John Henry, an English clergyman, born in London, Feb. 21, 1801. He graduated at Trinity college, Oxford, in 1820, was elected a fellow of Oriel college in 1822, and there assisted Dr. Whately in preparing for publication the " Dialogues on Logic." He was ordained in 1824, in 1825 became vice principal of Alban Hall under Dr. Whately, and in 1820 a tutor of Oriel. He was appointed public examiner in 1827, and vicar of St. Mary's in 1828. In 1829 he opposed the reelection of Sir Robert Peel as member for the university of Oxford, because of that statesman's advocacy of Catholic emancipation. In 1830 he was chosen one of the select university preachers, and at the invitation of Hugh Rose began to write a history of the principal church councils, the first portion of which was published in 1833 under the title of "The Arians of the Fourth Century." Meanwhile the reform measures of Earl Grey, and the spread in England of German anti-dogmatic liberalism, gave rise to a strong conservative opposition in the English church, which Newman joined with the purpose of forming an Anglo-Catholic party.
In December, 1832, he went to Italy with Hurrell Fronde, and with him began in Rome the "Lyra Apostolica," which appeared monthly in the "British Magazine." Falling sick in Sicily, he returned to England in July, 1833. Soon after his arrival what is known as the "Oxford movement" was inaugurated by John Keble's sermon entitled "National Apostasy." Newman, finding that his associates differed widely as to the way of opposing liberalism and neutralizing the tendencies toward Rome, began the series called "Tracts for the Times," and a series of letters in the "Record" under the heading of "Church Reform." He now wrote the historical sketches that appeared in the "British Magazine," and were afterward printed collectively as "The Church of the Fathers," aided in editing "The Library of the Fathers," and delivered lectures on "The Prophetical Office of the Church viewed relatively to Romanism and popular Protestantism" (London, 1887). In 1837 appeared his "Essay on Justification," controverting the Lutheran doctrine on that subject, while his "University Sermons" discuss the relation of faith and reason, and investigate the ultimate basis of religious belief.
In the summer of 1888 he published a pamphlet on the " Real Presence," in which, seeking to give to the eucharistic doctrine an intellectual basis, he denied the objective reality of space. He now became editor of the "British Critic," and remained so till July, 1841. The bishop of Oxford having in 1838 animadverted publicly on the " Tracts for the Times," Dr. Pusey replied by denying their Romanizing tendencies. This opposition emboldened the tractarian writers, and Dr. Newman defined more and more clearly the relative positions of Anglicanism and Romanism, till his attempt to reconcile the Anglican teaching of the thirty-nine articles with Roman Catholic dogma culminated in Tract No. 90 in February, 1841. He was called upon to withdraw the tract, but refused. When the British and Prussian governments created a bishopric in Jerusalem (1841), he protested against the alliance about to be contracted in the East " with Nestorians, Monophysites, etc." In February, 1843, he made a formal retraction of the charges which he had uttered against the church of Rome, and in September gave up his living and resigned his office as a clergyman. To his house at Littlemore he had invited several persons whose minds were disturbed like his own, and this was represented as an attempted revival of monasticism.
He busied himself and his associates with "Translations from Athanasius," and writing a series called " Lives of the English Saints," in order to give the writers " an interest in the English soil and the English church, and keep them from seeking sympathy with Rome." Some thirty writers were engaged in this work, the lives to form a periodical series with Dr. Newman as editor. The first two numbers only, containing the "Life of St. Stephen Harding " and " The Family of St. Richard," were edited by him, the others being published independently by their respective authors. He began his "Essay on the Development of Doctrine" in the beginning of 1845, was received into the Roman Catholic church Oct. 9, and left Oxford finally Feb. 23, 1846. Soon afterward Dr. Wiseman called him to Oscott, and thence sent him to Rome. There he took orders, and returning to England in 1848 established two houses of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri at Brompton and Birmingham, becoming superior of the latter, which in a few years was transferred to Edgbaston. There he built a large convent and a spacious church, with a school for the sons of the gentry, and poor schools and other pious institutions in the neighborhood.
