Oleum Olivae. Olive Oil, official.

Olca europaea,


A fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruit.

Habitat. Asia, S. Europe (Spain, Portugal, Asia Minor, Syria, Italy, S. France), Algeria; cultivated in S. United States (Fla., Cal.), S. America.

Syn. Olive Gum, Lucca Gum, Olive (Bark) Leaves; 01. Oliv., Sweet Oil; Fr. Huile d'Olive; Ger. Oleum Olivarum, Olivenol.

O'le-a. L. olive, fr. Gr.

Olea Olive 627

olive tree, oliva, the fruit, oleum, the juice or oil from the fruit.

Eu-ro-pae'a. L. European - i. e., its habitat.

Plant. - When wild a branched, thorny shrub; under cultivation a tree 3-9 M. (10-30°) high, resembling white willow; bark grayish-white; leaves 5-6 Cm. (2-2 2/5') long, lanceolate, acute, entire, coriaceous, glabrous, upper side glaucous-green, the lower silvery-white; flowers many, small, creamy-white, diandrous, racemes; fruit drupe, 12-25 Mm. 1/2-1') long, ovoid, pointed, olive-green then deep purple, sarcocarp firm, fleshy, internally greenish and filled with oil; stone (putamen) thick, bony, ovoid, 1-seeded.

Constituents. - Fruit sarcocarp: Fixed oil 70 p. c, water 25 p. c.

Oleum Olivae. Olive Oil. - It is a pale yellow, light greenish-yellow, oily liquid, slight peculiar odor and taste, faintly acrid after-taste; slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide; sp. gr. 0.915; cooled from 10-8° C. (50-46° F.) somewhat cloudy from separation of crystalline particles, at 0° C. (32° F.) forms whitish, granular mass; contains olein 70 p. c, linolein 6 p. c, palmitin and arachin 28 p. c, phytosterin (unsaponi-fiable matter, once thought to be cholesterin), chlorophyll (from fruit, imparting greenish color). Tests: 1. Mix in test-tube 5 Ml. (Cc.) with 5 Ml. (Cc.) of equal vols, of amyl alcohol and carbon disulphide, containing 1 p. c. of sulphur in solution, immerse to one-third its depth in boiling, saturated aqueous salt solution - no reddish color in 15 minutes (abs. of cottonseed oil). 2. Mix 2 Ml. (Cc.) with 1 Ml. (Cc.) of hydrochloric acid containing 1 p. c. of sugar, shake half a minute, let stand 5 minutes, add 3 Ml. (Cc.) of distilled water, shake - acid layer shows no pink color (abs. of sesame oil). Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers. Dose, adult, ℥ss-l (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)); infant, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)), in emulsion.

Adulterations. - Chiefly cottonseed oil, also peanut, poppy, rape, and sesame oils, etc., rarely less than 25 p. c; all of these congeal at much lower temperature, and do not solidify when shaken with mercuric nitrate (12), as does pure olive oil.

Commercial. - Tree is grown successfully in California, but our supply of oil comes solely from Europe, it being obtained by crushing ripe fruit short of the putamen, subjecting marc, in coarse bags, to strong pressure, and running oil into vessels containing water, from which, after a few days subsidence, it is skimmed, thus constituting the first grade, huile merge - virgin oil; the press-cakes are taken from the bags, finely broken up with hot water, and subjected to greater pressure, thereby removing both water and oil, the latter being drawn off from the surface, constituting second-grade oil; the remaining marc contains 9-12 p. c. of oil, which may be extracted by carbon disulphide, or by mixing with hot water in cisterns (enfer), and allowing partial fermentation, yielding on the surface a disagreeably smelling oil, huile d'enfer; sometimes inferior fruit is allowed to ferment in heaps or vats, giving by expression also an inferior oil, huile fermentee. In order to combine perfume, fineness, and sweetness the oil must be from fruit slightly ripe, and then stored 6-8 months, until the strong flavor has disappeared; it enters commerce in bottles, jugs, and barrels, under the brands: Province, Florence, Gallipoli, Spanish, Sicily - the best from S. France, the most from Italy (one-half), and Spain (one-fifth).

