Perfuming is generally done when the paste is in the frame, as if added in the pan when the soap is hot, most of the essential oils would be volatilised. It is best to mix the colours and the perfumes together with some alcohol or glycerine, and stir well in the paste.
1. White. The best is a mixture of olive oil, 1 part; ox-suet, or tallow, 8 or 9, saponified with a ley of caustic soda, and scented after removal from the boiler. The ordinary is curd soap, scented, whilst semi-liquid, with oil of carraway, supported with a little oil of bergaroot, lavender, or origanum. To the finer qualities a little oil of cassia, or of almonds, or of the essence of musk and ambergris, is also added. The usual proportion of the mixed oils for good qualities, is 1} lb. per cwt., and 2 lbs., at the least, for the finer ones, exclusive of the alcoholic essences, if they are employed. 2. Brown. Originally this was the white variety that had become yellow and brown by age. It now only differs from the white in being coloured with a little caramel, with umber, or brown ochre. 3. Nine parts of good ox-tallow and 1 of olive oil, scented with oil of carraway, oil of lavender, and oil of rosemary, in the following proportions: hard curd soap, 100 oz.; oil of carraway, 1 oz.; oil of lavender, 1/4 oz.; oil of rosemary, 1/4 oz.
Ordinary honey soap is the finest bright-coloured yellow rosin soap, coloured by the addition of a little palm oil, or palm-oil soap, and scented with oil of rose geranium, or oil of ginger-grass, or with a little oil of ber-gamot or verbena. Some of the finer kinds are made of olive-oil soap and palm-oil soap, of each 1 part; white curd soap, 3; deepened in colour, whilst in a liquid state, with a little palm oil, or annatto, and scented with 1 to 1 1/2 oz. of essential oils to each J lb., or 1 to 1 1/2 lb. to each cwt.
1. The basis is generally a good ox-suet or tallow soap; the scent, essence of musk or oil of musk, supported with a little of the oils of berga-mot, cinnamon, and cloves. The quantity of the essence used depends on the intended fragrance of the product. The colouring matter is usually caramel. Tallow and palm-oil soap, to which add powder of cloves, roses, and gilliflowers, each 4 oz.; essence of bergamot and of musk, each 3 1/4 oz.; colour, brown ochre, 4 oz.
1. Any mild toilet soap, with which about 1/25 th to 1/20 th of its weight of glycerine has been intimately mixed whilst in the liquid state. It is generally tinged of a red or rose colour, or orange yellow. Scent with oil of bergamot or rose geranium, supported with a little oil of cassia, or cassia supported with essential oil of almonds. 2. 40 lbs. of tallow, 40 lbs. of lard, and 20 lbs. of cocoanut oil, are saponified with 45 lbs. of soda ley and 5 lbs. of potash ley of 40° Baunne, when the soap is to be made in the cold way. To the paste then add: pure glycerine, 6 lbs.; oil of Portugal, 1/2 oz.; oil of bergamot, 1/3 oz.; bitter almond oil, 5 oz.; oil of vitivert, 3 oz. 3. One hundred parts of oleine of commerce, pour it either in a glass flask if the quantity is small, or for a larger quantity into an ordinary boiler, add 314 parts of glycerine, sp. gr. 1.12, heat to a temperature of 90° Fahr., and then add 56 parts of an aqueous solution of caustic po-tassa, sp. gr. 1.34; stir the mixture well.
Keep at rest for 24 hours.
1. The best quality is usually white curd soap, with an addition of 1/9th to 1/7th of its weight of olive-oil soap, scented with essential oil of almonds in the proportion of about 1 oz. to each 4 1/2 to 5 lbs., or l 1/2 lb. to the cwt.; very fine. The addition of a little oil of cassia, say 4 or 5 oz. a cwt., improves it. Second and inferior qualities are scented with the artificial oil of almonds, instead of the genuine oil. 2. Hard white soap, 28 lbs.; essential oil of almonds, 4 1/2 oz.; reduce the soap to small shavings, and melt with the aid of a little hot water, adding the essence gradually, and with constant stirring.
1. Any white toilet soap strongly scented with essence of orris-root, either coloured, or not, with tincture of litmus, or a little levigated smalts, ultramarine, or indigo. 2. White curd soap, 3 lbs.; olive-oil soap, 1 lb.; palm-oil soap, 3 lbs.; melted together, and further scented with a little essence of orris-root, which is best added cold; and coloured, or not, at will. Very fragrant, but it does not take colour very well.
