South Australia, inclusive of its Northern Territory, crosses the continent between 129° and 141° E., being 1850 miles in length. The present area is 903,690 sq. m. (of which the Northern Territory contains 523,620), or more than fifteen times the size of England and Wales. Less barren than Western Australia, it has not the fertility of the eastern colonies, from want of sufficient rain. Two dry peninsulas, Yorke and Lincoln, or Eyria, point southward, enclosing two great inlets - Spencer's Gulf and Gulf St Vincent. A chain of mountains runs from the south-east up to the Lake District depression; ranges, with outliers, are seen right across to, and through, the Northern Territory; but few points rise to 3000 feet. The Murray River has its mouth in South Australia. The Torrens and a few other short streams reach the sea. The Macarthur, Roper, Victoria, and Liverpool enter the Indian Ocean. Salt lakes, as Torrens, Gairdner, and Eyre, are inland; Victoria, Albert, and the Coorong are near the Murray outlet. Adelaide, the capital, is in 34° S. lat. The area of settlement is mainly in the south-east corner of the colony. In 1835 a grant of land was made to the South Australian Association; the first party landed on Kangaroo Island in July 1836; and in 1841 South Australia became a Crown colony. Progress was established by the Burra Burra copper-mine in 1845, and the cultivation of large areas of corn. South Australia is geologically more recent than Eastern or Western Australia. Near the Victorian border lies the charming and productive Mount Gambier district, with its extinct craters, subterranean rivers, native wells, stalactitic caverns, and luxuriant vegetation. Generally speaking, the climate is both dry and warm, and varies less over its vast area than might have been expected. Travellers in the central desert complain of piercing cold, even to ice formation, in the early hours, though followed after sunrise by a temperature of from 80° to 100° in the shade; 175° in the sun and 135° in the shade have been recorded. Adelaide itself, in 34° S., has known 120° in the shade; its winter is superior to the Riviera or Algiers in uniform mildness and absence of frost. The north hot wind is trying to the weak. During the short rainy season the northern shore may have three to four times the rainfall experienced in Adelaide. The Great Austral Plains know but few and slight showers, with excessive evaporation. Yet, though the grass fails under the dryness, abundant shrubs give sustenance to live-stock, and artesian wells can draw a constant supply from subterranean streams. Droughts are often produced by the failure of the monsoon to come far enough south. Many consumptives have gained strength in South Australia. Marsupial animals predominate; birds are numerous, and so are insects, with 42 genera of fish. The mulberry is cultivated for silkworms. In spite of frequent droughts, bread-stuffs head the export list. Potatoes are raised in the moister south-eastern quarter, and vines are successful. In favourable seasons the drier interior can furnish good wheat. The railways are 1SS0 miles long, and good roads nearly 5000. The Northern Territory, being mostly tropical, could, with coloured labour, produce rice, spice, and sugar. Olives and fruits are raised in abundance, and Adelaide now ships apples (as well as raisins and currants) to London. The first lead-mine was opened in 1841; the first copper in 1843; the first gold in 1846. Tin, bismuth, and precious stones have been obtained. The best gold workings are in the Northern Territory. The Barrier silver-mines are just over the New South Wales border. There are no coal beds. In 1855 the pop. was 163,452; in 1881, 279,865; in 1901, 362,604 (4096 in the Northern Territory), including 3890 aborigines and 2570 Chinese. State education is free. The university was established in 1872. The governor is appointed by the crown. The Legislature consists of a Legislative Council (18) and a House of Assembly (42), the former elected on a property qualification, the latter on adult suffrage, both including women. In 1901 South Australia joined with the other Australian colonies in forming the Australian Commonwealth, and sends 6 members to the Federal Senate and 7 to the House of Representatives. The revenue, about 2,500,000, has generally more than covered the expenditure. The public debt, over 29,300,000 in 1905, was mostly incurred for railways and other public works. The total imports (the chief item drapery goods) range from 6,000,000 in annual value; the exports (mainly wool, wheat, and copper ore), to about the same amount. There are 1890 miles of railway; telegraph and telephone lines are 5600 miles in length; and Port Darwin in the extreme north is connected by telegraph with the southern ports. See works on South Australia by Harcus (1876), Newland (Adelaide, 1887), Hodder (2 vols. 1893), Dutton, Bonwick, etc.; besides official publications.