Lisbon (Port. Lisboa), a city and the chief seaport of Portugal, capital of the kingdom and of the province of Estremadura, on the right bank of the Tagus, about 9 m. from its mouth, 173 m. S. by W. of Oporto, 310 m. W. S. W. of Madrid, and 218 m. N. W. of Cadiz; lat. 38° 42' N., Ion. 9° 8' W.; pop. in 1864, 224,063. The city is built on a series of hills, and rises in amphitheatre from the river, viewed from which it presents, with its palaces, churches, and dazzling white houses, an aspect of magniticence surpassed by few other cities in the world. The streets in the old portion of the town (mostly hilly), where the ravages of the great earthquake were least extensive, are narrow, crooked, badly paved, and filthy; while those in the flat district, stretching from the Castello de Sao Jorge westward along the river, are spacious and well kept, and many of them cross each other at right angles. But in no part of Lisbon are now seen the hosts of mendicants, vagrant dogs, and mounds of dirt which formerly rendered the old streets so unhealthy for the inhabitants and insupportable to strangers. The houses in the old portions are with few exceptions wretched hovels, but those in the new are well built and extremely neat.

The Necessidades palace, erected in the 18th century by King John V., has no architectural pretensions; but being situated on an eminence in the extreme west of the city, it commands a fine view of the river, and the gardens, with numerous fountains and aviaries, contain rare collections of botanical curiosities. The Ajuda palace, standing on a high hill behind the suburb of Belem, is a huge unfinished structure, in which the court receptions are usually held. Other royal residences are the palace of Belem and the Quinta de Cima, the ancient Bem-posta, now used as a military school, and a new palace built in 1864. The sittings of the cortes arc held in the old convent of Sao Bento, appropriated to that use in 1834. The cathedral, one of the most ancient edifices in Lisbon, was according to tradition once a mosque, and in the 12th century converted into a temple by Alfonso I., who also rebuilt it, and appointed an English ecclesiastic the first bishop of the see. Sao Vicente de Fora, a church so named from its site outside the walls of the Saracen city, was founded by Alfonso I., and within its walls in a low dark chapel are entombed the sovereigns of the house of Braganca. The monastery adjoining this church was one of the largest in Lisbon; since 1773 it has been the residence of the patriarch, but its valuable library has not been removed.

Near the cathedral stands the church of Sao Antonio da Se, of rather small proportions, but with a rich interior decoration. The church of Nossa Senhora da Graca, rebuilt on one of the highest hills in 1550, is very conspicuous in all general views of the city. Of the numerous other churches, none deserve special mention except that of Nossa Senhora dos Martyres, erected by Alfonso I. on the site of the crusaders' camp, and consequently the most ancient parish in Lisbon, the beautiful church of Santa Engracia, and that at Sao Roque. A large number of convents seated on the various hills, and mostly massive and imposing structures, present the appearance of palaces and fortresses. Among the other public buildings of importance are the Castello de Sao Jorge, on one of the highest eminences, which with the ground immediately surrounding it formed the original Moorish city; the military arsenal, in the easternmost district, on the banks of the river; the naval arsenal, adjoining the Largo do Pelourinho, and erected by Pombal after the earthquake; the custom house, on the east side of the Praca do Commercio; the exchange; the mint, with a coining machine worked by steam; the polytechnic institute, the architecture of which is chaste in style and admirable in execution; and above all, the grand aqueduct, constructed under John V., conveying water from springs some 10 m.

N. W. of the city to the reservoir Mai d'Agua, near the Praca do Rato. This magnificent structure crosses the valley of Alcantara upon a series of lofty arches, the maximum height of which is about 250 ft. Lisbon abounds in hospitals and charitable institutions; the most interesting of the former is Sao Jose, and of the latter the Real Casa Pia, now located in the convent of Sao Gero-nimo at Belem, for foundlings, orphans, and little wanderers. There are live theatres, a museum of natural history, and a botanic garden, three general cemeteries near the city for natives, and several smaller ones for foreigners. The English burial ground, called by the Portuguese Os Cyprestes, on the Estrella hill, contains the tombs of Fielding the novelist and Dr. Philip Doddridge. Adjoining the ground is a school for English children of both sexes whose parents are in straitened circumstances. The Limoeiro, now the principal prison, was formerly a palace. The only bridge worthy of mention is that over the small stream of Alcantara, on the road to Belem, with a beautiful statue of St. John Nepomuck, the patron of bridges, executed by the sculptor Padua. Near the bridge is a large collection of royal carriages.

