2940. In Prurigo, Mr

E. Wilson observes that the first point, and one of the most important, is the daily employment of baths. Their temperature should not be higher than 70° F., and they may consist of simple water with soap, or the alkaline bath, or sulphur bath. In Syphilitic Eruptions, the same baths prove highly useful, but Mr. E. Wilson prefers, in most cases, the use of the vapour bath.

2941. In Colica Pictonum, Dr

J. Wilson found the hot bath very effectual. Hot water was at the same time employed as enemas. Copious evacuations, and consequent relief, followed this treatment.

2942. In Irritative and Inflammatory Affections of the Kidneys, Bladder, and Uterus, in Spasmodic Stricture of the Urethra, in the passage of Calculi, either renal or biliary, and in many spasmodic affections of the bowels, the hot bath or the hot hip-bath proves highly serviceable and soothing.

2943. The Vapour Bath, commonly employed in British practice, is a small close cell or tent, in which the patient is either altogether or partially inclosed, and into which the vapour is conveyed by a simple apparatus. (For a simple vapour bath, see sects. 62, 645, and 2656.) It should be so constructed, that the patient may breathe the air or vapour at pleasure, by excluding or including the head, through an aperture at the side or top. The effects of the vapour bath are very similar to those of the ordinary hot bath; " But," as Dr. Forbes observes, "it is, on the whole, more derivative to the surface, more diaphoretic, and, probably, less generally stimulant." It seems, however, to have a less soothing effect on the nervous system. This result is partly owing to the more constrained and upright position in which it is usually taken. It is applicable to most of the cases enumerated under the Hot Bath; and the same rules are observable in its use, but it seems more particularly useful in Dry, Scaly, Cutaneous Affections, and in some forms of Chronic Rheumatism. The judicious employment of the vapour bath in these eases is attended with the best results. A case of Hydrophobia has recently been reported to have been cured by its use.

* Med.-Chir. Trans., vol. vi. p. 457. On Diseases of the Skin, p. 270.

Med.-Chir. Trans., vol. vi.

2944. In Tetanus, It Was Recommended By Dr

Marsh,* who gives two cases apparently cured by its use; and it has also proved successful in the hands of M. Sanson and others. The patient should remain in it for a long time. Its use seems inadmissible in acute cases. (Dr. Bennett. J)

2945. The Medicated Vapour Bath differs only from the ordinary vapour bath in having the vapour of various medicines either substituted for, or diluted with, that of water. It is a valuable and powerful therapeutic agent. (See Calomel, Sulphur, Camphor, &c, part i.)

2946. The Warm-air Bath (sometimes called the Sudatorium) consists in the temporary exposure of the naked body to the air of a common chamber, the temperature of which has been artificially raised. "The warm-air bath," observes Dr. Forbes, "is most analogous in its operation to the vapour bath" (ante). It seems to possess all its stimulating qualities, without its relaxing and soothing effects. It is, therefore, a much more exciting application, at the corresponding temperatures. It appears to be more powerfully derivative to the skin than any other bath, and more certainly productive of perspiration within a short period. The diseases in which it has been found most beneficial are, - 1, Congestive Fevers, in which it has been found highly serviceable by Drs. Armstrong, Tweedie, and Forbes; 2, Chronic Rheumatism; 3, Morbid Affections of the Skin; 4, the early stages of Cholera; 5, some Pulmonary Affections; 6, Diabetes, in which it has been employed with excellent effect by Willis, Lefevre, Wylie, and Watson; 7, Renal Dropsy, which, according to Dr. Watson, is greatly benefited by its use.

2947. The Turkish Bath is essentially a hot-air bath, although when followed by cold ablution or affusion, as it usually is, it partakes more of the character of a Transition Bath. The procedure is now so well known, that any description of it would be superfluous in this place. The diseases in which it has been employed, in most cases with marked advantage, are, - Chronic Affections of the Skin in all its varieties; Cachectic Diseases, such as Scrofula, Syphilis, Incipient Phthisis, Malarious Intermittent and Remittent Fevers, Biliary Derangements, Gouty and Rheumatic Diathesis, Dyspepsia, Renal Affections, especially Bright''s Disease, and Diabetes; Neuralgia, Hysteria, and many Nervous and Spasmodic Diseases, as Epilepsy &c.; Hypochondriasis, Paralytic Affections, Contraction of the Joints, Dropsy, Amenorrha, Dysmenorrha, Leucorrha, Catarrh, Influenza, &c. Discretion, of course, must be exercised in the selection of cases, as well as the particular stage of the disease in which it is to be employed. It is no specific in these cases, and will sometimes fail to afford relief in any given case: the bath often requires to be repeated several times, in order to ensure its efficacy. It is contra-indicated in several forms of disease, especially those of an hAemorrhagic or sanguineous tendency, and in cardiac disease generally, as well as in those in which much determination of blood to the head exists. But a little reflection is sufficient to guard an intelligent physician from an incautious, indiscriminate use of an agent of so powerful a character. (Dr. Wollaston. *)

* Dub. Hosp. Reports, vol. iv. p. 567.

.Tourn. Hebd de We'd., 1823. Lib of Med., vol. ii. p. 245.

2948. Blisters, or Vesicants, are defined by Dunglison as "substances which, when applied to the skin, irritate it and occasion a serous secretion, raising the epidermis, and inducing a vesicle." Many substances, as Plumbago Rosea, Euphorbium, Sinapis, &c., have been employed for this purpose. In England, Cantharides are generally employed; and in India, the Mylabris Chicorii: Cantharidin, in each of these cases, being the active principle. Boiling water is a speedy and powerful vesicant.

2949. The objects for which they are employed are fourfold: 1, to establish a degree of inflammation or irritation on the surface of the body, and thus to substitute a mild and easily-managed disease, for an internal and intractable one; on the principle, that two different sets of inflammation cannot be carried on in the system at the same time; 2, to stimulate the absorbents, and thus to cause the removal of effused fluids; 3, to act as derivatives; 4, to stimulate the whole system, and raise the vigour of the circulation.