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Harper's Guide To Wild Flowers | by Caroline A. Creevey



This book explains the easiest way of telling flowers and plants. These ways are based upon the new classification.

TitleHarper's Guide To Wild Flowers
AuthorCaroline A. Creevey
PublisherHarper & Brothers Publishers
Year1912
Copyright1912, Harper & Brothers Publishers
AmazonHarper's Guide To Wild Flowers
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Books by Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey

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-Introduction
This book explains the easiest way of telling flowers and plants. These ways are based upon the new classification. This classification is the one presented in the seventh edition of Grays Manual of ...
-Chapter I. Plan Of This Book
Few dream of the numbers of flowers which grow all around them. In a short walk one may come across fifty species, and, sitting upon the ground in the woods in summer, one may touch twenty or thirty w...
-Why Do Flowers Have Color?
The organs concerned in the production of seed by which flowering plants are propagated, are the stamens, actively, and pistils, passively. Stamens produce in their anthers pollen grains, which must ...
-Evolution Of Color In Flowers
Colors of flowers, we may believe, were evolved somewhat in this way: A flower, hitherto white or green, showed by chance a bit of red or yellow, blue or pink, perhaps only a streak or dot. Insects we...
-Nomenclature
The botanical names in this book follow the seventh edition of Gray's Manual. The custom now is to drop capitals from geographical adjectives in writing specific names. They are retained in names deri...
-Chapter II. Characteristics Of Some Of The More Important Botanical Families
In classifying flowers, species which resemble one another are grouped into genera; genera having points of resemblance are grouped into families; these into orders, sub-classes, classes, etc. Many of...
-The Lily Family
Although humble in rank, this Family enrolls many beautiful flowers. If the leaves are long and narrow, with the veins running their entire length, from base to apex (parallel-veined); if they are fou...
-Orchis Family
The orchids which are seen in such variety of form and color in our greenhouses are mostly importations from tropical countries. The Family is represented with us by several of our dearest wild flower...
-Crowfoot Family
This large Family includes some acrid-narcotic poisonous species. Buttercups cut and mixed with grass often produce a sore mouth in cattle which eat them. The calyx is sometimes colored like the corol...
-Mustard Family
Whoever has examined the flower of the little yellow mustard knows that its four petals spread open like a cross. It has four sepals, also, each one lying between two petals. Curiously, there are six ...
-Rose Family
Considering the shrubs and fruit - trees which belong to this Family, it may well take precedence of all others in importance. A rose hip, if cut open, will show the stamens all clinging to the inside...
-Parsley Family
The flowers of plants belonging to this Family grow in umbels, which are frequently compound, forming umbcllets. They possess oil-tubes - minute canals running lengthwise of the fruit - containing aro...
-Heath Family
This Family contains many fine shrubs as well as herbs. The flowers are regular, the corolla consisting of 4 or 5 petals, or, if tubular, as many lobes. Stamens are of the same number as the petals. T...
-Milkweed Family
The construction of the flower of milkweed is so singular that it should be described. Without the magnifying-glass one sees 5 short, pointed sepals hidden under 5 larger petals turned backward and do...
-Composite Family
The largest and most advanced of all the Botanical Families is the Composite. It contains one-tenth of all known species of flowering plants, one-eighth of which are indigenous to North America. The C...
-Explanation Of Terms Used In Describing Flowers
Every perfect flower contains four sets of organs, arranged in circles at the top of the flower stem or axis. At the center a pistil stands. Often there are several pistils. This organ consists of thr...
-Leaves
In describing leaves, we say they are simple, when undivided, like the leaf of a chestnut, or compound when divided into separate leaflets. The leaf of clover is compound, and may further be spoken of...
-Annuals And Perennials
Annuals die down every year and are reproduced from seed the next season. Perennials continue to live year after year. Biennials have a life of two years, storing food for themselves the first year, u...
-Glossary Of Botanical Terms
Achene Or Akene A small, dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit. Anther That part of the stamen which contains the pollen, usually consisting of 2 cells which, when the pollen is ripe, open by a slit. A...