Among the scientific and learned societies may be mentioned the royal academy of sciences, founded in 1778; the society for the promotion of national industry; the society for the amelioration of the laboring classes; the royal marine academy, with its observatory; the military college; royal academy of artillery and engineers; school of music; the national library, with over 150,000 volumes; and the library of the cortes, with 30,000 volumes. The educational establishments comprise the royal schools of Vicente de Fora for philosophy, the sciences, and the ancient languages; the royal school of design and architecture; and a number of elementary schools, public and private. Besides the theatres, there are several other places of amusement, such as the Circo dos Touros, for bull fights, constructed in 1831, with accommodation for an immense number of spectators, and a profusion of public gardens and promenades. - The port (or rather roadstead) of Lisbon is very spacious, offering excellent anchorage for whole fleets together, and is justly regarded as one of the finest in Europe. The entrance to the Tagus is defended by two forts, Sao Juliao, and Bugio situated on the islet of Alcacova, on which is also a lighthouse; and the bar at the mouth is the only one in Portugal which vessels can cross in all seasons and at all hours.

Among the most ancient industries of the Lis-bonese are those of the goldsmith and jeweller; while those of modern introduction include cotton and woollen spinning, and the manufacture of silk fabrics, sails, cordage, paper, chemicals, wax candles, and earthenware. Meats and fruits of various kinds are extensively preserved for export; there is a steam saw mill; and a spinning and weaving factory, some 7 m. from the city, on the opposite bank of the river, has recently achieved marked improvement in the manufacture of woollen and cotton stuffs. The imports mainly consist of cotton and woollen goods, anthracite coal, sugar, butter, raw metals, hides, and skins; the exports, of wine, olive oil, coffee, raw wax, bark, minerals (antimony, manganese, &c), cotton fabrics, preserved meats and fruits, dried and green fruits, chemicals, and various other commodities. The total value of the exports in 1872 was $8,145,526 (wine, $1,335,-376), and in 1873, $8,024,619 (wine, $1,836,-680); of imports in 1872, $12,072,443, and in 1873, $12,497,728. The bank of Portugal, created in 1846, with a capital of about $12,-000,000, is the principal establishment of its kind in the kingdom.

The wealthiest merchants are for the most part English; but there are many French, Germans, Dutch, and Italians. Lisbon is directly connected by rail with Oporto and other important cities in the kingdom, and with Madrid. - Nothing is definitely known of the date of the foundation of Lisbon, though some native historians gravely ascribe it to Ulysses, whence the early name Olisipo. Julius Caesar bestowed upon it the rights of a mvnicipium, and called it Felicitas Julia. The Alani, Vandals, and Suevi seized it in 409; and the Moors, who captured it in 711, named it Lishbuna, and held it till 1147, when it was wrested from them by Count Affonso Henriques (afterward king as Alfonso I.). Lisbon was made an archbishopric in 1390, and a patriarchate in 1716 by Clement XI. In 1433 the seat of government was transferred hither from Coimbra. It reached the zenith of its importance at the beginning of the 16th century under Emanuel the Great, when the Portuguese were distinguished above all other nations for their maritime discovery and commercial enterprise.

From 1580 to 1640, under Spanish rule, it was a provincial town; and the Spanish armada sailed hence in 1588. The most memorable event in the history of the city is the great earthquake of Nov. 1, 1755, by which about 40,000 persons lost their lives, and most of the city was destroyed. (See Earthquake, vol. vi., p. 360.) It has never fully recovered from this calamity, of which traces still remain in the desolated aspect of many vacant building sites. The city was occupied by the French in November, 1807, but delivered by the English in 1808, and protected by the duke of Wellington against the attacks of the enemy by the erection in 1809-'10 of formidable fortifications, extending from the Atlantic eastward to Torres Vedras (hence called the lines of Torres Vedras), and thence southeastward to Alhandra on the Ta-gus. On the occasion of the revolt of the troops against Dom Miguel, Aug. 21, 1831, some 300 persons lost their lives. The town was seized by Dom Pedro in July, 1833.

Lisbon, from the south bank of the Tagus.

Lisbon, from the south bank of the Tagus.