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Symposium Phenomena Of The Tumor Viruses | by The U.S. Dept. of Health



This is a collection of publications that analyze virus induced tumors.

TitleSymposium Phenomena Of The Tumor Viruses
AuthorU.S. Dept. of Health
PublisherU.S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare, Public Health Service
Year1960
Copyright1960, U.S. Dept. of Health
AmazonTumor Suppressing Viruses, Genes, and Drugs: Innovative Cancer Therapy Approaches
-Introductory Remarks
Dr. Joseph W. Beard, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. It has been but a few years ago that the problems of the virus-induced tumors attracted the attention of only small numbers of investig...
-Tumor Virus Research Program
The basic question before this conference is: What etiologic role, if any, do viruses play in the malignant neoplasms affecting the human race? Despite almost a half century of study of tumors in lowe...
-Properties Of A Leukemia Virus. Resume Of Studies In The Murine Leukemia Virus Field
The viral etiology of the avian leukosis complex was established in 1908 by the work of Ellerman and Bang (1). However, it was not until over 40 years later that a similar relationship of viruses to c...
-Friend Leukemia Virus
In 1957 Friend (24) isolated a leukemia virus from the spleen of a Swiss mouse that had been inoculated, shortly after birth, with a cell-free preparation of Ehrlich carcinoma. The Friend virus is app...
-Graffi Leukemia Virus
Graffi in 1957 (34) summarized extensive studies on a myeloid leukemia virus recovered from five transplantable mouse tumors, including Sarcoma 37. This virus inoculated into newborn mice of strains A...
-Studies On A Murine Lymphoid Leukemia Virus Recovered From Sarcoma 37
Recent studies in this laboratory have been directed toward a more complete understanding of the nature of a lymphoid leukemia virus isolated from the mouse neoplasm, Sarcoma 37 (42, 48). This viru...
-Yield Of Virus From Leukemic Tissues
The quantity of virus recovered from neoplastic tissues is dependent in part on: (1) the concentration of the agent in the source tissues and (2) the techniques used to extract the virus. To determ...
-Host Specificity
As discussed in a previous section, certain murine leukemia viruses are specific with respect to age, strain, and species of the host. It was considered of interest, therefore, to study the influence ...
-Serial Virus Passage
Attempts to increase the potency of the leukemia virus by repeated passage in newborn mice were undertaken in a group of experiments termed selective virus-passage series. In principle the technique...
-Serial Virus Passage. Part 2
Physical Properties. Electron Microscope Studies The ultrastructure of the virus particle and its association with the leukemic tissues are being studied by Dr. A. J. Dalton of the National Cancer ...
-Discussion on Serial Virus Passage
Dr. Gross (Veterans Administration Hospital, Bronx, New York): One of the main and very important questions is whether we have a single leukemia virus that is being recovered from mice in different la...
-Discussion on Serial Virus Passage. Part 2
There was some question about the oral route not being entirely oral because of injury to the esophagus during intubation. We have obviated that by allowing the animal to drink the brain extract or ea...
-Viral Activation of Cell Response
The title of this paper merits some examination. It was suggested to me, and it sounded so imposing that I could not bring myself to change it. Dr. Ellem and I have had ample time in which to regret t...
-Viral Activation of Cell Response. Part 2
Infectious RNA is perhaps most readily tested in an in vitro system. Extracellular ribonuclease can be removed by washing; the conditions under which cells and RNA interact can be carefully ...
-Viral Activation of Cell Response. Part 3
The apparently uncontrolled production of viral components may be viewed in terms of the genetic control of the host cell. The replication and expression of a normally occurring nucleic acid is undoub...
-Viral Activation of Cell Response. Part 4
Dr. Stanley (University of California): Dr. Colter has made a beautiful summary of the implications of infectious nucleic acid, and I can add very little. I would like to call the attention of this gr...
-Viral Activation of Cell Response. Part 5
We have made no attempt to infect any of these tissues in culture in vitro. I am not sure that anyone else has either. In answer to your question about the myxoviruses, we have not attempted to iso...
-Constitution Of Tumor Viruses
Besides being of fundamental importance, the question of tumor virus constitution raises a number of related issues each of which is highly-interesting in its own right. These fall into two main group...
-Constitution Of Tumor Viruses. Part 2
Although the specificity of the ribonuclease and the findings of the control experiments permit these results to stand on their own, it was thought advisable to attack the question from an additional ...
-Constitution Of Tumor Viruses. Part 3
According to either of these theories, a situation is envisaged in which the old idea that tumor viruses merely trigger off malignant change as a side effect during replication would, after all, be ju...