-Chapter III. Green, Greenish, Greenish Yellow Flowers. Arrow Grass. Triglochin maritima
Family, Arrow Grass. Flowers: The perianth consists of 3 sepals and 3 petals, all alike in size and color. In front of each a large, sessile anther stands. Pistils 6, united into a compound pistil. Th...
-Indian Turnip. Jack-In-The-Pulpit. Arisaema triphyllum
Family, Arum. Color, green. Leaves, generally 2, on long petioles, divided above into 3 ovate, pointed, stort-stalked, wavy-margined leaflets. April to June. The first name is derived from the bulbou...
-Green Dragon Root
A. Draconttum is a species in which the Jack grows taller than his pulpit, and the single leaf is divided into 5 to 17 leaflets, all springing from a common center. The leaf, on a long petiole, grows ...
-Green Arrow Arum. Peltandra. virginica
Family, Arum. Leaves, arrow-shaped, large, the largest 2 1/2 feet long, the lobes at base long and sharp, margins rolled inward, long petioled. May and June. A common plant, growing in shallow water ...
-Skunk Cabbage. Symplocarpus foetidus
Family, Arum. Color of spathe, green, striped with purple and yellow. Leaves, large, broad, ribbed, heart-shaped. March and April. This coarse and singular plant, with its ill odor, is yet of interes...
-Sweet Flag. Acorus Calamus
Family, Arum. The flowers are borne on a spadix which emerges from one side of a leaf-like scape. They consist of stamens and pistils, with 6 sepals. The scape is much prolonged beyond the flowers, an...
-Duckweed. Spirodela polyrhiza
Family, Duckweed. Flowers seldom seen. Leaves and whole plant very small, floating free on water without stems and true leaves, the latter being loosely cellular bodies, two or three together, dark gr...
-Ivy-Leaved Duckweed. Lemna trisulca
Family, Duckweed. The leaf (here called a frond) has a little cleft in its margin from which the small flowers spring. Generally there are three flowers, two of them consisting of a stamen only, one o...
-Bunch-Flower. Melanthium virginicum
Family, Lily. Flowers crowded or bunched at the end of a tall, unbranched, leafy stem. They form a large panicle of which the lower flowers are staminate, the upper pistillate. The 6 divisions of the ...
-Green Group Flowers. White Hellebore. Indian Poke. Veratrum viride
Family, Lily. Flowers rather large, in a long, dense panicle (from 1 to 2 feet long). Perianth of 6 divisions narrowed at the base. Stamens 6, their filaments curved. Each flower is pedicelled, and li...
-Field Garlic. Crow Garlic. Allium vineale
Family, Lily. Perianth of 6 distinct, colored sepals. Flowers in umbels, often accompanied or displaced by small bulblets, tipped with a fine hair. Leaves, narrow, hollow, long, somewhat grooved, shea...
-Rein Orchis. Habenaria flava
Family, Orchis. (See description of the Family, p. 6.) This species may be recognized by its square, cut-off lip (truncate) and long spur. Near the base of the lip is a small protuberance, called a tu...
-Small, Northern Bog Orchis. H. obtusata
This is a one-leafed species, the leaf, from the root, somewhat broad. Flowers make a loose raceme at the top of the naked stalk. Lip, lance - shaped, often turning back. Spur, curved, as long as the ...
-Ragged Fringed Orchis. H. lacera
Flowers, numerous, in a loose or dense raceme. Lip, 3-parted, each of the divisions conspicuously fringed or cut into narrow segments. Spur, quite long. Leaves on the stem, broader below, becoming lan...
-Adder's Mouth. Microstylis monophyllos
Family, Orchis. Flowers, small, with narrow petals. Lip, eared (not fringed), slender, terminating in a long point, roundish near the flower. Flowers, in a raceme, each with a short pedicel. June and ...
-Green Adder's Mouth. M. unifblia
This species is similar to the last, but its leaf occurs about the middle of the flower-stem, oval or roundish, clasping. Raceme of flowers short, blunt, 1 to 3 inches long. Lip, 3-lobed at the summit...
