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Food - What It Is And Does | by Edith Greer



Production of food and food-preparation are among the oldest occupations of human life. They are still most essential to human well-being. Cultivation and cooking of food have come down the ages into complex activities highly specialized and associated with concentrated commercial interests. Together these are coming under the direction of science and the regulation of the community. Occupation with the needs created by living, is a common human pursuit, practiced with or without purpose or plan. Any continuation of life necessitates work. Advancing life requires intelligent work that includes the study of how to live constructively. That this may be, the study of food in school is now generally advised by all prepared to see its bearing upon both wholesome life and efficient work, and also how the understanding cooperation of humanity is needed in supplying and selecting what is of use for growth and health.

TitleFood - What It Is And Does
AuthorEdith Greer
PublisherGinn And Company
Year1915
Copyright1915, Edith Greer
AmazonFood: What it is and Does
Food What It Is And Does 1Food What It Is And Does 2

School • Home • Community Series.

-Preface. Food - What It Is And Does. Purpose Of Book
Production of food and food-preparation are among the oldest occupations of human life. They are still most essential to human well-being. Cultivation and cooking of food have come down the ages into ...
-Illustrations
Food Maps and Statistics Food Charts and Tables Diagrams and Interpretations. Meat Cuts and Carving Table-Laying and Equipment. New England Hearth Norwegian Bread-making Italian Kitchen and Well...
-Food - What It Is And Does. Markets. Human Foods
Food Markets of the world show the foods of all climates, seasons, lands. Grain foods, vegetables, fruits, meats, dairy products are all seen and are all different. Yet they all contain most of the fo...
-Vegetable Food. Human Nutrition
Of what plants and animals make human foods and how they do this is considered later. The result of their food-manufacture is that human food is both vegetable and animal. Both serve in some respects ...
-(Starchy) Vegetables Composition
Plant food known generally as vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, consists of various parts of the plant. The root, stem, stalk, leaves, flower, fruit, seeds all serve as human foods, but not all these ...
-Vegetables (Legumes) Constituents
One group of the starchy vegetables contains more protein than others. These are known as legumes. They are peas, beans, lentils. They have a power all vegetables do not share. Other plants take the n...
-(Green) Vegetables Constitution
Green vegetables is a term used to signify plant foods eaten fresh, usually raw and generally young. Industry is now canning these extensively. Transportation is carrying them from all climates to a...
-Comparison Of Vegetables. Supplementing
There is no distinct separation between the different groups of vegetables called starchy and green. One group passes gradually into the other, sometimes a plant is used while young as green and as st...
-Distinguishing. Differences In Vegetables
Experience in eating teaches much about differences in vegetables that is not so practically learned otherwise. But science alone can explain what is experienced and give information that living could...
-Parts Of Vegetables. Availability
The waste in food is not always evident even when real. Refuse In Vegetables None - spinach, tomatoes skinned, peas and beans dried. 7-15% - beans (7%); onions (10%); cabbage, cucumbers, lettuce...
-Usableness. Constituents In Vegetables
Protein and simpler compounds (of dietetic value) Tissue-Formation. Celery 9/10 + water. Valued for nitrogen compounds significant in diet. Asparagus Over 9/10 water. More protein than man...
-Vegetable Characteristics. Maturity
Plants live. They grow from seeds. They develop the constitution of their plant family. Their developing is called maturing. They blossom, bear fruit, and produce seeds. This process repeated season a...
-All Vegetables. Vegetable-Preservation
Conditions under which different foods retain desirable quality indicate the necessities in preserving them. Preservation of food is such treatment of it as will keep it in suitable condition for huma...
-Cooking Vegetables. In General
Cooking food tends to break it up, thus preparing it for digestion. Cellulose in vegetables needs loosening and softening, so the nutritious substances associated with it may not be lost, because so f...
-Summary. Care - Preparation - Use
The structure of vegetables controls somewhat the manner of cooking. Rapid, hard boiling is needed for very much incased vegetables, as asparagus, especially if also delicately flavored. Baked food co...
-Vegetable-Selection. Different Vegetables
Vegetables have value in human diet only as they serve directly or indirectly some food-need of humanity. The condition of vegetables affects their food-usefulness as much as does their kind. All kind...
-Precaution. Plant-Production
The human need for food is considered in Food Science, pp. 160-224. Precaution in production of vegetables is of great significance. Such food as green vegetables, being often eaten raw and being with...
-Plant Foods. Inclusion
Plant foods include more than vegetables. Grains, fruits, spices, nuts are also products of vegetation. These enhance the beauty of Nature as well as aid in sustaining physical life. Many of them carr...
-Geographically. Grains
The conditions under which grains will grow are such as to make their widely distributed growth possible. Probable Native Home Of Grains (Redrawn from Frederic LeRoy Sargent's Corn Plants...
