This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
In compliance with your request I.will give you particulars. My garden is on the corner: 60 feet front, south of the house, facing west; and 100 feet on the street, fronting south. I wish to set it to fruit trees, (the dwarf or pyramidal form,) and get a good variety of fruit tor a small family; also cultivate some of the smaller sorts of vegetables, and perhaps two Grape vines and some Strawberries. L. M. Marsh.
We would advise you to make a walk five or six feet wide around the garden, six feet from the fences; thus leaving a border six feet wide all around, for small fruits and vegetables. Grape vines and Apricots can be trained on the fences. Then there should be a cross walk in the center, and the two center plots thus cut off can be filled with dwarf and pyramidal trees planted in rows. In this way you will make the most of your ground, and have as sightly an arrangement as is possible under the circumstances. You will find a plan in the Fruit Garden, pages 183 and 184, that may be of some assistance to you.
The Pear succeeds well on the Quince as far north as lat. 44°, and it may be farther. We think it will succeed on the Quince wherever it does on the Pear, but we can not say that it exercises much influence on the hardiness of the tree.
BY stating a few facts connected with the eultare of my green-house plants, I may enable yon to tell me the cause end prescribe a remedy for the want of luxuriance in them. My house plants were all repotted, last September and October, into pots and tube likely to suit each individual species. The compost used was black mold, composed of decayed tree leaves and loam taken fresh from the woods, and afterwards mixed with decomposed manure, charooal, sand, etc., as was thought necessary for the different kinds of plants. The place from which the fresh earth was taken is a good deal of the nature of iron, and I think must contain oxyd of iron. The process of potting was Judiciously managed as regards drainage, 4c Spring water is used, which is carried to the house by lead pipes. The spring rises out of the heart of an iron ore bed. The tank is within the house, and holds about 160 gallons. It is tempered by the ionosphere of the house. The temperature at night is never allowed to rise above 60° or sink below 45°. Day temperature also moderate.
The hard, coarse texture of the plants, the dropping off of Camellia blossoms, leaves of Orange trees, Begonias, etc., compels me to seek from you a remedy. My gardener says that the absorbent nature of the brick flues, and the escape of sulphuric acid gas, cause the premature dropping of the leaves and flowers. Can this be? No gas can escape, for we never have any smoke. We had some at first, but we have got over that eviL Again, he says the coarse, rusty appearance of the plants, is owing to the use of spring water, or hard water, as he calls it, and fresh compost, which he says ought never to bo used but when thoroughly decomposed and mixed with other vegetable matter. If this doctrine be true, we have a good deal more to think about than the mere getting up a glass building and filling it with plants. C. H. M. - Delaware Co.
The falling of the leaves and flower buds is probably owing more to the dryness of the atmosphere than to any other cause. It is not uncommon for plants to lose their foliage to some extent after being repotted. If your flue does not permit the escape of smoke, there can be no injury from gas. The spring water is not so good as rain water would be; but if it remains exposed in tanks in the house for some time before being used, it can not do any material injury. The material of your compost is good enough. The watering of plants has much to do with their health and vigor. If they are allowed to become very dry, or not watered so liberally as to reach the bottom of the pots, or if they are watered too much, they can not thrive. It requires much judgment and experience to water a miscellaneous collection of plants well, and more particularly during the season when fire heat is applied to them.
As the editor of the Horticulturist is presumed to be "posted up" in all matters relating to fruit culture, I take the liberty to inquire if you can give me and your readers in general, any information concerning the culture of the Blackberry, the most desirable varieties, Ac, Ac Some of the nurserymen near Boston advertise for sale what they call the "Improved High Bush;" and I understand that in the vicinity of New York a kind is cultivated, called New Rochells. Can you speak from knowledge of the merits of either or both of these kinds? Are they for sale at the nursery of Ellwanger & Barry, or any where else in your neighborhood and at what price? AN old Sub-schibxb. - Adrian, Mich.
We can not speak of either of these Blackberries from much experience, but we believe them to be valuable fruits, well worthy of cultivation. They are not for sale here yet, to our knowledge, though they are under cultivation. The "Improved high Blackberry" can be had, no doubt, at any of the Boston nurseries, and the Lawton or New Rochell variety has been offered by Messrs. Geo. Seymour & Co., of Norwalk, Conn,, and Mr. Lawton, of New Rochelle. Both varieties are yet scarce and high priced; we can not exactly state how high.
The cultivation is simple. They succeed well in a dry, rich soil, and are easily propagated by cuttings of the roots.