-Twayblade. Liparis Loeselii
Family, Orchis. Color, yellowish green. Flowers, few in a raceme, the petals narrow, long. Lip, entire, pointed in the middle, oblong. Leaves, lance-shaped, 2 in number, sheathing the flower-stem. No...
-Crane Fly Orchis. Tipularia. discolor
Family, Orchis. Color, greenish, tinged or spotted with purple. Flowers on a scape, with several small scales at base, nodding, on pedicels without bracts, making a terminal, loose raceme 5 to 10 inch...
-Stinging Nettle. Urtica diotca
Family, Nettle. Flowers, in spikes. Stamens and sepals 4, in pairs; the two outer sepals smaller, all placed around a rudimentary pistil. Leaves, opposite, ovate, heart-shaped, downy underneath. Summe...
-Slender Nettle
U. gracilis is sparingly bristly, quite tall, 2 to 7 feet, with leaves lance-shaped, possessing heart-shaped or round bases, deeply serrate, on tall petioles. Flowers in axillary compound panicles. ...
-Small Nettle
U. urens is small and coarse, provided with few stings. Leaves deeply and sharply toothed, ovate, petioled, 3 to 5-nerved. To this Family belong our splendid elm trees; also, the fig and banyan, as w...
-Wood Nettle. Laportea canadensis
Family, Nettle. Staminate and pistillate flowers separate. No corolla. Calyx of 4 sepals, one or two of which are smaller than the others. One side of the stiguni hairy. Flowers clustered in cymose he...
-Richweed. Clearweed. Pilea Pumila
Family, Nettle. Flowers of two kinds, stami-nate and pistillate. Corolla wanting. Sepals 3, a hooded scale in front of each. In the pistillate flowers, one large sepal incloses the seed, an achene, in...
-Great Water Dock. Rumex Britannica
Family, Buckwheat. Flowers, lacking corolla, consist of 6 sepals, 6 stamens, and 3 styles. The 3 inner sepals, called valves, bear each a grain-like body upon the back. They are larger than the 3 oute...
-Pale Dock. R. altissimus
A species 3 to 6 feet tall, with long, pale green leaves, flowers on short, nodding peduncles. Common in alluvial soil. ...
-White Dock. R. pallidus
This has a white root, whence its common name. It grows 1 to 3 feet high, with narrow, smooth leaves, the stem thickly branched, coarse in its growth, like most of this genus. ...
-Yellow Dock. R. crispus
This is a well-known weed, growing with pertinacity in cultivated grounds, with a strong root. The farmers consider the dockweed among their most unwelcome growths. Leaves, narrow, with wavy margins. ...
-Smaller Green Dock
R. conglomerates has a leafy panicle of pedicelled, small flowers. Leaves petioled, oblong to lance-shaped, acute, 1 to 5 inches long. ...
-Golden Dock. R. persicariotdes
The flowers of this species are densely whorled in a long panicle. The valves have 2 or 3 pointed, long bristles on each side. The grain becomes golden in color. Stem stout, 1 to 3 feet high, someti...
-Knotweed. Doorweed. Polygonum a viculkre
-Family, Buckwheat. Leaves, small, sessile, blue-green, less than 1 inch long, narrow. Sheaths silvery, membranous. Corolla, none. Calyx, green, bordered with pink. Flowers, very small, in axillary cl...
-Erect Knotweed
P. erectum is stouter, erect, 2 feet or less tall, with broader leaves. There is a yellowish tint to the flowers and stem by which it may be known. Flowers, 1 or 2 in the leaf axils. Leaves jointed to...
-Common Smartweed. Water Pepper. P. hydropiper
Of rather low growth, with smooth, dotted, narrow leaves very peppery to the taste. Flowers, in dense, nodding spikes, with numerous small bracts. The sheaths are fringed along their edges. Stamens, 6...
-Black Bindweed. P. Convolvulus
This is a prostrate or twining species, with halberd or heart - shaped leaves, a rough stem, and greenish flowers in loose, irregular axillary clusters. A common weed in cultivated or waste grounds. ...
