A Colonial House. Part 6
Fig. 47. Fig. 48. Fig. 49 The sash are usually made one and three-quarters inches thick, for house construction; sometimes, in less expensive work, they are ...
-Estimating. Part I
Introductory. The ability to estimate may be considered as the dividing line between the journeyman and the master builder, for, no matter how skilful a ...
-Estimating. Part I. Continued
Approximate Estimates. Approximate estimates are obtained with varying degrees of accuracy by several methods, the most convenient and reliable of which is the ...
-Table Of Multiples
Circumference of a circle = diameter X 3.1416 Area of a circle = square of the radius X 3.1416 Area of a circle = square of the diameter X 0.7854 Area of a ...
-Measure Of Lines And Surface
1. To find the area of a parallelogram: Rule - Multiply the length by the breadth or perpendicular height. See Fig. 1 Fig. 1. 2. To find the area of a triangle: ...
-Areas Of Circles
Size Area 1/8 0.0123 1/4 0.0491 3/8 0.1104 1/2 0.1963 5/8 0.3067 3/4 0.4417 7/8 0.6013 1 0.7854 1/8 0.9940 1/4 1.227 3/8 1.484 1/2 1.767 5/8 2.073 3/4 2.405 7/ ...
-Areas Of Solids
16. To find the lateral surface of a prism: Rule - Multiply the perimeter of the base by the altitude. 17. To find the lateral surface of a regular pyramid: ...
-Solid Contents
19. To find the solid contents of a pyramid: Rule - Find the area of the base and multiply this by -J- height. 20. To find the solid contents of a cylinder: ...
-Scale Of Wages
The item of cost of labor, on construction of any kind, is at best a variable quantity, dependent to a large degree upon competition, demand, and labor ...
-Cost of Excavation
Many considerations, seen and unforeseen, enter into the cost of excavations, of which the unforeseen conditions can, at best, be only judged of, making it ...
-Stone Wall Work
Stone walls are figured either by the perch or the cubic yard. In taking off a stone foundation, it is customary to take the corners twice, that is, each ...
-Brickwork
Brickwork is usually estimated by the thousand bricks, but is sometimes priced by the cubic foot at 40 cubic feet to a thousand. A mason in one day will lay ...
-Miscellaneous Data Chimneys
Chimneys may be quickly estimated by the lineal foot of height, as follows: 1 flue 8 in. X 8 in. per Toot $0.90 with flue lining $1.10 1 8 in. X 12 in. per ...
-Flue Lining
Net price per foot, outside dimensions. 41/2 in. X 81/2 inches $.10 4 1/2 in X 13 .16 8 1/2 in. X 8 1/2 .16 8 1/2 in X 13 .22 8 1/2 in. X 171/2 inches $.32 13 ...
-Cellar Columns
For cellar support , in place of brick piers, pipe columns consisting of a steam pipe filled with cement, under a patent, are coming into general use in many ...
-Earthen Drain Pipe
For sewer and cesspool connections and general drainage, earthen vitrified drain pipes are used. These are laid in cement and, if well below frost or danger of ...
-Carpentry
The Carpenter-Work of a building includes, in general, the skeleton or frame, if a wooden building, the floor timbers, studs of partitions and walls, rafters, ...
-Miscellaneous Prices Of Lumber
LUMBER Dimension spruce lumber up to 9 inches of depth will cost at present per M., board measure. $26.00 10-inch stock, per M. 30.00 For long lengths, add per ...
-Stair-building
The trade of stair-building, while a part of the general work of joinery, is usually taken up as a separate trade and is done by men who do nothing else. For ...
-Stairs. Continued
Size 2d 3d 3 1/2 d 4d 5d 6d 7d 8d 9d 10d Length 1 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 Size 12d 20d 30d 40d 50d 60d Length 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6
-Wire Nails Adopted Dec. 1, 1896
Common, Fence, and Flooring Base 20d to 60d $2.45* * (Variable. July, 1907, $2.55.) Extras 10d to 16d $0.05 8d and 9d .10 6d and 7d .20 4d and 5d .30 3 1/2d .
-Miscellaneous Data
Broken stone filling cu. yd. $ 2.50 Cesspool 6 ft. diam. and 8 ft. deep, 8 in. brick 60.00 Blind drains per lineal ft. .12 Earthen drains 4 in. diam. per foot $ ...
-Plastering Measurements
Plastering is measured by the square yard and is usually done in 2-coat or 3-coat work. In taking off plastering it is customary to deduct only one-half of the ...
-Painting Estimations
Painting is estimated by the yard, doors and windows being taken solid to make up for the extra labor of cutting in the sashes and mouldings. Railings, fences, ...
-Covering Or Spreading Power Of Typical Paints On Wood
First Coat Second Coat Red lead 112 252 White lead 221 324 *The figures represent square feet covered by 100 lbs. of paint of the usual con sistency, applied ...
-Heating of a Building
The heating of a building is generally made the subject of a special contract. The three usual methods for house heating are, the Hot Air Furnace, the Hot ...
-Galvanized Elbows
Size 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6 7 8 Pound ........ 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 1/4 2 3/4 3 1/4 Cost.. .18 .20 .23 .25 .28 .32 .35 Tin, per Sheet DC 12 1/2x 17 .05 IX 14 x 20 .
-Hot Water And Steam Heating
In estimating for heating with hot water, all pipes and fittings must be taken off and listed, all standard radiators priced by the square foot of radiation, ...
-Plumbing Costs
So wide a range is possible in the selection and price of plumbing fixtures that no very useful data can be given for a complete installation. For instance, in ...
-Capacity Of Cisterns In Gallons, For Each Foot In Depth
Diameter in Feet Gallons 2. 23.5 2.5 36.7 3. 52.9 3.5 71.96 4. 94.02 4.5 119. 5. 146.8 5.5 177.7 6. 211.6 6.5 248.22 7. 287.84 7.5 330.48 8. 376. 8.5 424.44 ...
-Electric Work
The original contract for a house usually provides for the wiring for electric lighting and bells, but fixtures are generally left to be provided for by a ...
-Estimating. Part II
The taking-off of quantities and making-up of an actual estimate, is the end toward which our efforts are now directed. This is done, as has been said, in a ...
-Estimate Of Residence At Ridgedale, Mo For George A. Jones, Esq
Staking-out and setting batter-boards.. $15.00 Water supply during construction... 10.00 $25.00 Excavation Note. - Excavation is priced by the cubic yard; and ...
-Plastering Walls With Cement
192ft.0in. X 6ft. 7in. = l,264sq.ft. = 140sq.yds.,at$.40 $ 56.00 CESSPOOLS Leaching Cesspool - 23 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. 0 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. = 282 cu. ft. ¸ 25= 11 ...
-Electric Lighting Fixtures
Note. - While the electric lighting fixtures are not generally made a part of the building contract, it may be worth while to consider them in relation to the ...
-Schedules. Analysis Of Carpenter Work
Following is a section devoted to the analysis of the different portions of carpenter work in the foregoing estimate. These show how the prices are obtained, ...
-Review Questions. Practical Test Questions
In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of the various methods ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Architectural Drawing. Part II
1. What is the meaning of composition in architectural design? What are some of the first principles of good composition? 2. Why should a draftsman study to ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Estimating. Part I
1. (a) What will a walk of Milestone flagging 4 ft. wide and 19 ft. long cost, complete? (b) Give cost of limestone coping for an 18-inch wall on one side of ...









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