Mary I, first queen regnant of England and Ireland, fourth sovereign of the Tudor line and daughter of Henry VIII. and of Catharine of Aragon, born at Greenwich palace, Feb 18 1516, died st St. James's palace, Nov. 17, 155s She was severely educated, according to a code o instructions drawn up by Ludovicus Vives She was the object of various matrimonial negotiations in her infancy; it was pro-posed by treaty in 1518 that she should marry the dauphin, son of Francis 1. of France, and in 1522 she was betrothed to the emperor Charles V. He desired that she should be sent to Spain for education, but her parents would not consent to part with her, though they gave her a Spanish education. A Scottish match was proposed in 1524. Her father was at that time passionately attached to her, declaring her heir to the crown, and, according to one authority, creating her princess of Wales. She had a magnificent court at Ludlow castle, her chamberlain being that Dudley, duke of Northumberland, who in after days sought to prevent her from ascending the throne, and whom she sent to the scaffold. The countess of Salisbury, the last of the Plantagenet family, was at the head of her establishment.

The emperor broke his contract with her on the ground that her father, by seeking a divorce from her mother, was seeking also his daughter's degradation. Henry then sought to marry her to Francis I., but that prince took for his second wife the emperor's sister Eleanor. Catharine wished her daughter to marry a son of Lady Salisbury, whose brother, Warwick, had been murdered by Henry VII. on the demand of Ferdinand of Aragon, before he would consent that his daughter should marry a prince of the house of Tudor. This son was the famous Reginald Pole, afterward cardinal. Her hand was asked for the duke of Orleans, second son of Francis I., but vainly. After the birth of Elizabeth, Mary was degraded from the position she held; and when James V. of Scotland asked her in marriage, his suit was refused, from the fear that issue from such union would interfere with the title of Anne Boleyn's children to the crown. As she resisted as far as she could, it was reported that her father was indignant, and that her life was in danger. The treatment she received justified the fears that were entertained, and the emperor interfered in her behalf.

After Anne Boleyn's death (1536) Mary was better treated; but her father's object, which was a renunciation of her right to the succession, was not obtained until some time after this change, when she signed articles acknowledging that her mother's marriage was incestuous and illegal, her own birth illegitimate, and the king's supremacy over the church absolute. She was then restored to some favor. Her hand was again asked for the duke of Orleans, and she stood sponsor to the young prince who was afterward Edward VI. Negotiations for her marriage with various princes were fruitlessly made, among them being the prince of Portugal, the duke of Cleves, and the duke of Bavaria. As she was regarded as the head of the Catholic party, she was an object of suspicion to her father and to the Protestants, and her situation was made painful by the legal murder of most of her friends, including the countess of Salisbury; but in 1544 she was restored to her place in the line of succession by act of parliament. She lived on the best terms with her last stepmother, Catharine Parr, and at her instance translated Erasmus's Latin paraphrase of St. John. During tho reign of Edward VI. she took no part in politics, though she was denied the free enjoyment of her religion.

Suitors for her hand continued to present themselves: the duke of Brunswick, the margrave of Brandenburg, and the infante of Portugal. The emperor threatened war if she were not exempted from the penalties prepared for nonconformists, and she was suspected of intending to take refuge at his court. On the death of Edward VI. (July 6, 1553) Mary succeeded him, after a brief but unimportant struggle with the partisans of the Dudleys and Greys, who had set up Lady Jane Grey as queen. She was merciful to the fallen, only three persons being executed for treason; and she-refused to bring the lady Jane to trial, saying that she was merely a tool of Northumberland. A reaction in the government took place, for which the queen was less blamable than her councillors, the principal of whom was Bishop Gardiner, who was made lord chancellor Aug. 23, 1553. Mary interfered to prevent the perpetration of cruelty by the privy council, and the early part of her reign was mild. Her coronation took place Oct. 1, 1553. Her first parliament met four days later, and restored the laws relating to life and property to the state they were in at the 25th of Edward III., and annulled all the acts that cast a stain on the queen's legitimacy.

The religious laws of Edward VI. were repealed, and the church of his father was restored, making Mary its head, much against her will; but while she held the post, the Protestants were not persecuted. Lady Jane Grey was attainted, but it was known that the queen intended to spare her life. Mary's resolution to marry Philip of Spain caused great alarm to her subjects. Formidable insurrections broke out, which were not quelled without much exertion, and in the course of the brief rebellion the queen showed both courage and capacity. The effect of this struggle was to give entire ascendancy to the reactionary party in the royal councils. The death warrants of Lady Jane Grey and her husband, and of other persons, were signed; and the queen was urged to put to death her sister Elizabeth and the earl of Devonshire, who, however, were only sent to the tower. When her ministers would have punished the rebels with that sweeping slaughter which characterized most of the Tudor reigns, she interfered, and saved their lives. The marriage of Mary and Philip took place July 25,1554. It proved fatal to Mary's peace, and most injurious to her character and reputation.

On Nov. 30 Cardinal Pole declared England and Rome reconciled, and those persecutions which have made of Mary's reign a by-word and a reproach were commenced with the burning of John Rogers, Feb. 4, 1555. According to many historians, j they were due to the influence of Gardiner and Bonner, the queen being ill most of the time. Ranke gives credit to Gardiner's assertion that the queen herself, and not he, insisted on the revival of the old laws against the Lollards; and though he admits that many of the horrors of their execution may have been kept from her, he adds that no apology will free her memory from the dark stain that clings to it: "for whatever is done in the name of a prince, with his will and by his authority, decides his reputation in history." Mary was neglected by her husband, to whom she was warmly attached. For his sake she declared war with France, June 7. 1557, and English forces took part in the battles of St. Quentin and Gravelines. In January, 1558. the French captured Calais, which the English had held for more than two centuries. War with France brought on war with Scotland. The loss of Calais was so mortifying to the English, that they insisted that Philip should make no peace with France without providing for its restoration.

Mary's health had never been good, and she was indisposed during the greater part of her reign, of which circumstance her council took advantage. She suffered from dropsy and nervous debility, and her disappointment from not, having children aggravated her illness. She recognized Elizabeth as her successor. In the summer of 1558 she was attacked by intermittent fever, of which thousands of her subjects had died, the consequence of the wet seasons that prevailed throughout her reign. When it was evident that her last hour was at hand, her court was deserted, most of its members hastening to Hatfield, the residence of Elizabeth. She was buried on Dec. 13, in Henry VII.'s chapel.