Midich (Ger. Müncheri), the capital of Bavaria and of the district of Upper Bavaria, on the Isar, in the midst of an extensive plain, 1,700 ft. above the level of the sea, in lat. 48° 9' N., Ion. 11° 35' E., 33 m. S. E. of Ausrsburg, 290 m. S. S. W. of Berlin, and 220 m. W. of Vienna; pop. in 1871, 169,478 (in 1812, 40,000). It is celebrated for its architectural splendor, for its admirable institutions and works of art, and for its university. The city is composed of the old and the new town and of five suburbs on the left bank and three on the right bank of the Isar. The river is spanned by four bridges, the Isar bridge being the largest and the Maximilian the finest and most recent. The number of streets is about 275, and new streets are springing up in every direction, particularly near the new railway stations in Haidhausen and other suburbs, and in the S. part of the city. The streets in the old town are irregular, but spacious and bustling. The most celebrated in the modern city are the Ludwig and Maximilian streets, which respectively contain the most remarkable public and private buildings.
There are nearly 20 squares, of which the Max-Joseph is the largest; and others conspicuous for attractiveness are the Odeon, Wittels-bach, Maximilian, Karl, and Promenade squares, the Carolinenplatz, and the Königsplatz. Favorite promenades are the Hofgarten and the English garden, the latter remarkable for a Greek temple and other embellishments. The S. continuation of it, known as the Hirschau, abounds with deer, stags, and pheasants; and N. of the park is the new zoological garden. Not far from Munich is the park adjoining the palace of Nymphenburg, and the picturesque scenery of the upper banks of the Isar makes many of the neighboring villages favorite resorts, while the immediate vicinity of the city teems with public gardens. - Munich contains upward of 20 Roman Catholic churches and chapels. St. Peter's, the oldest, dates from the 13th century. The Gothic cathedral (Frauenkirche), completed at the end of the 15th, has two lofty dome-capped towers. St. Michael's is remarkable for the beauty of the interior and for the width of its roof unsupported by pillars; it contains Thorwaldsen's monument of Eugene de Beaurharnais. St. Cajetan's contains the tombs of the royal family. The modern edifices are however the most interesting.
All Saints' chapel (Allerheiligen-Kapelle or Hof-kapelle) has columns of red Tyrolese marble with white bases and gilded capitals. The upper part of the aisles is incrusted with colored marbles; all the rest is covered with frescoes upon a golden ground. The Lud-wigskirche, in the round arch style, is also famous for the beauty of its execution and its designs, and for the wealth of its decorations, which comprise colossal statues of St. Peter and St. Paul and other works by Schwan-thaler, and Cornelius's "Last Judgment," upward of 60 ft. high. The parish church of Maria-Hilf, in the Au suburb, and in the German pointed style of the 14th century, with high lancet windows, contains 19 painted windows illustrative of incidents in the life of the Virgin. The church or basilica of St. Boniface, finished in 1850, in the Byzantine style, is the largest and most splendid of them all. The front has a portico of eight Corinthian columns with three bronze doors. The side facades have a double row of round-headed windows. The interior, divided into a nave 75 ft. high and 50 ft. wide, and a number of aisles, is supported by 64 monolithic columns of marble disposed in four rows.
The pavement is of marble mosaic, and the roof of open timber work, the beams of which arc carved and richly decorated, and the ceiling between them azure with golden stars. The frescoes on the walls represent saints and martyrs and incidents in the life of St. Boniface. - The majority of the population are Roman Catholics, and an archbishop resides here. Munich has also recently become the great centre of the Old Catholic movement. There are about 16,000 Protestants, who have several places of worship. There is only one synagogue, Jews being less numerous here than in most other parts of Germany, numbering barely 2,000. Charitable institutions arc numerous; the most prominent arc those for the blind and deaf and dumb, and the new lunatic asylum in the Au suburb. The penitentiary, or great prison, in the same locality, is one- of the most remarkable establishments of the kind in Germany, resembling a manufactory in which every handicraft is carried on, the prisoners, male and female, being obliged to work at their respective trades.
Among the finest otheial buildings are the war and post offices, the mint, the office of the mining and salt works and the renovated city hall ( Rathhaus). - The Ludwig-Maximilian university, founded in Ingolstadt in 1472, and in 1800 transferred to Landshut, was removed to Munich in 1826, and has since attained world-wide celebrity, particularly under the reign of Maximilian II. (1848-'64). The 400th anniversary of its foundation was celebrated in 1872. In the winter term of 1874-'o it was attended by 1,14-5 students, including 80 in Roman Catholic theology, 223 in jurisprudence, etc. 307 in medicine and pharmacy, and 432 in philosophy. Connected with it were 113 professors, one of whom is Dr. Döllinger. Attached to the university, which occupies a new and imposing edifice, are the Georgianum or theological school, a philological seminary, anatomical and clinical institutions, and the general hospital. The royal polytechnic school, founded within the last generation, has rapidly risen to great importance, and was attended in 1875 by upward of 1,300 students. A line building was appropriated in 1863 for an athenaeum for training young men for the civil service, and contains Kaul-bach's "Battle of Salamis," one of 100 paintings illustrating universal history.