-Grain Foods. Quality
There are over 50 kinds of cereal-preparations on sale. More than half of these have appeared within a decade. They differ little in food-value. Their cost greatly exceeds that of the cereals from whi...
-Combined. Grain Foods
The fact that starch is the principal ingredient of all grain foods and of starchy vegetables too makes each when present in the diet affect the quantity of the others desirable at the same time. R...
-Wheat. Milling
Many conditions affect somewhat the composition of grains. Wheats illustrate this. The variety of wheat, soil, climate, all affect the composition of the resulting grain. The constituents that vary si...
-Wholesomeness. Flour
Bread, the staff of life, is a staple food of humanity. Every one may not see a wheat-field and flour-mill as related to making bread. All may not even realize that flour is the principal ingredi...
-Flours. Composition
Grains are dry. So therefore are the flours made from them. These contain relatively little water. Wheat flour of good quality takes up water to about two thirds its own weight. Starch is the substanc...
-Comparison. Breads
Raised bread is leavened bread, whether raised by yeast or other rising-agents. The earliest breads known were unleavened. They were made of ground grain mixed with water. They were formed into flat c...
-Bread-Making. Care
In. bread-making much happens. Science now explains the changes that occur. Yeast grows while in warm dough. This causes a fermentation. Carbon dioxid gas is formed, also alcohol. The gas and steam ex...
-Use. Rising-Agents
Making flour-mixtures light has been brought about in different ways through the ages that cooking has been practiced. Present-day methods probably include something from each of those of the past. Bu...
-Yeast-Activity. Fermentation
Wild yeasts, as those of the air came to be called, have been studied, as have also the other organisms found with them, such as bacteria and molds. All do not act alike; even all yeasts do not. The y...
-Leavens. Prepared Yeasts
Yeast, as it is used in bread-making, varies in form. It may be liquid, compressed, or dry. The form is not important, save as this affects the purity or keeping quality of the yeast. Though the gas p...
-Baking-Powder. Artificial Leavens
Baking-powders are artificial leavens. What nature does through the growth of yeast, humankind seek to bring about through baking-powders. The endeavor is to produce the rising effect of yeast by inco...
-Baking-Powders. Different Residues
Baking-powders differ in the substances they leave in the leavened mixture. The hygienic desirability of a baking-powder is determined by the wholesomeness of this residue. None of these residues is n...
-Home-Made Leavens. Leavening Mixtures
As commercial baking-powders are required by law to state their ingredients on their labels, no one need therefore use a rising-agent containing deleterious or doubtful residue. Through only ignorance...
-Flour In Foods. Home-Used Flours
Bread-flour is creamy rather than pure white, a little gritty, and coheres slightly when a mass is pressed together. The test of a bread-flour is the quality of bread it will produce when bread is ski...
-Different Breads. Flour-Mixtures
Yeast breads made with a variety of flours serve as the constant bread of humanity. Bread dough, besides being itself made in many ways, is used as a basis for other foods, as doughnuts. These all var...
-Composition - Use. Bread-Substitutes
The range of bread-substitutes is as great as the varieties of bread. These are not only many but come from everywhere and even from many ages of the living of humanity. They are nevertheless of only ...
-Fruits. In Nature
The fruitfulness of the earth stirs every one that at all realizes it to a sense of wonder. Each fruit of plant or tree, when known for what it is, seems one of the greatest of the marvels that so abo...
-Fresh. Fruit Food
Those foods nourish most that have least water. Among vegetables potatoes, corn, peas, have least water, so more nutrients, that is, substances that nourish. Bananas have least water among fruits, the...
-Fruit Cultivation. Aims
Science experimentation in modifying living things has in no realm of life had more effect upon products than in fruit-bearing vegetation. Cultivation is always an effort to improve or refine a produc...
-Seasons. Fruit-Preservation
Nature's spring supply of fresh food begins with early green vegetables, as lettuce and radishes. These are followed by young starchy vegetables, as beans, and later by such as mature late, both starc...
-Fruit Preparations. Processes
Fruits stored are kept as nearly as possible in a fresh state. Dried fruits have lost water and may contain chemicals used to prevent development of mold; these act also as a bleach. Desiccated fruits...
-Jams - Jellies. Fruit In Diet
Dried fruits lose freshness, but in losing water increase the proportion of their nutrients (nourishing substances). Grapes and raisins differ thus, as do also plums and prunes. Such fruits are concen...
-Fruits As Foods. Digestibility
Food scientists have found some jellies and jams made with a common fruit-juice (apple) labeled differently, though varied only by different flavors, natural or artificial; and others of gelatin simil...
-Functions. Fruits As Foods
Fresh fruits promote body well-being principally. Fruits are heat-energy-giving mainly according to the sugar natural in them or added to them. The acids and pectin in foods add some heat-energy. Frui...