-Pigweed. Lamb's Quarters. Chenopodium album
Family, Goosefoot. Every one knows the pigweed, and wishes it were not so common. The green flowers grow in dense, spiked clusters, the calyx covering the seed in fruit. No corolla. The leaves are nar...
-Orach. Atriplex patula
Family, Goosefoot. Flowers, of two sorts, the staminate with a 3 to 5-parted calyx; the pistillate with 2 large bractlets underneath, united at their bases. Spikes, slender, and sometimes the two kind...
-Glasswort. Samphire. Salicornia mucronata
Family, Goosefoot. No leaves, but stem fleshy, jointed, and the whole plant becomes reddish with age. There are many coarse, uninteresting, weed-like plants along the seashore. Those which belong to ...
-Marsh Samphire. 5. europaea
This species branches more freely than the last, and turns bright red in fall. Of the three flowers formed at the joints, the middle one is much higher than the others. Salt marshes along the coast. ...
-Sea Blite. Suaeda linearis
Family, Goosefoot. No corolla. The fleshy calyx incloses the fruit. Flowers grow in the axils of leafy bracts. Leaves, long, narrow, rush-like. September to November. The plant lies upon the ground, ...
-Russian Thistle. Salsola Kali, var. tenuifolia
Family, Goosefoot. Color of leaves and outer branches, red. Leaves, rigid, needle-like, tipped with a prickle, clustered, long, somewhat fleshy. Calyx, 5-parted, each division with a broad, strongly-v...
-Green Amaranth. Pigweed. Amaranthus retroflexus
Family, Amaranth. Corolla, wanting. Sepals, 5, tipped with a point. Stamens, 5, awl-shaped. Stigmas, 2 or 3. Bracts, 3, awl-pointed, under the flowers, which are collected in dense axillary and termin...
-Thorny Amaranth. A, spinosus
This is a weed more troublesome southward. Staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant. A pair of rigid spines occurs in the axils of the leaves, where also the fertile flowers may be found. Th...
-Tumbleweed. A. graecizans
This species has pale green to whitish erect stems, with slender branches. Flowers in small, axillary clusters. Stamens and sepals, 3. This weed is often uprooted by the wind and blown about, whence ...
-Early Meadow Rue. Thaticirum dioicum
Family, Crowfoot. Color, greenish or purplish. Flowers, dioecious (on different plants), no corolla. Calyx of 4 or 5 sepals, falling early. The stamens have linear, bright-yellow anthers, drooping and...
-Thimbleweed. Anemone vi'rgintana
Family, Crowfoot. - Petals, none. There are 5 greenish sepals, silky and downy underneath. Fruit, an oblong head of achenes, thimble-shaped. One of our tall anemones, 2 to 3 feet high, stiff and rathe...
-Blue Cohosh. Pappoose Root. Caulophyllum thalidroides
Family, Barberry. Color, yellowish green. Sepals, petals, and stamens, 6. Pistil, 1, with a short style. Petals, small, thickish, with short claws, opposite the sepals. Flowers, in a small panicle, te...
-Dyer's Weed Or Weld. Wild Mignonette
Reseda. Luteola (from resedo, to calm, it being supposed to possess sedative properties). - Family, Mignonette. Color, dull, greenish yellow. Calyx, 4-parted. Corolla of 4 petals. The upper one 3 to 5...
-Ditch Stonecrop. Penthorum sedoides
Family, Orpine. Color, greenish or greenish yellow, found in sepals. No petals. Stamens, 10. Pistils, 5, joined below in a queer little capsule which has 5 horns. The capsule opens by the falling-off ...
-Pigmy Weed
Tullaea acquatica - Family, Orpine. A symmetrical flower, with petals, sepals, stamens, and pistils, 3 or 4. Color, greenish white. Leaves, those on the stem, opposite; those at the root, entire, clus...
-Swamp Saxifrage
Saxifraga pennsytbanica. (Name means rock - breaker, from many species growing in clefts of rocks.) - Family, Saxifrage'. Flowers, perfect, with 5 greenish petals, a 5-parted calyx with lobes recurved...
