Elgin (Elgin; g hard), county town of Elginshire, 5 m. by rail SSW. of its port, Lossiemouth, 37 ENE. of Inverness, 178 N. of Edinburgh. It lies on the Lossie, in the ' garden of Scotland;' and while it retains a few quaint old houses, a cross (restored 1888), and its ruined cathedral, it has brightened up much during the 19th century. The Elgin Institution was erected in 1832 as an almshouse and school, out of 70,000 bequeathed by General Anderson. Other edifices are Gray's Hospital (1819) and the adjoining asylum (1834-65), the county buildings (1866), the court-house (1841), the market buildings (1850), the academy (1800), and the parish church (1828), with a tower 112 feet high. The once glorious Gothic cathedral (1224-1538) was 289 feet long by 120 across the transept, with two western towers, and a loftier central spire (198 feet). It was partially burned in 1270, and again in 1390 by the ' Wolf of Badenoch;' was dismantled in 1568; and in 1711 was finally reduced to ruins by the fall of the great tower. The chapter-house, with its ' prentice pillar,' is noteworthy. Little remains of the royal castle, which in 1296 lodged Edward I. of England; its ruins are surmounted by a monument (1839-55) to the last Duke of Gordon. A royal burgh since the reign of David I. (1124-53), Elgin unites with Banff, Macduff, Peterhead, Inverurie, Cullen, and Kintore to return one member. Pop. (1831) 4493; (1901) 8460.


Elgin, a city of Illinois, on the Fox River, 36 miles WNW. of Chicago, with large watch-works and manufactures of carriages and agricultural machinery. Pop. (1880) 8787; (1900) 22,433.