-Nuts As Food. Use In Diet
Nuts, like cereals, served as sustaining human food in earlier times. Later, nuts passed to use as diet-accessories, that is, food incidentals to substantial diet. When vigorous outdoor exercise was t...
-Oils. Vegetable
Edible oils of vegetable origin come from a number of vegetable growths: olives, corn, nuts (as almond, peanut), seeds (as sunflower, poppy), and cotton. Olive-oil has long been used in the countries ...
-Food Acids. Vinegar
Fruit juices have been noted as refreshing in effect. Fruit acids serve also some cooking purposes, as tartaric acid frees carbon dioxid gas in some baking-powders. The common acids in human foods ...
-Spices. Source - Use
Spices come in the main from tropical plants. They are from roots, bark, flowers, buds, fruits, or seeds according to the plant-part containing the aromatic substance for which the spice is valued and...
-Natural Flavorings. Artificial Flavorings
Some plants contain fragrant substances that can be separated and used to flavor food. These are known as vegetable flavoring extracts. Those commonly so used are the essence of vanilla, almond, orang...
-Condiments. Growth - Care
Children need, in the main, to eat foods as flavored by nature. Flavorings are used to increase palatability of foods that are themselves without marked flavor. When volatile it is essential so to ...
-Diet-Use. Condiments
Dietetic objections to foods are of several types. Glucose ferments more readily than cane-sugar. It is a cheaper prod-uct, and the foods containing it should be sold for less than those with cane-sug...
-Beverages. Origin - Use
The need of the body for water has led to the development of beverages. Some are palatable; many stimulate; others excite; only a few nourish. Fruit juices unfermented, as lemonade, refresh, as do ...
-Preparation - Composition. Tea - Coffee
Tea is steeped, not boiled. Delicacy of flavor depends upon this, as does wholesomeness too. Boiling extracts the tannic acid that causes the ill effects of excessive tea-drinking. Varieties of tea de...
-Tea-Culture. Growth - Varieties
Tea is the leaf of the tea plant that is indigenous to Assam in Burma. For over fifteen hundred years it has been produced in Japan and China. Assam tea grows large but tender leaves. Its growth is lu...
-Cultivation - Adulteration. Coffee-Production
Coffee is the berry of a tropical tree native in Abyssinia but now widely cultivated in tropical regions. Its leaves are evergreen, its blossoms white, its berries dark and pulpy, containing two seeds...
-Cocoa. Growth
Tropical vegetation yields another beverage in cocoa. The cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) is a native of Central America. This tree has several distinctive characteristics. It blossoms throughout the yea...
-Manufacture. Chocolate
Chocolate was not used in England until the beginning of the eighteenth century, though it was introduced into Spain early in the sixteenth. America began the preparation of chocolate in the latter ha...
-Cocoa - Chocolate. Composition - Use
The use of cocoa has greatly increased of late years. This is usually attributed to its food value, that is real, though probably not all that is always claimed for it. Cocoa contains theobromine (sim...
-Comparison - Summary. Beverages - Nutriment
Food signifies sustenance. Beverages stimulate principally. The refreshment they afford may have purpose in adult life when those are used that neither excite nor depress. Such effects injure health. ...
-Sugars. Source - Kinds
Sugar is another product of vegetation. It is consumed in various forms in large quantities. The reported sugar-consumption in 1895 gives for England 86 lb. per capita, and for the United States 64 lb...
-Summary. Vegetation
Vegetation includes all plant life and is the source of all plant foods. Tropical vegetation shows characteristics that distinguish it from that of the temperate zone. Tropical growth is luxuriant; th...
-Value Of Vegetation. Life-Needs
All living matter requires for life, food, air, water. Thirst, hunger, suffocation, result from lack of water, food, air. Life ceases when living things are deprived of air. Lack of water can be endur...
-Plant-Construction. Value Of Vegetation
Carbon of carbon dioxid taken for food by plants not only purifies the atmosphere but is transformed from carbon that animals and humankind cannot use directly into carbohydrates in the plants which b...
-Plant-Activity. Effects
The effects of plant-activity in the working of nature are significant to all life upon the earth. Plant-activity effects production of plant foods in which simple substances are naturally made into t...
-Dangers. Bacterial Life
Since bacteria have been known as the cause of some diseases, they have been commonly regarded as foes to human life. So they may prove to be if of disease-producing types or even if not, when they ar...
-Bacterial Activity. Significance
It is only in modern times that bacteria have themselves become known, though the effects of their living have been experienced probably always and recognized more or less since ancient times. Bacteri...
-Development-Forms. Living Organisms
When conditions are not favorable to bacterial life some bacteria die, others pass into resistant, resting forms. These are called spores. They are not easily destroyed, therefore may remain alive in ...
-Products Of Living. Functions In Life
The products of living of different types of organisms are alike in some respects and unlike in others. Complex products cast off by one organism as of no further use for it are broken down into simpl...