1. White curd soap, finest, 17 1/2 lbs.; olive-oil soap, 2 1/2 lbs.: oil of bergamot, 1 oz.; oil of cassia, oil of cloves, oil of sassafras, oil of thyme, of each, 1$ dram; oil of neroli, 1 dram; ochre, brown, levigated, 2 oz.; proceed as for almond soap. It may be varied by substituting oil of lavender for the neroli. 2. White curd soap, 20 lbs.; oil of bergamot, 2 2/3 oz.; oil of cloves, 1/2 dram; oil of neroli, 1/2 dram; oil of sassafras, 1/3 dram; oil of thyme, 1/3 dram. Coloured with 2 1/2 oz. brown ochre. 3. Good tallow soap, 30 lb?.; essence of bergamot, 4 oz.; oils of cloves, sassafras, and thyme, each 1 oz.; colour, brown ochre, 7 oz.
1. Palm-oil soap, in shavings, 3 lbs.; finest white curd soap, in shapings, 2 lbs.; soft water, 1/4 pint. Melt together in a bright copper pan, set in a water bath. Add levigated vermilion, 1/4 oz.; and when the mixture has cooled a little, stir in finest otto of roses, 2 drams; oil of bergamot, 1 1/2 dram; oil of cinnamon, oil of cloves, of each, 3/4 dram; oil of rose geranium, 1/2 dram. Mix well, and pour the mass into an open-bottomed wooden frame, set on a polished marble slab. Sometimes it is coloured with tincture of dragon's blood, or of archil, instead of with vermilion. 2. White curd soap, 20 lbs.; essence of rose, 1 1/3 02.; oil of cloves, 1/2 dram; oil of cinnamon, 1/3 dram; oil of bergamot, 1 dram; oil of neroli, 1/3 dram; coloured with 2 oz. vermilion. 3. Olive-oil soap, 30 lbs.; good tallow soap, 20 lbs.; finely ground vermilion, 1 1/2 oz.; essence of rose, 3 oz.; essence of cloves, 1 oz.; essence of cinnamon, 1 oz.; essence of bergamot, 2 1/4 oz. The hard soaps are to be kept at 212° Fahr. for an hour, with 5 lbs. of water, in an untinned copper pan, the vermilion then added, and when taken off the fire, the essences mixed well with it, by stirring them together.
This is a very perfect soap, possessing a delicious fragrance, a beautiful roseate hue, and the softest detergent properties, which keeping cannot impair.
1. Usually a mixture of tallow and soaps, coloured with about 1/4 lb. of yellow ochre, and scented with 1 oz. of oil of cinnamon, supported with a little oil of bergamot and sassafras, to each 7 lbs. 2. Finest white curd soap, 6 lbs.; palm-oil soap, 3 1/2 lbs.; cocoanut-oil soap, 1 lb.; oil of cinnamon, 1 1/2 oz.; oil of bergamot, oil of sassafras, of each, 1/4 oz.; lavender, 1 dram; levigated yellow ochre, J lb. 3. Good tallow soap, 30 lbs.; palm-oil soap, 20 lbs.; essence of cinnamon, 7 oz.; essence of sassafras, 1 1/4 oz.; essence of bergamot, 1 1/4 oz.; colour, yellow ochre, 1 lb. Oil of cassia is often used instead of oil of cinnamon, and always in inferior qualities.
The basis of Windsor soap, scented with oil of lavender, 1 to 1 1/2 fluid oz. per 7 lbs., supported with a little oil of bergamot and the essences of musk and ambergris. It is often coloured with a little tincture of litmus, or corresponding mineral pigments.
1. Like rose soap, but using pure neroli, supported with a dash of the essences of ambergris and Portugal, instead of otto of roses, as scent. The French orange-flower soap is scented with equal parts of neroli and geranium. 2. Tallow and palm-oil soap, to which add essence of orange flowers, 7 1/2 oz.; ambergris, 7 1/2 oz.; colour, chrome yellow, 8 oz.; red lead, 2 oz.
The basis of cinnamon, rose, or Windsor soap, scented with 1 to 1 1/2 oz. of the mixed oils and essences used for essence of rondoletia, to each 7 lbs. The colours are those used for bouquet, cinnamon, honey, or brown Windsor soap.
White curd soap, scented with oil of roses, 1 dram; spirits of violet, 1/2 fluid oz.; spirits of jasmine, 1/3 fluid oz.; spirits of patchouli, 1/4 fluid oz.; spirits of vanilla, 1/4 fluid oz. Tinged green or rose.
This has usually a similar basis to honey soap, faintly scented with mixed oils similar to those used as cowslip perfume, and coloured pale yellow, or greenish yellow.
Beat into a homogeneous mass in a Wedgwood mortar, Castile soap, 1 lb.; protochloride of mercury, 1/2 oz. dissolved in 4 oz. of alcohol.
Cut into small shavings white soap, 8 oz.; beat up in a mortar with sublimated sulphur, 2 oz.; add 1 oz. of alcohol, to which may be added a few drops of any of the odoriferous essential oils; beat the whole into a smooth paste, and roll into balls.
Prepared by dissolving 1 part of golden sulphuret of antimony in 2 parts of a saturated solution of caustic potash, to this add, of Castile soap in powder, 4 parts; triturate till the whole assumes a proper consistency.