Nature of invalidating circumstances................................. 1486

Definition of fraud................................................. 1487

When fraud renders a transaction void............................... 1488

Distinction between fraudulent acquisition of possession and of title where property is obtained by fraud..................................... 1489

Materiality of representation........................................ 1490

Matters of opinion................................................. 1491

Illustrations in contracts for the sale of goods......................... 1492

Illustrations in contracts for the sale of real estate..................... 1493 liability for fraudulent statements of opinion.......................... 1494

Matters of law.................................................... 1496

Promises and predictions........................................... 1496

Silence - general rule............................................... 1497

Silence as to quality of goods sold may be fraudulent................... 1498

Other instances where silence may be fraudulent....................... 1499

Rescission is allowable for honest misrepresentation.................... 1500

Liability in damages for honest misrepresentation...................... 1501

Early history of deceit.......... ................................... 1502

Warranty of title.................................................. 1503

Warranty of quality................................................ 1504

Warranty may be, but need not be based on contract.................. 1505

Illustrations....................................................... 1506

Warranty by an agent of his authority............................... 1507

Estoppel in pais.................................................... 1508

Actions for damages for misrepresentation................ ........... 1509

Policy of imposing liability for innocent mistakes...................... 1510 limitation of liability for honest misrepresentation..................... 1511

Negligence as a basis of liability..................................... 1512

Conscious error without fraud....................................... 1513

Argument based on measure of damages.............................. 1514

Action in reliance on false impression................................. 1515

Unjustifiable reliance............................................... 1516

Fraud on the seller by impersonation................................. 1517

Misrepresentations by third persons.............................. 1518

Misrepresentations indirectly made................................ 1519

Representations of solvency......................................... 1520

Intention not to pay for the goods................................... 1521

Fraud on a buyer.................................................. 1522

Remedies of defrauded party........................................ 1523

Action of damages for deceit........................................ 1524

Rescission and restitutio - reformation............................... 1526

Time allowed for election of remedies................................ 1536

Acta manifesting election........................................... 1627

Exclusive character of remedies...................................... 1628

Restoration of consideration......................................... 1520

Exceptions to the rule.............................................. 1530

Rescission allowed only against fraudulent person.................. 1531

Double employment of agent........................................ 1532

Contracts between a corporation and its officers....................... 1533

Fraud as to creditors............................................... 1634