-Elements In Food. Advancement Of Life
The work of food-production as a process of nature is. progressive, but moves ever in an interworking cycle that conserves all products of living as well as constructs all used for food. In general fu...
-Vegetable Cells Plant-Structure
Cellulose And Starch In Plant Cells Plant cell. Cellular structure (After Konig). Potato. Transverse section. (After Cowden and Bussard). Potato starch in cellular cells (Af...
-Starch Grains. In Seeds
Starch Pea. Corn. Wheat. Barley. Rice. Oats. Starch In Vegetable Foods % Rice 794 ...
-Food Supply - Diet Formation
Nature is the source of the Food Supply. The Farm is the center of Food-Production. Humankind supplies the workers. Humanity is the consumer. What is needed for nourishment should be cultivated,...
-Industry - Commerce
Animal foods are expensive and contain much refuse. Their extractives tend to overstimulate. Protein, fat, mineral matter, water are the constituents of animal food. Excess of protein food is a hea...
-Expense - Availability. Animal Food
Animals used for food range from 3 to 8 years of age. (Steer from 4 to 5 years gives the best beef.) The time, care, food that animals require and the difficulty of the preservation of meat make it es...
-Life. Needs - Quality
Animals live; they need provisions for life - air, water, food. All animals need these. All do not, however, eat the same food. Science has studied the food-needs of work-animals and food-animals, als...
-Effects Of Living. Animals As Food
The body of animals is greatly affected by the living of the animals. The quality and quantity of their foods, the air they breathe, the water they drink, the work they do, the exposure they suffer, t...
-Kinds Of Meat. Beef - Veal - Mutton - Lamb
Foods designated as meats are beef and veal, mutton and lamb, pork, fresh, canned, or otherwise preserved. But poultry, game, fish, eggs, and milk are also animal foods. Beef is about A water. When...
-Pork - Bacon - Lard. Kinds Op Meat
Pork, as is generally known, contains more fat than other meats, so less water (10-20% less) and relatively less protein. Usually in pork, especially bacon, there is somewhat less waste than in other ...
-Meat Cutting. General Cuts
In general, the animal is cut both lengthwise and crosswise, therefore into four quarters, two fore and two hind. The fore and hind quarters differ in some respects in very marked ways. Inspection of ...
-Special Problems. Carving Meat
In Carving, the grain of the meat, that is, the way the fibers run, is the primary fact to be regarded. Short fibers are more tender than long ones, because short they are more fully exposed to the di...
-Composition Of Meat. Study Of Meats
Meats contain, in common with vegetables, protein, fat, mineral matter, and water. They lack carbohydrates, the chief constituent of starchy vegetables. Meats contain more fat and protein than vegetab...
-Refuse - Characteristics. Meats As Purchased
The composition of meats is in general the same. The location of different parts largely determines not only the tenderness but also the quantity of bone. Hence the imperative need to know in buying m...
-Cooking Of Meat. Methods
As raw meat is found to be more digestible than cooked, the cooking of meat is clearly for other purposes. This also suggests that the rarer cooked meat is, probably the more digestible. For tender me...
-Animal Life. Muscle Structure
Muscle Fibers In Meat In bundles. In fibrils. Longitudinal section. Transverse section. (Reproduced from Maria Parloa's Home Economics, by permission of The Ce...
-Mutton - Fowl - Fish . Carving Cuts
Shoulder Of Mutton Position of shoulder-bone. Muscles of shoulder. Method of carving. Method of carving the under part. Carving Fowl Remove wing a-b. ...
-Chicken - Game. Small Animals
The large animals from which most marketed meats come belong to the animal family of mammals, whose young are milk-fed. The cow's milk has become an important human food. Besides these animals others ...
-Fresh Water And Sea. Fish
Fish is similar to white meats such as veal and chicken, but has a high percentage of refuse (1/3 - 2/3) and is from 1/3-1/2 water. This leaves little solid in any given weight, but as fish is relativ...
-Shell-Fish. Fish In Season
Oysters are the shell-fish most generally used, due to their palatability, digestibility, and high percentage of nutrients. China and Italy cultivated oysters 2000 years ago. There was a British oyste...
-Composition. Fish Food
Fish are available as follows: All Year Bass (3-8 lb.), clams, cod (3-20 lb.), eels (1/2-1 lb.), flounder (1/2-4 lb.), haddock (5-8lb.), halibut, lobster (1-2lb.), pickerel(1-4lb.), sardines, sa...
-Preservation Of Eggs. Care - Test
Because the shell of the egg is porous, the water of the egg evaporates as it stands exposed to the air. The egg becomes lighter; not only air but bacteria can and do enter the egg; decomposition resu...