-Common Alum Root. Heachera americana
Family, Saxifrage. Calyx, tubular, 5-cleft, broad. Petals, 5, small, equaling the calyx divisions. Stamens, 5. Styles, 2. Flowers in small, panicled clusters, insignificant. Leaves, principally from a...
-Miterwort. Bishop's Cap. Mitetta nuda
Family, Saxifrage. Calyx, short, 5-cleft. Corolla of 5 slender petals. Stamens, 10. Styles, short, 2. Leaves, generally 2, from runners or a rootstock, roundish or kidney-shaped, with crenate outlines...
-Golden Saxifrage. Chrysosplenium americanum
Family, Saxifrage. Greenish, often tinged with yellow or purple. Petals, none. Calyx, with 4 or 5 lobes, green outside, yellowish within. Stamens, 8 or 10, on a large disk. Styles, 2. Flowers', small,...
-Wild Ipecac. Euphorbia Ipecacuanhae
Family, Spurge. It is difficult to enumerate the flowers of members of this family as of a particular color, for the distinctive color lies in large glands. (See description of flower of the Spurge Fa...
-Seaside Spurge. E. polygonifolia
This species grows in pure sand on the shore, its pinkish stems, with small, narrow, opposite leaves, slightly heart-shaped at base, acute at apex, with cut or fringed stipules, spreading carpet-like,...
-Cypress Spurge. E. Cyparissias
This and the following species are often cultivated, and have escaped from gardens. The cypress spurge is low, 8 to 10 inches high, with flowers in spreading umbels, on closely crowded stems. Leaves, ...
-Caper Spurge. Mole Plant. E. Lathyrus
A smooth plant with stout stem, 2 to 3 feet high, with flowers in 4-rayed and forking umbels. Leaves, thick, oblong, those under the flowers often heart-shaped. ...
-Water Starwort. Callitriche deflexa
Family, Water Starwort. (The generic name means beautiful hair, from the numerous, slender stems). Leaves very small, crowded, in tufts. This plant is one of our tiniest growths. Slender sterns with...
-Water Milfoil. Myriophyllum verticillatum
Family, Water Milfoil. Floral leaves and flowers in whorls, the upper flowers staminate, the lower pistillate. Petals, generally none. Sepals, green, or with a purplish tinge. Stamens, 8. Leaves, cut ...
-Mermaid Weed. Proserpinaca palustris
Family, Water Milfoil. Calyx, tubular, 3-sided, its border 3-divided. Petals, none. Stamens and stigmas, 3. A nut-like fruit with 3 seeds in as many cells, is borne. Flowers, small, inconspicuous, 1 t...
-Poke Milkweed. Asclepias phytolaccoides
Family, Milkweed. Color, greenish; hoods white. (See description of this Family, p. 10.) Leaves, with short petioles, large, broad, ovate to roundish. A tall, rank-growing species of milkweed, 3 to 5...
-Sweet-Scented Bedstraw. Galium triflorum
Family, Madder. The galiums all have rather slender, square stems, often roughened along the angles, so that they cling to other plants, and sprawl rather than climb. Their flowers and leaves are in w...
-Ragweed. Hogweed. Bitter-Weed. Roman Wormwood. Ambrosia, artemisiifolia
Family, Composite. Leaves, much cut and thin, opposite and alternate. This unwelcome weed, when examined under the microscope, shows the fertile and sterile flowers in different heads on the same pla...
-Great Ragweed. A. trifida
A very tall, coarse, and rough species, with 3-lobed, large leaves whose petioles are margined. A common and troublesome weed, especially westward. ...
-Chapter IV. White, Cream, Greenish White Flowers. Cotton Grass. Eriophorum angustifolium
Family, Sedge. Although possessing no ordinary flowers, the cotton grass is so striking in midsummer, as it dots the swamps and cranberry marshes of Long Island and northward with pure white, cottony-...
-Bur-Reed. Sparganium simplex
Family, Bur-reed. Flowers, without perianth. Stamens and pistils separate, with bracts, collected in heads along the upper part of the stem. Staminate flowers above; pistillate ones below, from 1 to 4...