-Constitution Of Tumor Viruses. Part 4
Dr. Kaplan: It seems to me that Dr. Colter and Dr. Epstein have made opposing statements on one very interesting point, namely, the question of cytoplasmic versus nuclear locus of action. Dr. Colter, ...
-Cell Sensitivity And Specificity Of Response To Polyoma Virus
The basic nature of viral selectivity for certain species, certain organs, certain cells, and certain sites within these cells constitutes a broad and deep problem that penetrates to the level of the ...
-Tumor Viruses. I. Genus, Species, And Strain Specificity
Tumor viruses as well as infectious disease viruses, although more or less specific for certain tissues in a given species, may have a different pattern of tissue selectivity in another host species. ...
-Tumor Viruses. Genus, Species, And Strain Specificity. Continued
Separate attention must be given to susceptibility of tissues of different species to the virus in tissue-culture systems. In monolayer cultures, Stewart and Eddy were first to report propagation of p...
-Tumor Viruses. Tissue And Cell Response
It has already been indicated that the question of sensitivity and specificity of cell response is inseparably bound to the problems of dose response, virus-strain homogeneity, and genetic character o...
-Tumor Viruses. Tissue And Cell Response. Continued
The evidence here presented indicates that this special type of parotid tumor is both histologically and biologically similar to the thymic epithelial tumors. This is not surprising, if one considers ...
-Tumor Viruses. II. Developmental Influences
The discussion so far has been concerned with the matter of where the polyoma agent acts, in terms of species, strain, and tissue specificity. It is also important to know when it can act, in terms of...
-Tumor Viruses. Developmental Influences. Continued
The response of submandibular gland from the 8-month-old female with an HI titer of 1 : 800 differed significantly from that of the glands of younger adult males with negative HI reactions. Which of t...
-Tumor Viruses. III. Speculation Of Mechanisms
Does the preceding information as to where and when the polyoma virus elicits a proliferative response give us material from which to construct a working hypothesis as to how it acts? Our knowledge is...
-Tumor Viruses. Speculation On Mechanisms. Part 2
Some evidence for partial resistance of strain C57BL/Ka mice to the tumor-inducing effects of polyoma virus is cited. It is not known whether this presumed genetic influence is exerted directly at the...
-Tumor Viruses. Speculation On Mechanisms. Part 3
Plate 15. Figure 18. Excised submandibular gland rudiments from 13-day (above left) and 14-day (right) C3H/Bi embryos. Epithelial portions of rudiments are light, sharply circumscribed structures s...
-Speculation On Mechanisms Discussion
Dr. Andervont (National Cancer Institute): It was not clear to me whether Dr. Dawe implied that an important aspect of cancer is that the infected cell can supply something which will produce malignan...
-Speculation On Mechanisms Discussion. Part 2
Dr. George O. Gey (Johns Hopkins University): Does this virus always give a necrotizing response? Dr. Dawe: I presume you mean, Does it always give some necrosis? I would have to say that there has...
-Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses
Investigations with the Bittner factor (the mammary-tumor agent or the milk factor) have aroused considerable interest ever since its discovery by Bittner (1). This agent, which behaves in many respec...
-Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 2
Two possibilities for the mechanism of action of the mammary-tumor agent can be considered: (1) The agent acts via an influence on the hormone production or the hormone balance. (2) The agent influenc...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses
Dr. Andervont (National Cancer Institute): Probably the best point you made, Dr. Muhlbock, is that here is a virus which is not the whole story in the production of malignant cells. There are other fa...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 2
Analogous phenomena are observed throughout the whole tumor virus field. Many different kinds of factors determine whether or not a cell can respond to a virus which may have been in cells from the ve...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 3
After a series of studies, I came to the conclusion in a roundabout way that it might be possible to show the effect of the agent in mice which were within the age of greatest susceptibility. The live...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 4
To recapitulate, then, the evidence indicates that (1) an agent is present in CFF and CFC prepared from initially radiation-induced mouse lymphomas; (2) this agent can induce identical lymphomas in no...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 5
At this point it would be well to give an idea of the biologic response of mice to X irradiation. Dr. Kaplan has talked about a special and unique case in which thymic lymphosarcomas result after cert...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 6
Dr. A. C. Upton (Oak Ridge National Laboratory): Dr. Kaplan has presented an extremely interesting and provocative observation. I was tempted, on reading the abstract, to view the priming effect, so t...
