Butler, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. A W. county of Pennsylvania; area, 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,510. The surface is somewhat uneven, and the soil sandy, but yielding fair crops and affording good pasturage. Silk is produced to some extent. Bituminous coal, iron, and limestone are abundant. The Alleghany river touches the N. E. and S. E. corners, and it is drained by affluents of Beaver river. The chief productions in 1870 were 294,464 bushels of wheat, 179,577 of rye, 453,894 of Indian corn, 1,099,-163 of oats, 113,994 of buckwheat, 187,984 of potatoes, 52,567 tons of hay, 1,447,093 lbs. of butter, and 224,220 of wool. There were 11,-521 horses, 16,078 milch cows, 14,650 other cattle, 67,831 sheep, and 23,775 swine. Capital, Butler (pop. 1,935), on Conequessing creek, 30 m. N. of Pittsburgh. II. A S. county of Alabama, drained by Sepulga and Pigeon rivers; area, about 875 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,981, of whom 6,391 were colored. The surface is hilly, and in great part covered with pine woods. It is traversed by the Mobile and Montgomery railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 251,512 bushels of Indian corn, 60,116 of sweet potatoes, and 5,854 bales of cotton.

There were 1,017 horses, 1,042 mules and asses, 2,344 milch" cows, 3,682 other cattle, 2,281 sheep, and 11,245 swine. Capital, Greenville. III. A S. W. county of Kentucky, intersected by Green river, which is here navigable by steamboats; area, 500 sq. m.; pop in 1870, 9,404, of whom 643 were colored. The surface is uneven, and the soil moderately fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 13,875 bushels of wheat, 340,115 of Indian corn, 60,506 of oats, 20,583 lbs. of wool, and 1,008,582 of tobacco. There were 2,733 horses, 2,206 milch cows, 3,483 other cattle, 10,663 sheep, and 17,-147 swine. Capital, Morgantown. IV. A S. W. county of Ohio, bordering on Indiana, and intersected by the Miami river; area, 455 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 39,912. Limestone well adapted for building purposes underlies the county, and water power is abundant. The Miami canal, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton, the Cincinnati, Richmond, and Chicago, and the Cincinnati and Indianapolis Junction railroads traverse it.

The county contains a number of interesting monuments of the aboriginal inhabitants, chiefly on the banks of the Great and Little Miami rivers, described by Squier and Davis in "Monuments of the Mississippi Valley." At Oxford are the Miami university, a state institution, the Oxford female college, and the Western female semi-narv. The chief productions in 1870 were 627,377 bushels of wheat, 1,716,862 of Indian corn, 229,621 of oats, 277,016 of barley, 113,-135 of potatoes, 10,692 tons of hay, 126,977 lbs. of tobacco, 25,856 of wool, and 548,878 of butter. There were 8,181 horses, 6,472 milch cows, 7,824 other cattle, 6,637 sheep, and 27,-078 swine. Capital, Hamilton. V. A N. E. county of Iowa, drained by several branches of Red Cedar river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop in 1870, 9,951. The Dubuque and Sioux City railroad traverses the S. portion. The greater part is prairie. The chief productions in 1870 were 598,557 bushels of wheat, 422,448 of Indian corn, 261,000 of oats, 46,739 of potatoes, 16,351 tons of hay, 15,752 lbs. of wool, 268,273 of butter, and 26,519 of cheese. There were 3,922 horses, 3,439 milch cows, 4,460 other cattle, 3,952 sheep, and 6,522 swine.

Capita], Butler Centre. VI. A S. E. county of Missouri, bordering on Arkansas, bounded E. by St. Francis river, and intersected by the Big Black Water; area, 560 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,298, of whom 21 were colored. The surface is level or moderately hilly. The chief productions in 1870 were 10,994 bushels of wheat, 185,009 of Indian corn, 12,018 of oats, and 48,245 lbs. of tobacco. There were 1,309 horses, 1,355 milch cows, 2,340 other cattle, 2,680 sheep, and 12,605 swine. Capital, Poplar Bluff. VII. An E. county of Nebraska, bounded N. by the Platte river, and intersected by the North fork of the Big Blue; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,290. The principal productions in 1870 were 18,668 bushels of wheat, 21,020 of Indian corn, 9,350 of oats, 6,050 of potatoes, and 2,261 tons of hay. There were 574 horses, 460 milch cows, 861 other cattle, 478 sheep, and 606 swine. Capital, Savannah. VIII. A S. county of Kansas, E. of the Arkansas river; area, 1,519 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,035. It is well watered by the White and Walnut rivers and other affluents of the Arkansas. A railroad from Cottonwood Falls in Chase county, on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad, is projected, which will run S. W. through the county.

The chief productions in 1870 were 5,344 bushels of wheat, 38,-915 of Indian corn, 2,406 of oats, 1,640 of potatoes, and 4,465 tons of hay. There were 987 horses, 1,082 milch cows, 4,454 other cattle, 2,603-sheep, and 684 swine. Capital, Eldorado.