-Arrow-Head
Sagittaria latifolia. (Sagitta, an arrow, from the shape of the leaves.) - Family, Water Plantain. Flowers in whorls of 2 or 3 about the leafless scape. The upper whorls are staminate, with 3 large, r...
-Water Plantain
Alisma Plantago-aquatica. - Family, Water Plantain. Flowers, small, in a compound, spreading panicle much higher than the leaves. Color, white, sometimes light pink. Stamens and pistils in different f...
-Water-Weed. Dutch Moss. Elodea canadensis
Family, Frog's Bit. Flowers, of two kinds. Staminate very small, with 3 sepals, with or without 3 inner petallike divisions of the perianth. Stamens, 3 to 9. Stigmas, 3. Pistillate flowers seldom seen...
-Wild Calla. Water Arum. Calla. palustris
Family, Arum. Color of the spathe, white; berries, red. Leaves, broad, somewhat heart-shaped, on long, thick petioles. May and June. The flower of this pretty aquatic is a close copy of the stately p...
-Pipewort. Eriocaulon articulktum
Family, Pipewort. Color, a leaden white. Stamens and pistils in different flowers, in the same head. Divisions of perianth, in staminate flowers, 2 or 3, narrow, bearded with fine, white hairs; in pis...
-Mud Plantain. Heteranthera reniformis
Family, Pickerel-weed. Color, white or pale blue. Leaves, kidney-shaped or heart-shaped, with long, sheathing petioles. A low, creeping-stemmed herb, with a spathe of few flowers, which perish in a da...
-Devil's Bit. Blazing Star. Chamaelirium luteum
Family, Lily. Stamens and pistils on different plants. Sepals, 6, persistent after withering. Six stamens with white anthers. The fertile flowers contain only the rudiments of stamens. Styles, 3, long...
-Fly Poison. Amianthium muscaetoxicum
Family, Lily. Perianth of 6 white divisions which become greenish with age. They are spreading, conspicuous, making a simple, dense raceme. Stamens, with thread-like filaments as long as the sepals. F...
-Crisped Bunch-Flower. Melanthium latifolium
Family, Lily. Color, greenish white. Six spreading, clawed sepals and petals compose the perianth. Stamens, 6. Styles, 3. A tall and slender plant, 2 to 4 feet in height. Flowers, on pedicels in large...
-Wild Leek. Allium tricoccum
Family, Lily. Color, white or greenish. Leaves, long and narrow, disappearing before the flowers come. From a coated bulb, the leaves appear early in spring, growing less than a foot high. Later, the...
-Wild Garlic
A. canadense grows from a single bulb to the height of a foot or more. Small bulbs often replace the pink or white flowers. Wet meadows. May and June. ...
-White Dog's-Tooth Violet. Erythrbnium albidum
Family, Lily. Perianth of 6 lily-like divisions, white with a tinge of pink, the sepals curled backward. Stamens, 6. Style, long and projecting, bearing 3 stigmas. Flowers, single, showy, nodding. A p...
-Star Of Bethlehem. Ornithogalum umbellatum. Bird's Milk
(bird's milk, from color of flowers). Family, Lily. Leaves, long, narrow, 1-ribbed, grass-like, fleshy, equal to or longer than the flower-stems. A pretty pure white flower, with 6 spreading sepals...
-White Clintonia. Clintbnia umbeliulata
Family, Lily. Color, white, with purple or greenish dots. Flowers, fragrant, in a many-flowered umbel at the end of a scape 8 to 18 inches high. Fruit, a roundish, black berry. Leaves, 2 to 5, from th...
-False Spikenard. Smilacina racembsa
Family, Lily. The small flowers cluster in terminal panicles. Perianth, 6-divided. Stamens, 6. Leaves 3 to 6 inches long, alternate, clasping, or the lower with petioles, broad, acute at apex, paralle...
-False Solomon's Seal. S. stellata
This is a smaller species than the last, 1 foot high, growing under similar conditions. The flowers, in a terminal, simple raceme, are larger than the last, and fewer, each with a distinct pedicel. Mo...
-Three-Leaved Solomon's Seal
S. trifolia rises from a slender rootstock, a stem 6 to 18 inches high, bearing, generally, 3 oblong leaves, sessile, and sheathing at base. Flower rather large, with an open, at length reflexed, 6div...
