See Odometer.

Pedro Lopez De Ayala

Pedro Lopez De Ayala, a Spanish poet, chronicler, and soldier, born at Murcia in 1332, died at Calahorra in 1407. He held high offices under successive kings of Castile, was one of the supporters of Henry of Trastamare, and at the battle of Najera, in 1367, where he bore the banner of that leader, was made prisoner by Edward the Black Prince, and carried to England. He there wrote in prison his Ri-mada de Palacio, or "Rhyme of the Court." Having obtained his liberty, he returned to Spain, and was first minister of state, until in 1385 he was again taken captive in the battle of Aljubarota and carried prisoner to Portugal. He wrote a chronicle which begins at 1350, where that of Alfonso XI. ends, and embraces 46 years.

Pedro Ponce

Pedro Ponce, a Spanish Benedictine, born in Valladolid about 1520, died at the convent of Ona, in Old Castile, in 1584. He is believed to have been the first instructor of deaf mutes in articulation. (See Deaf and Dumb, vol. v., p. 730.) Sir Kenelm Digby's account of Ponce and his method is supposed to have been the means of calling the attention of Wallis and Holder, and perhaps also of Dalgarno, to the education of deaf mutes. Ponce wrote a treatise in Spanish, now lost, in which he explained his methods, and laid down rules for the instruction of the deaf and dumb.

Peeblesshire, Or Tweeddale

Peeblesshire, Or Tweeddale, an inland county in the south of Scotland, bordering on the counties of Edinburgh, Selkirk, Dumfries, and Lanark; area, 319 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 12,-330. It is watered by the Tweed. The great part of the surface consists of mountain, moor, and bog; the mountains vary in height from 2,400 to 2,740 ft. Coal and limestone abound. There are manufactories of woollens. Capital, Peebles, on the Tweed, 20 m. S. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 3,160.


Peel, a S. county of Ontario, Canada, on the N. shore of Lake Ontario; area, 468 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 26,011, of whom 13,147 were of Irish, 8,302 of English, and 3,590 of Scotch descent. It is traversed by the Grand Trunk, the Great Western, and the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce railways. Capital, Brampton.


Pegasus, in Grecian mythology, a winged horse which sprang from Medusa when Perseus killed her for having intercourse with Neptune. His place, according to the most ancient writers, was in the palace of Jupiter, whose thunderbolts he carried; but others place-him among the stars as the horse of Aurora, or represent him as the horse of the Muses, who with his hoof produced the inspiring fountain Hippocrene on Mt. Helicon. He plays a part in the myth of Bellerophon and Chimsera, having been bridled by the former with a golden bridle received from Minerva, or according to some by the goddess herself.

Pehlevi Language

See Iranic Races and Languages, and Zend-Avesta.


See Geranitjm.

Pelayo, Or Pelagius

See Asturias.


See Newcastle, oe Newcastle-under-Lyme.