This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol2", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
Urinals are of two types, the lipped basin and the circular back. The lipped basin (Fig. 209) is trapped in itself, but the circular-backed (Fig. 210) discharges into a channel with a perforated grating on top, which is easily cleansed. This channel is trapped at the end with a gulley, and the trap ventilated before its connection to the drain.
Scullery sinks are best in glazed stoneware, as York stone absorbs the grease.
They are usually about 3 feet by 2 feet, and about 2 feet 6 inches from the floor to the top edge (see Fig. 211). They may be supported on half-brick walls rendered in Portland cement, or on cast-iron brackets, or on glazed pedestals. The sink should have a good fall to the outlet, which should be arranged in the corner on the side next the outer wall. The outlet should be fitted with a 3 1/2-inch bell-mouthed cobweb grating, and the waste trapped with a trap at least 2 inches internal diameter, with inspection screw cap as shown in Fig. 212.
This is usually in connection with the slop-sink, but it is more usual to empty the slops down the water-closet. Fig. 213 shows a Doulton's combined wash-up and slop-sink. The basin and trap are in earthenware, and there are valves for hot and cold water. The wooden grating on the wash-up side is to prevent crockery from being broken by contact with the stoneware. The trap and waste should be ventilated and connected to a soil pipe outside.
Butler's sinks are usually 15 inches deep, in lead, with 10-lb. bottom, and 7-lb. sides; the joints at the angles and bottom being made by means of welts.
They are sometimes of glazed earthenware, but breakages are then more liable to occur; others are lined with copper or tin, the copper joints being welted. Butler's sinks should be fitted with hot and cold water, and trapped with a deep trap with inspection eye (see Fig. 214).
Where a large amount of hot water is used it is found that the expansion and contraction crack the joint on the lead trap. To prevent this an expansion joint, as shown by Fig. 215, is used. The expansion and contraction are taken up by a solid rubber ring passing round the outside of the upper pipe, and allowing it to move up and down. Another method is to use cast - brass traps; but, although they are not liable to so great expansion and contraction, being rough inside from the core sand, they catch and retain the grease, and are therefore not so cleanly as the lead traps.
The regulations of Water Companies cause these fittings to vary in different localities, so that what may be legally used in one part of the country is forbidden in another.
Fig. 216 shows a section through Lord Kelvin's bib tap. This avoids the use of washers, and the turning of the tap grinds the valve on its seating.
Fig. 217 shows a stop cock for connection to a lead pipe. It will be noticed that the joint is made by a brass-screwed collar, and not by the wiped joint as in ordinary practice.
Fig. 218 shows a quick-turn full-way cock which can be used as a stop cock.
A quarter-turn bib valve is shown by Fig. 219.
Where the pressure is low, a clear-way wheel valve may be used, as shown by Fig. 220. This valve does not diminish the force of the flow.
If the water supply is limited, a spring valve is used for lavatory basins, as shown by Fig. 221. It is actuated by pressing the knob at the top, which springs back, shutting off the water when the pressure is released.
To prevent birds, dirt, etc., entering overflows, and the ingress of cold air in winter, a flap valve is used, as shown by Fig. 222.
In storage cisterns and water-waste preventers, a full-way ball valve, as shown on Fig. 223, is used. It permits the water free egress, and automatically closes when the tank is full.
Where quick closing taps, such as the spring valve, are used, an air chamber should always be fixed, to stop the noise made by the sudden closing of the tap. This noise is known by the name of "water-hammer," and is caused by suddenly stopping the flow of water shows an air chamber on an ascending pipe, Fig. 225 on a descending pipe, and Fig. 226 when the tap is on a rising main.
(taking place through the whole of the pipes) when a tap is closed. With a screw-down tap, however, the water is shut off gradually, and no appreciable concussion occurs. The use of an air chamber is to act as a buffer when sudden pressure is put on. Fig. 224
Too much care cannot be taken in planning the course of the pipes carrying the water supply to a house. All water mains should be at least 2 feet below the surface of the ground, and if subject to severe frosts should be laid in a wooden trough filled with "non-conducting" material.
After leaving the main, a stop cock should be fixed near the house, and in such position as to be readily accessible. It should be similar to that shown in Fig. 217, and covered by a stop-cock box, as shown by Fig. 227. A draw-off cock should be placed on the rising main to empty the pipes when necessary, and the rising main should be of a size that will supply the cistern as quickly as the water is drawn off, when the capacity of the cistern is not equal to the supply of all the draw-offs.
Every cistern should be provided with an overflow pipe, whose diameter should be from 25 to 50 per cent. greater than that of the supply pipe. The overflow should be taken into the open air, and fitted with a brass, or a copper flap, at the end (see Fig. 222).
Standing plugs are preferable for emptying the cisterns, and for cleansing purposes. When it is necessary to take a supply pipe against an external wall, it should be covered with hair felt, or some other non-conducting material, and cased.
Connections with cisterns should be through the sides, and at a height from the bottom equal to the diameter of the pipe. This prevents sediment from being drawn into the pipes.
The sizes of supply pipes vary with the head of water; the greater the head, the smaller the diameter of the pipe.
A stop cock should be fixed in the main supply near the cistern, to be used in case of accident.
Head of Water, i.e. Height of
Cistern (bottom) above Outlet.
Sizes of Pipe and Valve for flushing Rim Closets.
Sizes of Pipes for Sinks and Draw-offs.
4 and under 6
and 1 1/2-valve