-Quality - Use. Egg-Production
Natural quality of eggs, like that of all food, depends upon the food and condition of living under which they are produced. The flavor, color, and keeping quality of eggs vary. Though color is not re...
-Eggs. Concentrated Foods
Of foods with little waste and large percentage of nutrients, eggs, milk, bread, are the most important. Though they are often called whole, entire, complete, or perfect foods, they are rather concent...
-Composition - Cooking. Eggs As Food
As eggs are laid the shell is almost full of material. The egg-contents do not thicken for nearly twelve hours. It is better even to delay their use for twenty-four hours longer. Only eggs that are ne...
-Milk-Supply. Substantial Foods
Foods that contain in appreciable quantities all the constituents that sustain life are substantial factors in the diet, though none are so balanced in their constituents as to be a desirable diet alo...
-Composition - Use. Milk As Food
In infancy, milk is the food of the child until its ninth month. During its first year a child takes approximately 125 gallons (1000 lb.) of milk. A child takes 1/7 its weight in food daily. In a year...
-Milk As Consumed. Digestibility
The composition of a food shows the quantities of its constituents. Thus is disclosed the possible nutritive value of food. How these constituents act in the human digestive tract controls their use t...
-Availability. Characteristics Of Milk
Milk taken slowly into the stomach usually forms curd in small particles, so is digested thoroughly. Crackers and crumbed bread in milk also prevent the formation of a large clot and thus make milk mo...
-Forms Of Milk. Natural And Other
Whole milk is milk as it is produced. As milk stands, the cream forms by the fat rising to the top. When the cream is skimmed off, the milk left is known as skim-milk. Besides these three natural form...
-Sugar - Fat. Energy From Milk
The heat-energy supply from milk comes mainly from its fat. Milk brings only sugar as a carbohydrate. The body needs starch as well as sugar. Bread, crackers, corn meal, rice, added to milk, increase ...
-Changes In Milk. Bacterial
Experience shows that milk undergoes many changes. Science has studied these and finds they are effected by the presence of bacteria. Though milk has been experimentally obtained without any bacteria,...
-Care. Quality Of Milk
Souring of milk is produced by lactic-acid bacteria. During it some of the sugar of milk (lactose) is converted into lactic acid. (What is the effect of acid upon milk ?) Bacteria in living take what ...
-Preservation Of Milk. Protection
Milk needs to be both fresh and clean. Its purity and freshness may both be destroyed by bacteria. Hence bacteria must be excluded so far as possible, and milk must be kept under conditions that disco...
-Test - Forms. Preservation Of Milk
Milk germ-free is the need, but to be made sterile (germ-free) would require a degree of heat which changes its composition and digestibility unfavorably. Pasteurized milk and certified milk, as noted...
-Butter. Characteristics
Butter, like cream, from which it is separated by churning, is the most digestible animal fat. Fat gives over twice the heat-energy of the same amount of starch or sugar and gives it more rapidly than...
-Dairy-Products. Cheese
Milk And Its Derivatives Cream, butter, cheese - are all dairy-products, but with growing specialization cheese has become a specific and elaborated industry. Cheese is produced from milk by ren...
-Food Of Animals. Hay - Oats
Hay And Forage Acreage By States - 1909 Oats Acreage By States - 1909 (From the Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910) Work-Food. Farm Animals Horses And Other Work-Anim...
-Summary On Animal Foods In The Diet
Animal Foods. Meat And Fish Chicken And Eggs Milk - Butter - Cheese All build tissue and bone with protein and mineral salts and supply heat-energy with fats chiefly. Animal foods are a...
-Primitive Life. Movement In Living
By working to live, creative effort developed. No longer was the sole occupation search for what existed which would sustain human life. Pursuit of sustenance was now furthered by manufacture of means...
-Growth In Power. Evolution Of Civilization
The quest for food led to the conquest of nature, not to despoil nature, but to work with her to increase her fertility that she might produce what humanity needed to live, grow, reproduce, and develo...
-Living - Industry. Commerce - Science
Development of Humanity - Evolution of Food 127 Primitive Life - Growth - Civilization 128-9 Industry - Commerce - Science 130-1 Food-Sources - Production - Preparation - Practices 132-3 F...
-Industry - Commerce. Science
Production of food on a large scale has been carried on for some centuries, but raising food for the use of others to be sold them for gain is not so old. With this has developed food-transportation, ...
-Food-Sources. Production
Where food is to be found and how it is obtained has, it was seen, changed from age to age. First, it was only where nature brought it forth spontaneously; such products are called indigenous. In earl...
-Preparation. Food Practices
Preparation of food has developed as has production. Like food-production, food-preparation is now studied. The methods of early times and those of every land are now more generally known and practice...
-Food-Supply. Nourishment
Home gardens and home cooking were once usual. They are now less common. Both are to be encouraged to provide fresh and wholesome food. Only in the country is the food-supply of the family now within ...