-Discussion on Natural Factors Influencing Host Responses. Part 7
Dr. Law: I do not quite understand your question, but I think that both Dr. Kaplan and Dr. Gross missed the point of my first comment. I said that, in my opinion, the present knowledge in this problem...
-Possibilities For Cultivation
Several facts were known concerning the milk agent: For instance, we knew that it can pass through Seitz and Berkefeld filters (10) and is transmissible through milk. When injected into susceptible mi...
-Organ Cultures
When the skin from the abdominal wall of mouse embryos taken at mid-pregnancy is explanted on a nutritive gel as described by Hardy (fig. 1), primary and secondary mammary ducts differentiate from the...
-Roller-Tube Cultures
In the meantime, techniques for the culture of pure normal mammary epithelium from adult mice were developed (14). A more or less prolonged digestion with collagenases separates the epithelium from th...
-Glandular Stroma
In regard to the second alternative, indications that the surrounding stroma is physiologically connected with the mammary epithelium have already been obtained (17). When, after a prolonged dissociat...
-Glandular Stroma. Part 2
Discussion Dr. Dan Moore (Rockefeller Institute): I suppose we should follow the previous procedure and be provocative in our statements. Therefore, I will make a few statements that I am sure will...
-Glandular Stroma. Part 3
It has been indicated that the milk tumor agent in culture medium without cells at 37 C. disappears within an hour. The fact, however, that the virus persists for months in cell culture with repe...
-Glandular Stroma. Part 4
To another point which he made, I agree wholeheartedly that the mammary virus is probably more widely spread than we have realized. In Amsterdam in 1956, I brought up a similar point, and my English c...
-Glandular Stroma. Part 5
The myeloblasts were pipetted from the red cell layer and, in the most recent work, suspended in medium 199 (11) in a proportion of about 1 ml. cells in 10 ml. of suspension. With repeated centrifugat...
-Variation In Behavior Of Cells On Protracted Culture In Different Media
In the earliest experiments (1) the culture medium was 20 percent chicken serum and Gey's salt solution. The cells could be maintained for long periods in a state in which the rate of cell proliferati...
-Stabilization Of Cell Proliferation And Virus Liberation Of Long-Term Cultures Of Myeloblasts Introduced Into Vitamin B-Supplemented Medium
The cells used in this experiment were those derived from the same cultures described in the preceding section. On the 577th day of culture, the medium was changed to the mixture of equal parts of chi...
-Analyses Of Rous Sarcoma Data From Studies By Prince
It would seem of interest to compare the results observed with the myeloblast system with those of analogous studies by Prince (17) on cell growth and virus formation in the chicken chorio-allantoic m...
-Analyses Of Rous Sarcoma Data
The findings described here serve to demonstrate two outstanding biologic characteristics of the primitive cells of malignant attributes occurring in virus-induced myeloblastosis: the potentiality (1)...
-Analyses Of Rous Sarcoma Data. Part 2
The principal biologic criterion of the virus-cell relationship thus far employed has been that of the rate of virus liberation. Although there is little evidence yet of the precise nature of the fact...
-Analyses Of Rous Sarcoma Data. Part 3
These equations are not applicable to experiments which are concerned with the time course of infection after exposure of normal cells to RSV (Prince, Virology, 5: 435, 1958; Temin and Rubin, Virology...
-Analyses Of Rous Sarcoma Data. Part 4
With respect to Dr. Sanford's comment, it is evident that more information should be obtained relative to the death rate of the cells and to the cell turnover in the population. At the present time, t...
-Growth Curves of Polyoma Virus in Mice and Hamsters
Knowledge of the pattern of growth of an infectious agent is important to an understanding of pathogenesis and natural history of the infection. This report presents data on the general patterns of gr...
-Ha Inhibitors In Serum And Tissue Extracts
The data on recovery of infectious virus must be interpreted in relation to the amount of antibody in the test material. Table 4 shows results of HI tests on the serums and tissue extracts from experi...
-Relationship Of Infectivity Titers To Number Of Viral Particles In Tissue Extracts
Previous studies (9, 10) have indicated that HA titers of tissue-culture fluids can be used to estimate the concentration of total viral particles, there being approximately a 1 : 1 ratio between phys...
-Growth Of Virus In Weanling Mice
Although weanling mice are refractory to the tumor-inducing effect of polyoma virus infection, they are quite susceptible to infection per se, as evidenced by the uniform development of antibody after...
-Growth Curve Of Virus In Suckling Hamsters
Three experiments were carried out to determine the growth curve of polyoma virus after subcutaneous inoculation into suckling hamsters (11). Groups of suckling hamsters 2 to 4 days of age were inocul...