There are many other educational institutions in Munich, ex-tending over every specialty of military and civil instruction, and including a Catholic normal seminary. The libraries of Munich are extensive and numerous. The most celebrated is the royal or public library (Hof-und Staats-bibhothek), a splendid building in the Ludwig street, resembling an Italian mediaeval palace, and containing a reading room, 900,000 volumes, and 22,000 manuscripts, the books from suppressed monasteries greatly contributing to swell the number. Next in extent is the university library, with 230,000 volumes and 2 000 manuscripts. The academy of sciences is rich in scientific collections, and has jurisdiction over the cabinetof antiquities in the old royal palace, the chemical laboratory established by Liebig, the botanic garden and the new palm house, and the observatory and meteorological bureau, near the neighboring village of Bogen-hausen. - The academy of tine arts, including the Schwanthaler and other museums, is devoted to architecture, sculpture, drawing, and engraving. Piloty succeeded Kaulbach as president in 1874. A plot of ground near the Sie-gesthor was in 1874 purchased by the government for the erection of a new building for the academy.
The Glyptothek or sculpture gallery is surrounded by pleasure grounds, and consists of 12 halls named after the statues which they contain. The 1st is filled with Egyptian sculptures, and the 2d with the earliest Greek and Etruscan; the 3d with Aeginetan antiquities, which are especially celebrated for the marbles discovered in 1811 and restored by Thorwaldsen; the 4th (the hall of Apollo) is devoted to the works of Phidias; the 5th (hall of Bacchus) contains the sleeping or Bar-berini faun, and other famous works; the 6th (hall of the sons of Niobe) is remarkable for a kneeling figure of Ilioneus, the youngest son of Niobe; the 7th (hall of the gods) is devoted to heathen mythology, and the 8th (Trojan hall) to the heroes of Homer; in the 9th (hall of heroes), are statues of Alexander the Great and Nero; the 10th (Roman hall) is remarkable for its decoration, and contains busts which exhibit the decline of Roman art; the 11th is the hall of colored sculpture; and the 12th is that of modern statuary, containing Thorwaldsen's Adonis and bust of King Louis I. The Pinakothek or picture gallery, a more extensive building than the Glyptothek, like the latter designed by Klenze, was completed in 1830. it contains about 1,300 paintings, consisting of the best works of the royal collec-tions, arranged according to schools in 9 halls and 23 compartments, the large works of each school being placed in the central hall, which communicates on one side with the collections of the smaller paintings, and on the other with an extensive corridor, divided into 25 loggie, adorned with frescoes by Cornelius illustrative of the history of the fine arts during the middle ages.
Cimabue, Giotto, Leonardo da Vinci, Correggio, Titian, Michel Angelo, Albert Dfirer, Rembrandt, and Vandyke are here represented, some of them by numerous works. An entire compartment is filled with those of Raphael, and 95 works of Rubens take up the entire space of the central and largest hall of the gallery. Murillo, Poussin, and other Spanish and French painters are also represented. The lower story contains collections of 9,000 drawings by the old masters, including some of Raphael, the drawings of Cornelius for the loggie, and 3,000 drawings of South American scenery by Rugendas. The cabinet of engravings comprises about 300,000 works. On the ground floor of the W. wing is a collection of Etruscan and other vases. On the north is the new Pinakothek, completed in 1853, destined for the works of contemporary artists, and comprising 52 rooms in two stories. The upper floor, which contains them, is divided into 5 large central halls, 5 rooms on the south and 14 small cabinets on the north, besides a room at the west with Rottmann's encaustic illustrations of Grecian history and sites.
In the central hall are Kaulbach's " Destruction of Jerusalem " and Schorn's "Deluge." It contains also Wilkie's "Reading of the Will." On the ground floor are paintings on porcelain, with copies of the most celebrated works of the picture gallery. In the old picture gallery on the N. side of the royal park is a collection of antiquities and curiosities from different parts of the world. The Leuchten-berg gallery of paintings was removed to St. Petersburg in 1853. The new royal palace (der netie Konigsbau) is a magnificent and stupendous extension of the old palace. The interior is embellished after the model of the loggie of the Vatican. The ground floor consists of state rooms decorated with Schnorr's Nibelungen. The kings' and queens' apartments are adorned with paintings respectively from Greek and German poets. Other apartments are devoted to Klopstock, Wieland, Goethe, Schiller, and Tieck. The most interesting part of the palace is the Festsaalhau, containing on the E. side of the ball room two rooms for card playing called halls of the beauties, with portraits of beautiful women of modern times, including Lola Montez. The banquet hall and the halls of Charlemagne, Barbarossa, and Rudolph of Hapsburg are full of fine decorations, the throne room being the most gorgeous of all.
