Scopolamine (Hyoscine, Amorphous Hyoscyamine), C17H21NO4. This exists in various plants of the Solanaceae, being chemically and otherwise identical with hyoscine, and thought to consist of two bases, scopolamine and atrosin (optically inactive scopolamine); it is obtained from the mother-liquor of hyoscyamine by adding gold chloride, to form a less soluble gold double salt, which crystallizes out, dissolving this in water, removing gold by hydrogen sulphide, precipitating scopolamine with potassium carbonate. It is a semi-liquid tenacious mass, isomeric with hyoscyamine, laevorotatory, yielding tropic acid and pseudotropine, C8H15NO; forms numerous salts (hydrobromide, hydrochloride, sulphate, etc.).

Scopolaminae Hydrobromidum, Scopolamine Hydrobromide, C17H21-NO4.HBr + 3H2O, official. - (Syn., Scopolamin. Hydrobrom., Hyoscine Hydrobromide, Scopolamine Bromide (Hydrobromate); Fr. Brom-hydrate d'Hyoscine; Ger. Skopolaminhydrobromid.) Obtained by dissolving scopolamine in slight excess of diluted hydrobromic acid, concentrating, crystallizing. It is in colorless, transparent, rhombic crystals, some large; odorless, slightly efflorescent, laevorotatory (use great care in tasting and then only in dilute solution); soluble in water (1.5), alcohol (20), slightly in chloroform, insoluble in ether; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, slightly acid; melts when anhydrous at 191° C. (376° F.). Tests: 1. Dry to constant weight - loses 13 p. c; over sulphuric acid - loses water of crystallization slowly; incinerate .1 Gm. - ash non-weighable. 2. Add .01 Gm. to 5 drops of nitric acid, evaporate to dryness, add alcoholic potassium hydroxide T. S. - violet color; aqueous solution with silver nitrate T. S. - yellowish-white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 3. Shake aqueous solution (1 in 20) 1 Ml. (Cc), to which a few drops of chlorine water have been added, with chloroform 2 Ml. (Cc.) - chloroform brownish color. Impurities: Apoatropine, morphine, foreign alkaloids, carbonizable substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 3-3-g - rj-g-(.00025-.0006 Gm.); hypodermically, gr. 1/400-1/200 (.00015-.0003 Gm.).

Hyoscipicrin, C27H52O14. - A neutral, bitter glucoside, soluble in water, alcohol, precipitated by tannin, converted by hydrochloric acid into fermentable sugar, and a yellowish, acrid, bitter resin.

Preparations. - 1. Extractum Hyoscyami. Extract of Hyoscyamus. (Syn., Ext. Hyosc, Extract of Henbane; Fr. Extrait de Jusquiame; Ger. Bilsenkrautextrakt.)

Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 75 p. c alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70° C. (158° F.) to pilular consistence, frequently stirring, mix thoroughly; after assay add enough glucose for extract Co contain .25 p. c. of total alkaloids; contains .22 .28 .25 p. c, of the alkaloids; mix thoroughly; 1 Gm. represents about 4 Gm. of the drug. Dose, gr. 1/2 -2 (.03 .13 Gm.).

2. Fluidextractum Hyoscyami. Fluidextract of Hyoscyamus. (Syn., Fldext. Hyosc., Fluid Extract of Hyoscyamus, Fluidextract of Henbane; Fr. Extrait fluide de Jusquiame; Ger. Bilsenkrautfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 7") p. c. alcohol; after dissolving soft extract in the reserve, assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .055-.075 - .065 Gm. of total alkaloids. Dose, eij-10 (.13-.0 Ml. (Cc.)).

2. Tinctura Hyoscyami. Tincture of Hyoscyamus. (Syn., Tr. Hyoscy., Tincture of Henbane; Fr. Teinture de Jusquiame; Ger. Bilsenkrauttinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: diluted alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .0055-.0075 - .0065 Gm. of total alkaloids. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Abstract (alcohol), dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.). Extractum Hyoscyami Viride - express juice, heat, strain, evaporate, add coloring matter strained out, dose, gr. 2-8 (.13-.5 Gm.). Infusion, 5 p. c, dose, 3j-3 (4-12 Ml. (Cc.)). Compound Oil, oils of lavender, peppermint, rosemary, thyme, each .2, infused oil of hyoscyamus q. s. 100. Succus Hyoscyami - expressed juice (3), and alcohol (1), dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)). Oleum Hyoscyami Infusum (leaves 10, alcohol 10, ammonia water .2, sesame oil 80); use externally. Baume Tranquille (leaves of hyoscyamus, stramonium, belladonna, tobacco, poppy, black nightshade, aa 40 parts + aromatic herbs 12 kinds aa 10 + olive oil 1,000); used externally.

Properties. - Anodyne, hypnotic, narcotic, mydriatic, laxative, carminative, similar to belladonna, stramonium, and duboisia, but less powerful and irritating, yet the most calmative and hypnotic of the group, sedative to urinary tract. Hyoscyamine is less active than atropine; it is more an anodyne or anaesthetic than narcotic or soporific, depresses spinal but excites cerebral function. Scopolamine (hyoscine) is much stronger than hyoscyamine, being a powerful cerebral and spinal sedative; lessens pulse and respiration; habitually used produces muscular paralysis, violent delirium.

uses. - Mostly with children, and where opium is contraindicated; acute and chronic mania, delusional insanity, insomnia with hallucinations, delirium tremens, monomania of hypochondriacs, whooping-cough, nervous cough, colics, tremor in paralysis, mercurial poisoning, locomotor ataxia, irritation of bladder, constipation, chorea, tetanus, morphine-habit, corrective to griping and nauseating medicine.

Poisoning: Same as for belladonna; but for scopolamine (hyoscine) use chiefly hydrated chloral.

Incompatibles, Synergists: Same as those of belladonna.

Hyoscyami Semen. - Official 1830-1880. These are stronger than leaves, and used mostly for extraction of alkaloids; they are roundish, reniform, flattened. 1-1.5 Mm. (1/25-1/16') long finely pitted, grayish-brown, sharp near the raised portion (dif. from stramonium seed), inodorous, taste oily, bitter, acrid. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.). Allied Plants:

1. Hyoscyamus Pal'Lidus

Hyoscyamus Pal'Lidus. Flowers are pale yellow and have no purple (niger) veins in the corolla. H. agres'tis (of the field, wild); small annual, .3 M. (1°) high, less villous; with leaves smaller, and fewer flowers. H. mu'ticus, leaves yellowish, stem remnants and calyxes longer, trichomes prominent and branched. H. al'bus and H. an'reus, the former with white flowers, the latter with golden-yellow; both less active than the official.

2. Duboi'Sia Myoporoi'Des

Duboi'Sia Myoporoi'Des. Australia. Small tree having properties similar to those of belladonna and hyoscyamus; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') broad, petiolate, midrib prominent, entire, taste bitter; contains duboisine .3-1 p. c, a volatile alkaloid (mixture of hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and atropine), which forms numerous salts. Dose of leaves, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.), duboisine hydrobromide or sulphate, gr. 1/120-1/60(.0005-.001 Gm.); used externally for eye affections, in solution (1 p. c. in water).