-Nurture. Human Health
Health is usually assumed as the natural state of humanity. In reality human health comes only by humanity's working with nature to keep the natural processes of physical living effectively active. To...
-Clean Food. Cleanliness
How foods are grown, handled, kept, prepared, used, served, affect human activity, health, growth. Different foods need different conditions. But all need special care in production and preservation u...
-Wholesomeness. Pure Food
Cooking food destroys some disease-germs but not always all. It cannot be relied upon to purify impure food or freshen unsound food. Care alone, guided by science in production, preservation, transpor...
-Adulterated Foods. Law
Adulteration of food is relatively modern. Home-grown, home-cooked food may lack purity through ignorance or neglect, but only industry-produced, factory-prepared, shop-served food is ever adulterated...
-Announcement. Food-Labels
Food-labels come into important connection with human nourishment through industrial food-production, preservation, preparation. When food was home-grown, cared for at home, and cooked there, what it ...
-Effort To Sell. Advertisement
Effort to sell leads to advice from sellers. It takes form in advertisement. Such announcement seeks to secure the response desired, usually purchase of something sold for profit. As the purpose is to...
-Understanding. Endeavor To Save
Understanding what food is and does can prevent all food-dangers; nothing else can. Such knowledge makes clear what is said about food; nothing else does. As science has increased what is known, learn...
-Wholesome Foods. Regulation
Wholesome food is undiseased, uncontaminated, unadulterated. Plants and animals that furnish human food need health themselves. For this they require themselves proper and plentiful food, fresh air, u...
-Scientific Direction. Modification Of Food
Natural state of food once meant as it grew wild; it now means as food is cultivated. Many foods are now still further modified. Some are commonly used as food-ingredients, as are sugar, fats, grain f...
-Canned Food. Industry
Canning food was originally practiced to secure variety by keeping thus for out-of-season use such foods as could not be kept either fresh or dried. It has been extended in order to prepare food easil...
-Products. Manufactured Food
Food products have rarely been used simply as taken from nature. Fresh vegetables, fruits, and milk are the only common foods now so used; even these are also eaten in many prepared forms. Canned food...
-Buying Food. Economy
All foods are beginning to be sold by weight. This is most desirable. Food of good quality bought thus enables one to know accurately what is obtained, also to learn more easily how much is eaten. It ...
-Investigation. Testing Food
Home testing of food-quality is still somewhat useful. But to insure satisfactory quality and full quantity more adequate community regulation of the quality of all food for all of humanity is the mod...
-Artificial Foods. Science
Natural foods were originally simply nature-produced. By the aid of humankind cultivated and manufactured foods have become natural as foods in so far as they have become usual and humankind has becom...
-Commerce. Chemicals In Food
Preservatives are old in use and are used to keep food as natural as possible. Originally this was practiced for out-of-season use of seasonally produced food, where the supply of food was limited. Th...
-Food-Regulation. Government
With widely distributed production, transportation, storage, preservation, and factory preparation of food, keeping food has grown to be an important problem that needs to be solved for all humanity. ...
-Care. Food-Deterioration
Pleasing appearance in food needs to be effected through care of the product and not by artificially concealing its defects or by rendering the food itself defective. Manufactured foods are open to bo...
-Sterilization. Purifying Food
Sterile food is food free from bacteria of all kinds. Sterilization of food is therefore destroying all bacteria. Dry heat at 350+ F., steam (moist heat) under pressure, and some chemicals will k...
-Preserving Food. Refrigeration
Refrigeration of food is its preservation by lowering the temperature below that favorable for bacterial growth. Though this temperature varies for different kinds of bacteria, it is generally true th...
-Food-Quality. Summary
Vegetables in season, animals in health, are wholesome natural foods. Scientific care that seeks food-preservation and preparation that secures wholesome human foods and not simply products passable f...
-Observations. Food-Dangers
Many chemicals harmful in large quantity are used in small. Though ill results may not be detected, there is reason to doubt whether constant consumption of even small quantities is not ultimately har...
-Food-Cost. American Markets
Average Cost Of Food Per Working Man's Family N. Atlantic S. Atlantic N.Central S. Central Western U.S.A. ...
-Prices - Duties. Living-Commodities
Increase In Wholesale Prices Of Living-Commodities (Relative price as compared with average for 1890-1899) Increase in 1910 over Year Given 1910 Increas...
-Food-Consumption. Exchange
Typical foods in quantities produced, imported, exported, consumed. Domestic Products Produced (Bushels) Imported (Bushels) Consumed (Bushels...
-Food-Science. Human Nutrition
Sources - Production - Preparation in general 161 p. Food-Study - Food in Combination - Food and Diet 162-3 Food-Needs - Human Body - Food-Uses 164 - 5. Nutrition-Aids - Digestion - Digestion-Ne...