-Growth Curve Of Virus In Suckling Hamsters. Part 2
The concept of an early peak of virus growth, with little or no residual infectivity at the time of tumor development, has important implications for epidemiologic and etiologic studies of tumors in r...
-Growth Curve Of Virus In Suckling Hamsters. Part 3
On the other hand, we have a corresponding line of tumor in mice that has been consistently positive for virus through ten transplants. It is interesting here that, occasionally, with Dr. Rowe's indir...
-Significance Of Infrastructure In Virus-Induced Tumors
Thanks to electron microscopy, the modern cytologist has a clear and beautiful picture of the normal cell. The fine structure of the cell's various organelles has been revealed (1, 2), classical contr...
-General Ultrastructure Of Virus-Induced Tumor Cells As Compared With That Of Normal Cells
The fine structure of the different elements of the normal cell need not be detailed here, since numerous and excellent reviews exist on the subject (1, 2). Some characteristics, which are particularl...
-General Ultrastructure Of Virus-Induced Tumor Cells. Continued
Cytoplasm In the cytoplasm the situation is similar, though a certain number of features indicative of modified metabolism are present with unusual frequency in cancerous cells of virus-induced tum...
-Surface Membrane And Endoplasmic Reticulum
Pseudopod activity or hypervillosity of the cell surface is consistent in tumor cells, whatever their origin. These phenomena represent a cell reaction of general significance and cannot be considered...
-Significance And Interpretive Value Of Presence Of Viral Particles In Tumor Cells. Difficulty Of Morphologic Detection
In some virus-induced tumors, the morphologic observation of virus particles in the tumor tissue itself presents no difficulty. The Shope fibroma of the rabbit is a good example (55). The high infecti...
-Example Of Rous Sarcoma Studied In Vivo
The problems raised by this avian neoplasm are precisely those of the problem of cancer in general and were they solved, the knowledge of carcinogenesis in general would have been advanced enormously....
-Example Of Rous Sarcoma Studied In Vitro
Studies with the Rous sarcoma in tissue culture in correlation with electron microscopy will be dealt with more at length, since they involve our own work (29,40, 78). Here, again, the most important ...
-Conclusion On Studies Of Rous Sarcoma
Results of studies on cell ultrastructure permit only one conclusion: Without the presence of the viral particle itself, no cytologic lesion has been revealed by electron microscopy that will allow un...
-Different Aspects Of Nucleoli In Cancer Cells
Figure 4. Nucleolus of Rous virus-infected cell grown in vitro. Note moire appearance of nucleolonema due to densification of some of its segments and accumulation of pars amorpha into small poo...
-Different Aspects Of Nucleoli In Cancer Cells. Continued
A major development in the recent study of virus tumors has been the demonstration of virus particles in association with tumor cells and the physical identification of ultrastructural cell-virus inte...
-Ultrastructure Of Circulating Myeloblasts
The infected myeloblasts from the circulating blood of chickens with this form of leukemia resemble closely, figure 1, the blast cells found in the bone marrow of normal birds of the same age. There i...
-Myeloblasts From Growth-Supporting Culture Medium
In the foregoing description much emphasis has been given to the lack of evidence of virus or material identifiable with virus-derived or associated structures in the myeloblasts in the blood or in cu...
-Myeloblasts From Growth-Supporting Culture Medium. Continued
When normal chicken bone marrow is treated in vitro with the myeloblastosis virus, a cell population results (24), which is morphologically indistinguishable from that of cultures of circulating myelo...
-Studies On Broken Cell Preparations
In earlier studies, it was found (34) that when myeloblasts from non-growing cultures were washed with saline and disrupted by freezing and thawing, a high adenosinetriphosphatase activity was found i...
-Studies On Broken Cell Preparations. Part 2
Despite the obscurity of the initial organelle involvement, the subsequent course of the process is clear in the progression of forms from the viroplast to the vacuole, as already described. It is of ...
-Studies On Broken Cell Preparations. Part 3
In summary: Further studies have been made of the ultrastructural characteristics of the myeloblasts of avian myeloblastosis. Cells were examined immediately after removal from the diseased bird, and ...
-Studies On Broken Cell Preparations. Part 4
I have the feeling, too, that these gray bodies which we have seen only rarely in Rous sarcoma cells might be increased greatly in number if we could improve our tissue-culture medium. Perhaps, then, ...
-Studies On Broken Cell Preparations. Part 5
In addition, similar changes-i.e., a similar developmental cycle-take place in renal adenocarcinoma induced in chickens by the myeloblastosis virus. Thus, it appears that there is some uniformity in w...