-False Lily Of The Valley. Maianthemum canadense
Family, Lily. Color, white. Perianth of 4 sepals. Stamens, 4. Leaves, 1 to 3, one above the other, on flowering stems, ovate to oblong, pointed at apex, heart-shaped at base, with short, thick petiole...
-Twisted-Stalk. Streptopus amplexifolius
Family, Lily. (Name means twisted foot or stalk.) Perianth of 6 divisions, bell-shaped, curved backward, all narrow, pointed, greenish white. Stamens, 6, with arrow-shaped anthers on short, flattene...
-Painted Trillium. T. undulatum
This is the most striking of the genus. Flower, peduncled, with 3 narrow sepals. Its long, white, wavy petals are colored a deep, rich crimson in the middle, or lined with purple, and the upper part o...
-Nodding Wake Robin
T. cernuum is white or pink, the petals, with wavy margins rolled back, as long as the sepals. Anthers, long, on stout filaments. Fruit, a crimson berry. Flower - stalk nods away from the involucre of...
-Colic-Root. Star Grass. Aletris farinosa
Family, Lily. Color, white or yellowish. A plant with many small, bell-shaped flowers terminating a tall, leafless scape, 2 or 3 feet high, in a narrow raceme often nearly a foot long. One or 2 bracts...
-Showy Lady's Slipper. Cypripedium hirsutum
Family, Orchis. Color of lip white, varied with deep-pink stripes. Sepals, white, broad, roundish, long. Leaves, large, dotted, numerous, pointed, ovate, with strongly defined veins. June to September...
-White Fringed Orchis. Habenaria blephariglottis
Family, Orchis. Color, white. Leaves, the lower ones lance-shaped, quite long; the upper, bract-like. July. White fringed orchis (Habenaria blephariglottis) A beautiful milk-white orchid. The lip ...
-Ladies' Tresses. Spiranthes gracilis
Family, Orchis. Color, mainly white, but the lip is green, margined with white. Sepals, rather longer than the spreading, wavy, and crisp-margined lip. Flowers, small, in slender, twisted spikes, frag...
-Slender Ladies' Tresses. S. cernua
A variable species, both in height and leaves. This is, perhaps, the commonest of the orchids. The different species of ladies' tresses are much alike, all being known by the twisting of the spike of ...
-Rattlesnake Plantain. Epipactis pubescens
Family, Orchis. These flowers are small, about 1/4 inch long, with free side sepals, the upper sepal with the petals, united into a helmet-shaped form. Lip, a pocket, or sac-shaped. Flowers in a dense...
-Lizard's Tail. Saururus cernuus
Family, Lizard's Tail. Color, white. Leaves, alternate, ovate, heart-shaped at base, with petioles thin, dark green. Summer. An example of a perfect flower - that is, possessing stamens and pistils, ...
-Bastard Toad-Flax. Comandra umbellata
Family, Sandalwood. Color, greenish white. Leaves, alternate, nearly sessile, about 1 inch long, pale green, pinnately veined. No corolla, but a tubular calyx, spreading at the top and lengthened beyo...
-Seaside Knotweed. Polygonum maritimum
Family, Buckwheat. Color, greenish white or pinkish. Leaves, small, thickish, narrowly oblong, jointed to the sheathing stipules, their margins often turned back. Low and smooth plants, with nearly se...
-Water Smartweed. P. Acre
Tall, erect perennials, with smooth stems. Flowers, white or sometimes pale pink, in stiff, upright spikes. Stamens, 8. From the base of the stem which rests upon the ground, rootlets spring. Wet gro...
-Halberd-Leaved Tear-Thumb. P. Arifolium
Color, pale pink or white. Leaves, tapering, halberd-shaped, long, pointed, stalked. Petals, none. Calyx, 5-parted, green, with pink edges. Stamens, 8. Styles, 3. Flowers, few, in loose racemes. Summe...
-Coast Jointweed. Polygonella articulata
Family, Buckwheat. Color, light rose, almost white. Leaves, jointed at base, sheathing the stem, very narrow, alternate. September. A beautiful plant, with thread-like stems and leaves, growing in sa...