Among other royal residences are the Wittelsbach palace and the palaces of Prince Max and Prince Luitpold, the latter formerly known as the Leuchten-berg palace, situated on the Odeon square, opposite to the fine bazaar celebrated for its arcades; and there are several private mansions of remarkable architecture. The Bavarian national museum, completed in 1860, about 500 ft. long and 95 ft. high, contains varied and interesting collections relating to Bavarian antiquity, history, and manufactures, and the walls are decorated with many frescoes of stupendous size. There are various other buildings used as museums and for exhibitions of ancient and modern art, of which latter Munich contains a greater number than any other place of its size, the so-called crystal palace in the old botanic garden being the most extensive. Some of the city gates, as the Siegesthor (the triumphal arch), after the model of the arch of Constantine, and the IsartJior, are exceedingly interesting, as well as the Pro-pylsBum, a triumphal arch in the old Doric style, with bass reliefs, commemorating the modern Greek war of independence and King Otho. The EvhmeshaUe (hall of fame) is the most conspicuous monument of Munich. It is situated on high ground in the Theresienwiese, and consists of a large Doric portico of Bavarian marble, forming three sides of a quadrangle and an open side, in the centre of which rises Schwanthaler's colossal bronze statue of Bavaria, about 100 ft. high, including the pedestal.
There are 48 columns with busts of eminent Bavarians. In the tympana are female statues representing Bavaria, the Palatinate, Swabia, and Franconia; and in the frieze are upward of 90 metopes, adorned with figures of Victory and with reliefs symbolical of the arts and occupations of civilized society. The principal squares and streets are adorned with monuments of Bavarian monarchs, some of them of colossal size, especially the equestrian statute of Louis I. on the Odeon square, and that of Maximilian II., erected in 1874. Goethe, Schiller, Gluck, and other eminent men are likewise honored here by monuments; and among the most recent are those of Liebig and Kaulbach. In the southern cemetery and the adjoining new cemetery are also interesting monuments; the former contains a house (Leichenhaus) for funeral exposition of the dead, and the latter has a tine campo santo, in the mediaeval Lombard style, consisting of a large square enclosure, surrounded by an elegant structure of brick. The opera house of Munich, the concerts in the Odeon and other places, and the conservatory of music are among the best in Germany; the royal school of music was attended in 1874-'5 by 59 female and 45 male pupils.
There are several theatres for dramatic performances, the most recent being the Volhstheater for popular plays and also for operettas. - There were seven railway stations in 1874. The lines to Paris and Vienna and to Italy form here a main junction, making Munich a great centre of travel, especially in summer, and of increasing trade and industry. In 1874 there were nearly 200 manufactories of various articles. The most celebrated establishments are the brewer-ies; the royal bronze founderies, where Crawford's statues of Beethoven and Washington, and the doors of the capitol at Washington, were cast; the royal glass and porcelain works, Maffei's manufactory of machinery, Mann-hardt's of steeple clocks, and Ertl's of technological instruments (which was founded by Reichenbach); Fraunhofer's and Utzschnei-der's optical works, continued by Marz and sons; and photographic and xylographic establishments. The staple article of trade is grain, and there are two great annual fairs (Dulteri). Granaries, a cattle market, and an abattoir have i built near the railway stations, where new blishments spring up in increasing numbers. - Munich was originally a settlement of monks (Mönche), whence the name, which was first mentioned early in the 12th century; and Henry th- Lion raised the Villa Munichato some importance (1158). It became the residence of the dukes of the house of Wittelsbach, and was much enlarged after its destruction by tire in 1327, and endowed with many public buildings by Duke William the Pious. (1579-1596) and the duke and elector Maximilian I. (1596-1651). On May 17, 1632, it was taken by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and held for some time.
Under Charles Theodore (1777-99) Munich was greatly improved and enlarged. It was entered by a division of the French army under Moreau in June, 1800, and in October, 1805, by Napoleon, who again visited the city in January, 1806, on occasion of the marriage of Eugene de Beauharnais. Munich from an inferior town has risen under the fostering care of King Maximilian I. (died in 1825), and particularly under that of his son Louis I., to the rank of an important capital. While still crown prince Louis ordered the building of the Glyptothek and of other public works, and he contributed most powerfully to invest Munich with its present splendor, and continued his exertions for the embellishment of the capital even after his abdication in 1848. Under his son Maximilian II. arose the magnificent street and bridge which bear his name, and many remarkable institutions and works of art. His influence on science was great, and he gave to the university the benefit of the services of Liebig and other eminent men, and encouraged poets and literary men generally.
The present king, Louis II., is chiefly interested in music, but proposed in 1874 to endow Munich with a palace and museum after the model of Versailles.