It will be understood that the method of obtaining a graining color varies just as much as it does in the case of the ground color, according to the opinion of the painter. The following are given as what may be safely followed to get an average good result:

Light Oak

Mix one-third burnt umber with two-thirds raw sienna, and add a very little drop black.

Bird's Eye Maple

Mix raw umber and raw sienna with a little Vandyke brown or ivory black.

Ash. Same as light oak.

American Walnut

Burnt umber to which is added a little Vandyke brown will give a good graining color for walnut.


Burnt umber, burnt sienna and Vandyke brown with the addition of a little crimson lake for over-graining, will answer well for mahogany.

In producing the color for ordinary use, such as, for instance, Anaglypta or lincrusta or other relief material, mix Venetian red with equal parts of burnt umber and burnt sienna, and even add a little orange chrome to give brightness.


Vandyke brown, with the addition of a little black, should be used, and rose pink may be added if desired.

Pollard Oak

Mix burnt umber, Vandyke, raw and burnt siennas and add a little black or ultramarine.


Use raw and burnt siennas and raw umber.


Mix raw sienna, Vandyke and raw umber with a very little burnt sienna.

New Work

Do not use cheap ground ochres or Venetian red to produce tints or ground work. They will cause paint applied over them to blister and varnish to curl and flake.

For work that is to be varnished, do not use colors ground in oil for the solid ground color; even though reduced with turpentine and dry apparently flat, they still contain too much oil for a satisfactory ground for japan color or to allow of varnishing over them with safety.

For application over the lead coats, use colors ground in japan for deep ground colors or tints which require a large percentage of coloring matter.

New store fronts, vestibules, etc., which are built of soft wood and are to be painted in oil, should receive a priming or first coat mixed with 2-3 oil and 1-3 turpentine. Allow ample time for thorough drying. Putty and sandpaper. The second coat should be mixed with half turpentine and half oil to a good consistency. When hard dry, sandpaper lightly and apply a coat of oil paint. This will not blister, provided the wood does not get wet from the sweating of glass or like causes.

If the fronts are to be painted and varnished, they should receive a priming coat mixed with half turpentine and half oil. When hard dry, putty and sandpaper and apply a coat mixed with 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil. The paint should be tinted to approach the shade of the ground work. When hard, sandpaper lightly and apply a flat coat of ground color. Rub this coat smooth with fine steel wool and apply one or two coats of color ground in japan, according to the strength of the color. All that is necessary is sufficient japan color to make a solid coat. Stripe and ornament according to specifications, then finish with a coat of exterior varnish. If more expensive work is desired, a coat of color varnish can be applied over the japan color. This color varnish can be made by adding a small percentage of the japan color to the rubbing varnish. When hard, rub smooth with fine steel wool or curled hair. Stripe or ornament as desired, then finish with a coat of elastic varnish.

If the finish is to be black or green, the undercoats should be dark lead color; if wine, dark terra cotta or dark red; if vermilion, dark yellow for light or terra cotta for dark, and vermilion for carmine or lakes where a. deep effect is desired.

Old Work

When store fronts and vestibules are to be painted in oil and are in good condition, showing no cracks or signs of peeling, they should be sandpapered smooth. If two coats are to be applied, the first should be reduced with half turpentine. Over this apply an oil paint. It should be borne in mind, however, that too much oil must not be used, especially where the fronts are exposed to the hot sun.

When store fronts and vestibules are to be repainted and varnished and the old paint has stood for two or three years and is in good condition, the surface not having received too numerous coats, they can sometimes be sandpapered smooth and a coat of flat ground color applied, then a coat of color in japan. Stripe and ornament, then finish with a coat of exterior varnish.

When the fronts have been repainted a number of times with oil paint, they will not stand sun exposure after receiving the varnish, without danger of blistering. In such cases the paint should be burned off or removed with a paint remover. The surface is then practically new and the work can proceed as with new work, with the exception of the priming or first coat, which should contain a larger percentage of turpentine to assist in penetrating through any old paint left on the wood. Then proceed as with new work, building up the surface in the same manner by using flat ground colors and color ground in japan and exterior varnish.