Fig. 304.   Olea europoea.

Fig. 304. - Olea europoea.

Preparations. - 1. Sapo. Soap. (Syn., White Castile Soap, Sodium Oleate, Sapo Durus, Hard Soap; Fr. Savon Medicinae, Savon blanc d'Espagne; Ger. Sapo medicatus - (hispanicus), Medizinische Seife, Seife, Spanische Seife.)

Manufacture: Olive oil and sodium hydroxide are boiled together until saponified - C3H5(C18H33O2)3 + 3NaOH = 3NaC18H33O2 (hard soap) + C3H5(OH)3. It is a white, whitish solid (in bars), hard, yet easily cut when fresh, or a fine, yellowish-white powder, faint, peculiar odor, free from rancidity, disagreeable, alkaline taste; soluble in water, alcohol, more readily with heat; aqueous solution alkaline. Impurities:

Water, soap from animal fats, sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, silica, metallic and other accidental substances.

Prep.: 1. Linimentum Saponis. Soap Liniment. (Syn.,Lin.Sapon.,

Liquid Opodeldoc, Tinctura Saponis Camphorata, Spiritus Nervinus Camphoratus; Fr. Liniment savonneux camphre; Ger.

Linimentum saponato-camphoratum, Opodeldok.)

Manufacture: 6 p. c. Dissolve camphor 4.5 Gm., oil of rosemary

1 Ml. (Cc.) in alcohol 70 Ml. (Cc.), add soap 6 Gm., water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.); agitate until soap dissolved, set in cool place for 24 hours, filter; used externally.

Prep.: Linimentum Chloroformi, 70 p. c. 2. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, 15 p. c. 3. Pilulce Aloes, 2 gr. (.13 Gm.). 4. Pilulce Asafoetidoe, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.). 2. Emplastrum Plumbi.

Unoff. Preps.: Camphorated Soap Liniment (Solid Opodeldoc), monohyd. sodium carbonate 1, stearic acid 5, water 10, camphor 2.5, oil of thyme .3, oil of rosemary .6, ammonia water 5, alcohol 80. Pilula Saponis Composita (Br.), 60 p. c. + opium 20 + syrup of glucose 20, dose, gr. 2-4 (.13-.26 Gm.). Sapo Animalis, Curd Soap (Br.). Properties. - Nutritious, demulcent, emollient, laxative, protection to mucous membrane against acrid or poisonous substances; it increases secretion of bile, peristalsis, and dissolves cholesterin, the chief constituent of gall-stones. Like other oils, it is partly emulsified and saponified in the intestines, its glycerin being set free, and fatty acid combining with free alkalies to form soap, which with the emulsion forms molecular basis of the chyle; it enters the blood through the lacteals, being finally oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Soap has same properties.

Uses. - Gall-stones, cantharides and other poisoning, infantile constipation in enema. Externally - burns, skin inflammations, to protect from air, insect-bites, stings, bruises, sprains, wounds, engorged mammae, rectal ascarides; facilitates removal of crusts, scales, etc., and introduction of bougies, catheters, pessaries, sounds, specula; to lubricate machinery, in making liniments, plasters, cerates, ointments, etc.

Allied Products:

1. Olive Gum, Lecca Gum. Resinous substance which exudes spontaneously from the trees. 2. Leaves and young bark; used externally as astringents, antiseptics; internally as tonics in intermittents. 3. Olive Wood; has beautiful veins, pleasant odor, capable of fine polish, highly esteemed for backs of brushes, boxes, and in cabinet-work. 4. Olive Fruit; as a dessert - for this the unripe fruit is steeped repeatedly in water containing lime and ashes, then bottled in a slightly aromatic, concentrated salt solution; the small French or Provence and the large Spanish olives are used for this purpose.