Will yon have the kindness to publish a list of varieties of Apples for feeding stock, suitable for our latitude, for an orchard of five hundred trees ? What do you think of the following proportions: One-sixth early, one-third fall, and one-half winter ? HENRY J. CHasE, - Robin's Next lu.
Will some experienced Illinois cultivator suggest a good list Sweet Apples are generally preferred for stock; and the Jersey Sweet, Spice Sweet, Golden Sweet, Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet, and Talman's, can be recommended, we think, safely. All are very vigorous growing and very productive trees, suitable for orchards.
Last July my young trees began to be affected with a mold or mildew of a whitish color, that was very injurious; many of the young shoots thus affected, died. I would like to know the cause, and a remedy. Warren Emerick. - Crooked Lake., Wis.
As there are different theories in regard to the cause of the blight in Pear trees, I suppose any facts in regard to it will be acceptable to yon. In a communication, last summer, I gave an account of a dwarf tree being attacked with that disease soon after a severe frost The weather has been quite severe with us the present month, my thermometer on the 23d of January marking - 20° at five o'clock, and - 16° at sunrise. I find one of my Pear trees with the top entirely destroyed, and the limbs presenting the same appearance as in case of blight, the bark having turned black, Ac, while the buds are still fresh. On the tree, last spring, the disease first appeared in spots on different parts of the tree, but in the present case the limbs present the same appearance to within two or three inches of the trunk of the tree. I send you herewith a piece of a limb for examination. The tree was set out last spring, and although it grew but little through the season, it was apparently sound and healthy in the fall.
When the disease appears in the winter, is it advisable to cut away the diseased parts at that time, or delay until early spring? A. 0. Babcock. - East Troy, Wis.
The shoot accompanying this note is jet black, and has exactly the same appearance as shoots affected with the so-called "fire blight." We have seen unripe shoots killed by severe weather in the winter, and turn black like this; but this shoot must have been well matured, (second year's growth,) as fruit-buds or spurs already appear on it, in a considerably advanced state. We are more inclined to attribute the death of this shoot to the "blight" than to winter killing.
Will you please answer, through your invaluable Journal, the following queries ? They may be of service to others. Will the Bourbon Roses withstand our winters as far north as Rochester, without protection? (1) Will the Tree Peaony (P. moutan Banksii and B. rosea odorata) withstand our winters without protection ? (2) Will the Flowering Currants (Ribes Gordoni and R. sanguinea) withstand our winters without protection? (8) When is the best time to transplant Raspberries? (4) GEo. H. HodgEs. - Collins Center, N. Y.
(1) Not well; they require slight protection.
(2) They do stand with us, in sheltered places, without protection; but we would advise slight protection. The growth will be more luxuriant, and the bloom better.
(3) The Gordoni is perfectly hardy, but the sanguinea is not; and although we never protect, we believe it necessary in exposed places.
(4) In Western New York we prefer spring - as early as the season will admit We succeed very well in transplanting in the latter part of September or first of October; they get well rooted again before winter sets in.
We will comply with your other requests as soon as practicable.
Permit me to make a suggestion that you or some of your correspondents name and describe a few of the finest varieties of Gooseberries. There is no doubt but it is a fruit entitled to more consideration than it receives. I was very successful, last summer, in raising a crop of fine Gooseberries, free from mildew.
I wish you to advise me what would be the best twelve varieties of Pears with which to Increase my collection, after having planted the following: - White Doyenne, Gray Doyenne, Baruetl, Onondaga, Beurre Diel, Beurre (d?Amalis. Oswego Beurre, Duchess d'Angouleme, Napoleon, Belle Lucrative, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Flemish Beauty, Doyenne Boussoek, Modeloine, Glout Morceau. I wish to plant dwarfs. Jas. Bolton. - Baldwinsvills Twelve good varieties of large Gooseberries - free growers and good bearers.
Red - Crown Bob, Warrington, Lancashire Lad, Roaring Lion, Echo, Companion. White - White Smith, Sheba Queen, Yellow - Golden Drop, Bunker Hill, Green - Green Ocean, Green Willow. There may be many others in the long lists of varieties in cultivation as good as these.
I have near a hundred varieties of Pear, mostly dwarf, one, two and three years planted, and many of them are literally crowded with fruit-buds. To this mute, but edifying assemblage from the "Nations," I intend to add by scores, and hope, if my life is spared, to be able to furnish "rough" but truthful and worthy notes for the friends of horticulture. O. T. H. - Randolph, Penn.