-Sources - Production. Preparation - Utilization
Nature supplies food; men and women cultivate it; women and men prepare it; humanity needs it and eats it. Human life continues through food nourishment; work is done by food-energy. Strength and heal...
-Food-Study. Food
During early ages of human life, humanity ate what nature provided unaided. Man then simply sought plants and animals for food. Later, as human homes became more settled, food began to be produced by ...
-In Combination. Food And Diet
In general, food is considered animal and vegetable, because it comes from animals and plants. But to know what food does for physical growth, energy, and health requires that one know more about food...
-Food-Needs. Human
The human body needs, in order to grow or to be active or to work or even to live, to take in air, food, water, and to dispose of the waste products that accumulate in it. The activity of the inter...
-Body. Food-Uses
It has been learned through science that the food taken into the human body is broken up by digestive agencies. It is then made over for body-use and body-tissue for repair or growth. Energy is provid...
-Digestion Of Nutrition-Aids
The body is a living organism; it needs to be active as well as supplied with the air, water, food, that will so nourish it as to make effective activity possible to it. Its internal activity must its...
-Diet-Science. Food
By custom, humanity has eaten a mixed diet; that is, a combination of animal and vegetable food substances. In America three meals a day are usual; in England, four (tea in the afternoon); and in Fran...
-Custom. Mixed Diet
Though a mixed diet is advised, there is a distinct choice in the desirability of the animal foods eaten. Less red meat is urged; it contains substances (extractives) that are stimulating rather than ...
-Scientific Diet. Food
What one is used to eating often seems satisfying, even when it is not a satisfactory diet and is not doing for the body what only food in the combination needed can do. Food habits are formed as one ...
-Habits. Diet Facts
Food habits, like all habits, save work when they are such as help, and make work when they are such as hinder. They may nourish or they may prevent nutrition. As the body must not be habitually overb...
-Building Foods. Diet
When one is growing, food that will build physically is especially needed and should be eaten. All body-activity, even simply living, wears the body out so that it needs repair; that is, rebuilding of...
-Elements. Energy Foods
One that feels full of life and is active has energy. The work of the body is done by its energy. Even a well-formed strong body could not work long if food brought no energy-supply. The body would us...
-Digestion Foods. Diet
Though it is eating animal and vegetable foods together that furthers digestion of all food eaten, there are some foods that seem especially to promote digestion. Such, rather than direct nourishment ...
-Factors. Protective Foods
What the body can do itself in utilizing its food, it needs to do in health. But digesting food is not the only activity of the body. Important as digestion is, it needs to be so accomplished that the...
-Concentrated Foods. Natural
In the processes of nature there goes on all the time a breaking down of complex substances into simpler and a building up of simple substances into more complex. Bacteria break down complex substance...
-Commercial. Prepared Foods
Feeding the body food it cannot use can starve it. Preparing food so that it does not require activity of the entire digestive tract may incapacitate the body. Human food needs to be in wholesome cond...
-Life And Food. Kinds
Kinds and amounts of food are both important to health. They act together in securing health. Both must change somewhat under different conditions of life if food is to aid a body in living and workin...
-Of Food. Living And Food
In health the same person under the same conditions of living needs the same food-constituents and in the same quantity, but needs to obtain these from a variety of foods. Starchy vegetables are of ma...
-Seasonal Diet. Diet
As seasons change, foods do too, in availability and quality. The food-needs of the body are also altered by temperature changes, as they are by change from one climate to another. When it is cold,...
-Composition. Daily Diet
In the morning the body is rested through sleep; at night it is tired; during the day it is at work. In getting ready to work in the morning it needs an energy-supply that is not so heavy as to burden...
-Age And Work. Amounts
More food is needed in cold weather than warm; more by those of large stature than small; more by men than women; more by adults than children; more by adults in full vigor than the aged; more by thos...
-Of Food. Food And Income
Compare amount of food for a man at sedentary work, a woman at moderate labor, boy 13-14, girl 15-16, and extreme old age. Under what conditions will any one else need what a boy 15-16 eats ? Under...
-Food-Composition. Fuel Value
Foods are composed of a great many chemical elements, as nitrogen, carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium. These so unite as to form the very complex food-constituen...
-Variety - Similarity. Diet-Composition
Foods, the edible parts of plants and animals, are composed of what these are. It is this that makes food capable of carrying into the body substances that sustain its life and activity. These substan...
-Menus - Types. Adjustments
Menus are the arranged meal-distribution of food. They are composed of groups of different foods. Menus should combine food palatably and so distribute it that it can be digested. Menus vary widely in...
-Construction. Dietaries
Dietaries are the food-combinations selected to meet food-needs, as those of an individual or a family group. The foods composing a dietary are distributed into menus as meals. Distribution of food...
-Digestibility. In General
The digestibility of a food depends upon the degree to which its nutrients (nourishing constituents) can be secured from it by the body when in health. Digestibility of foods determines therefore the ...