-Identification, Frequency, And Localization Of The Virus
The virus particle observed in the leukemic material is round or ovoid in shape and has a mean diameter of 870 A. The main features of this virus are the concentric spherical membranes, the outer and ...
-The Fine Structure Of The Virus
High-magnification studies of the virus were facilitated by the lead hydroxide technique described by Watson (6). With this procedure a supplementary membrane of the virus located between the outer an...
-The Particular Case Of The Megakaryocytes
Light microscope studies of leukemic tissues do not indicate any pathological alterations of megakaryocytes. These giant cells appear normal in structure and in frequency and apparently do not partici...
-Some Preliminary Results Obtained In Other Lymphatic Tumors
In the past, many attempts to transplant so-called spontaneous lymphatic neoplasms, which arise in older Swiss mice, were unsuccessful. However, within the last year, at least 5 tumors have been found...
-Results Obtained In Other Lymphatic Tumors. Part 2
The same type of phenomenon was observed in primary cultures. Visible, distinct colonies of changed cells, easy to count, have been observed in 2- to 3-month-old cultures. It has been interesting to n...
-Results Obtained In Other Lymphatic Tumors. Part 3
Dr. Bose: No, the question is really that, by the time you see the malignant cell and the virus particles in it, it may then be that the malignant cell has become infected with some nonspecific virus....
-Results Obtained In Other Lymphatic Tumors. Part 4
There has been much effort in recent years, by what might be called summit meetings on the tumor-virus problem, to find a short cut to the solution of the numerous questions in this field by a rather ...
-Results Obtained In Other Lymphatic Tumors. Part 5
Cytoplasm The endoplasmic reticulum, as might be expected from its importance in nutrition, conduction, and membrane synthesis within the cell, does not seem to play a direct role in tumor virus re...
-Maturation And Release Of The Tumor Cell Virus
If these interpretations of our results be true, then the question arises not only where and how the viral substance migrates, but also where and how the mature virus is formed and released. Informati...
-Maturation And Release Of The Tumor Cell Virus. Continued
Summary And Conclusions The significant points to be brought out in the present discussion are as follows: 1. In direct correlation with biologic evidence, the electron microscopic evidence show...
-Cancer Symposium. Present Status Of Studies On Tumor-Producing Viruses
This will be a brief review on the relationship of viruses to carcinogenesis. Although I am a virologist with continuing interest in virus-induced tumors, I am not trying to advance the virus theory o...
-Present Status Of Studies On Tumor-Producing Viruses. Continued
We know that a lengthening list of viruses is involved in the etiology of animal tumors, as shown in table 1. The exciting agent of each of these tumors is a specific virus separable from all others. ...
-Induction Of Tumors In Vitro With Viruses
This paper has three main objectives: (1) to examine the conditions under which a virus, able to produce malignant tumor in the animal, can transform in vitro normal cells into characteristically alte...
-Induction Of Tumors In Vitro With Viruses. Continued
In examining the morphological conversion of the cell, we can now consider another case: that in which a single type of virus is used to infect cells of different types. Conversion still takes place i...
-Problems In Viral-Tumor Therapy
Two of the most important needs for a more adequate animal-testing program to keep pace with the avalanching stockpile of candidate chemical compounds in the field of cancer chemotherapy are: (1) a ne...
-Biological Problems In The Production Of Tumors And The Design Of Experiments
Tumors induced by viruses simulate naturally occurring spontaneous tumors in that they derive entirely from the hosts' own tissues. They are therefore devoid of divergent histocompatibuity antigens wh...
-Biological Problems In The Production Of Tumors And The Design Of Experiments. Continued
A second type of information necessary for production of tumors and the planning of chemotherapeutic tests is the relationship between dose of virus and the time elapsing between virus inoculation and...
-Methods Of Chemotherapeutic Testing And Preliminary Results Of Pilot Studies. Rous Sarcoma Virus
Attempts to employ virus-induced tumors in therapeutic-type tests date back to the early days of the Rous sarcoma (2S) and the exploratory studies of Rous (24) on the effects of irradiation. However, ...
-Detailed Data on Friend Leukemia Virus
Detailed data that would permit the construction of orientation charts, e.g., text-figures 3 to 5, for the Friend virus (32) have not been published, but it is among the most rapidly acting tumor viru...







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previous page: The Handbook For Cancer Patients
  
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next page: Research In Physiopathology As Basis Of Guided Chemotherapy With Special Application To Cancer | by Emanuel Revici