He published in succession "Loss and Gain" (1848); "Sermons to Mixed Congregations" (1849); "Lectures on certain Difficulties felt by Anglicans in submitting to the Catholic Church" (1850); "Lectures on the Present Position of Catholics in England" (1851); and "Lectures on the History of the Turks in. its relation to Christianity" (1853). In April, 1853, he was sued for libel by the ex-Dominican Achilli, and lost the suit, the costs of which were paid by public subscription. In 1854 he was appointed by the pope rector of the newly founded Catholic university of Dublin. Here, besides conducting the " Atlantis," the organ of the institution, he delivered several series of discourses and lectures on universities and university education, published in the collection of his works; " Sermons preached on Various Occasions" (1857); and "Callista, a Sketch of the Third Century." He resigned the rectorship of the university in 1859, and devoted himself to his labors and duties in the Oratory. Canon Kingsley having in "Macmillan's Magazine" for January, 1864, accused Dr. Newman and the Roman Catholic priesthood generally of thinking lightly of the virtue of veracity, a correspondence on this subject ensued, Which was published in a pamphlet in February. This drew forth a second pamphlet from Kingsley, in which the imputation was renewed and aggravated.
Dr. Newman replied in " Apologia pro Vita sua," issued in weekly numbers between April 21 and June 2, with an appendix on June 16, 1864. This work was afterward embodied in his "History of my Religious Opinions " (1865). In 1864 appeared "Verses on Various Occasions," and in 1865 "Letter to the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D. D.," in reply to some assertions in the latter's " Eirenicon," relative to the honors paid to the Virgin Mary. At the approach of the Vatican council a letter from Dr. Newman was published expressing dissatisfaction with the ultramontanes for urging factiously the definition of pontifical infallibility, but professing belief in the doctrine itself. In 1870 appeared a philosophical treatise entitled "An Essay in aid of a Grammar of Assent;" and in 1875, "A History of Ari-anism." In January, 1875, Dr. Newman published "A Letter addressed to his Grace the Duke of Norfolk, on occasion of Mr. Gladstone's recent Expostulation." A new uniform edition of Dr. Newman's complete works was begun in London in 1870, of which 25 volumes had been issued up to December, 1874.
Francis William, an English author, brother of the preceding, born in London, June 27, 1805. He graduated at Worcester college, Oxford, in 1826, and in November became a fellow of Balliol college, which position he resigned in 1830, being unable conscientiously to sign the thirtv-nine articles previous to ta-king the degree of M. A. The three following years he spent in the East, and in 1834 he became classical tutor in Bristol college. In 1840 he was chosen classical professor at Manchester New college, and in 1846 professor of the Latin language and literature in University college, London, which office he resigned in 1863. In his works on theological subjects he has taken an exactly contrary course to that of his brother. Among them may be mentioned "Catholic Union: Essays toward a Church of the Future and the Organization of Philanthropy" (8vo, 1844); "A State Church not I defensible," a tract (1846); "A History of the Hebrew Monarchy, from the Administration of Samuel to the Babylonish Captivity" (1847); '"The Soul, its Sorrows and Aspirations" (1849); "Phases of Faith, or Passages from the History of my Creed" (1850); and " Theism, Doctrinal and Practical" (1858). His other works include ' Four Lectures on the Contrasts of Ancient and Modern History" (1847); "An Appeal to the Middle Classes on the urgent Necessity of numerous Radical Reforms. Financial and Organic" (1848); "On the Constitutional and Moral Right or Wrong of our National Debt" (1849); a tract on "The Crimes of the House of Hapsburg against its own Liege Subjects" (1851); "Lectures on Political Economy " (1851); and "RegalRome, an introduction to Roman History"' (1852). He has also published "A Collection of Poetry for the Practice of Elocution" (1850); "Odes of Horace translated into unrhymed Metres" (1853); "The Iliad of Homer translated into unrhymed Metres" (1856); "Homeric Translation in Theory and in Practice" (1861); "Text of the Iguvine Inscriptions" (1864); "The English and their Reforms " (1865); "A Handbook of Modern Arabic" (1866); "Miscellanies, Academical and Historical" (1869); "The Cure of the great Social Evil, with special reference to recent laws, delusively called Contagious Diseases Acts" (1869); "Orthoepy, or a simple Mode of accenting English" (1869); and "Europe of the near Future, with three Letters on the Franco-German War" (1871). He- assisted in editing a translation of Huber's work on "The English Universities" (1843), and in 1853 brought out an edition of the "Se-leet Speeches of Kossuth." He is likewise author of - Lectures on Logic," of a "Grammar of tic- Berber Language," and of a work on the "Difficulties of Elementary Geometry." He has in preparation (1875) an English-Arabic dictionary in Roman type, on a new plan.