-Aids. Digestibility
Food Characteristics that affect digestibility of food are in general: Structure Of Food (How Food-Constituents Are Held In Food) Texture (fineness and compactness; coarseness and looseness). Fi...
-Food Seasoning. Promoting
Natural flavor of food is nature's indication of the food needed and even of the amount needed. Seasoning, the French say, would better be reduced to salting only than be a mixture of seasonings that ...
-Digestion. Palatability
Palatability of food, that is, its agreeable effect, plays an important part in nutrition. But all food that is palatable is not necessarily wholesome. Such food-selection, preparation, service, are n...
-Life-Food. Existence
Sustenance of the body is effected through the food eaten. The repair-food keeps the body alive, the fuel-food provides it with energy and body-heat. The tissues of the body in performing their fun...
-Energy. Work-Food
Sedentary occupation and two hours' exercise increase man's daily food-need from 1850 calories to 2500 calories to main-tain repair and provide nutriment and body-heat. (Specific facts on life-food...
-Childhood. Growth
Children differ from adults in more than size and strength. They are themselves still being physically formed. They are not simply growing larger but some parts of them are also being made. Teeth, for...
-Living. Child-Food
The kinds of food children are fed are most important because (1) children are not equally able at all ages to eat all foods (see/below), (2) foods affect one another very differently (an excess of ca...
-Child-Diet. Age Combinations
Nature always does much to sustain strength and to restore health after disease. Diet aids nature when it is such as can nourish the body during growth and in illness, but food that overtaxes a growin...
-Restrictions. Child-Diet
Nature requires that food be so adjusted to the growing body that the diet not only supply the changing body-need as the body grows but also aid the body-processes. All foods not possible as yet for t...
-Illness. Conditions
Illness is the result of the body's not working well in its living-processes. The cause may be (1) absence of conditions necessary for wholesome living, as lack of proper diet; (2) infection, as bacte...
-Needs. Diets In Illness
General diets for illness (see below) need careful adjustment for different individuals. A body incapacitated by illness usually needs foods it can easily digest. Some foods especially needed in illne...
-Disease-Resistance. In General
Resistance to disease is secured by building a strong body, providing it with fresh, pure food properly adjusted to the age, sex, size, work of the person, and to climate and season, and by insuring a...
-Specific Needs. Disease-Resistance
The growth-impulse can operate to mature the body only as the foods that will further growth and build tissue, both bone and muscle, are supplied for the use of the body in its growth. The kind of foo...
-Life-Expectation. Changes - Status
The population of the United States of America is approaching 100,000,000. In 1910 those over 70 years numbered 2,270,021. There were about 2,500,000 births and about 1,350,000 deaths. Causes Of De...
-Conditions - Needs. Old Age
Old age brings a body that is gradually wearing out. This occurs naturally but is hastened by work- or anxiety-strains or earlier illnesses. Many body-processes become slower. Health in age requires i...
-Youth-Diet. Development
Youth is a period of significant physical development. Body-growth is being completed; the organs of the maturer functions of the body are developing; the body is maturing physically. The individual's...
-Maturity. Adult-Diet
Adult-life is the time of greatest responsible effort. Health is basal to energy. It is secured for the well-developed body by scientific regulation of diet and of habits of life and work. Adult-di...
-Foreign Foods. Occurrence
Many foods no longer considered foreign because so usual in the home market are produced only in other lands, as cocoa, tea, coffee. Food-sources and food-exchange disclose such facts about the origin...
-Comparison. Food Of All Nations
For the masses in all lands the usual diet is still mainly of foods locally and inexpensively produced. Transported or expensive foods become available only with increasing prosperity. Consumption of ...
-Life-Significance. Digestion
Humankind digests its food with less expenditure of energy than do animals. It therefore has more energy for other uses. Human beings can do more work and endure more fatigue, also exposure, than any ...
-Egg-Refrigeration Modern. Preservation Of Eggs By Refrigeration In Sterile Air
Lescarde at the Third International Congress of Refrigeration described a method of preserving eggs by refrigeration in sterile air. The eggs are placed on end in horizontal fillers made of pasteboard...
-Methods. Fish-Shipping. Shipping Live Fish In The Frozen State
In the markets of Irkutsk, Siberia, fish are displayed for sale in the frozen state piled up like cord-wood. Fish in cold storage are preserved frozen in slabs of ice. The latter method is now applied...
-Calculation Of Dietaries
Food-quantity was the first consideration of Diet-Science when it began the study of Human Nutrition. The food-amounts sanctioned as dietary standards have been greatly modified of late, due to more c...
-Food And Health
Food-variety has long been considered a health-necessity. Diet can be more limited in variety if it is accurately adjusted to the individual food-need. Foods of different kinds are never fully interch...







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