-Scoke. Pokeweed. Garget. Pigeon Berry. Phytolacca decandra
Family, Pokeweed. Color, white. Leaves, large, smooth, thick, oval, pointed, veiny, alternate. Calyx of 5 white sepals, with a pink tint on the outside. Corolla, wanting. Stamens, 10, giving the speci...
-Forked Chickweed. Anychia polygonoides
Family, Knotwort. Color, greenish white. Leaves, minute, very narrow, with small stipules. A difficult plant to analyze, on account of the minuteness of the flower, which can be studied only under a ...
-Carpet Weed. Indian Chickweed. Mollugo verticillata
Family, Aizoaceae. No petals, but 5 sepals, which are white inside, green outside. Leaves, small, in whorls at the rooting stem-joints, broad, obtuse at apex, narrow at base. July and August. A prost...
-Corn Spurrey. Spergula arvensis
Family, Pink. Sepals and petals, 5 each. Stamens, generally, 5 or 10. Styles, 5. Leaves, whorled, 1 to 2 inches long, thread-like, with very small stipules. July and August. A delicate, pretty plant ...
-Pearlwort. Sagina procumbens
Family, Pink. Sepals, 4 or 5, longer than the petals, broad. Petals, 4, or sometimes wanting. Stamens, as many as sepals, or twice as many. Styles, 4 or 5. Leaves, small, thread-like, numerous. After ...
-Pine-Barren Sandwort. Arenaria caroliniana
Family, Pink. Sepals and petals, 5. Stamens, 10. Styles, 3. The pod splits into 3 parts when ripe. Leaves, overlapping, spreading, bristly, awl-shaped. A tufted plant with short and grooved stems. May...
-Broad-Leaved Sandwort. A. lateriflora
Sepals, petals, 5 or 4. Stamens, 10. Pod, 3-celled. Leaves, blunt, oval or oblong, sessile, about 1 inch long. May and June. Small, star-like flowers, on low, erect, downy branches, 2 to 4 on the ped...
-Sea-Beach Sandwort. A, peploides
A fleshy plant, growing from a rootstock. Branches 6 to 10 inches high, ascending, bear flowers sessile and terminal in the axils of the thick, partly clasping, ovate leaves. June. In sand, near the ...
-Thyme-Leaved Sandwort. A, serpyllifolia
Parts of the flower like the foregoing. The pod, when ripe, splits first into 3, then into 6 pieces. Leaves, opposite, small, pointed. Flowers in leafy cymes. June to August. Sandy soil. A common lit...
-Common Chickweed. Stellkria media
Family, Pink. (Stella, a star, from the star-shaped flowers.) Sepals, petals, like most of this Family, 4 or 5. Stamens, twice as many. Styles, 3. Petals shorter than sepals, divided so as to look lik...
-White Group Flowers. Long-Leaved Stitchwort
S. longifolia. has a number of small, star-shaped white flowers on long pedicels, in cymes. Stems, sometimes with rough angles, 8 to 18 inches high. Leaves, long and narrow. Widely spread, growing in ...
-Northern Stitchwort. 5. boreklis
Petals, 2 to 5, very short, overtopped by the calyx, often none. Styles, 4. Leaves, broadly lance - shaped, sessile, very bright green. Stem, weak, much forked, the flowers in leafy cymes at the ends ...
-Swamp Starwort. Marsh Chickweed. S. uliginbsa
Flowers in sessile, broad, flat clusters. Leaves, lance-shaped, 6 to 16 inches high. Summer. This is not a common plant. It may be distinguished by the prolongation of the stem beyond the flowers, le...
-Mouse-Ear Chickweed. Cerastium viscosum
Family, Pink. (Generic name means a horn, from size and shape of the pod.) All parts of the flower in fives. Petals, 2 - cleft. Leaves, ovate, oblong, hairy. An annual, rather clammy, rough, 6 to 8 in...
-Field Mouse-Ear Chickweed. C. arvense
Petals, inversely heart-shaped, more than twice the length of the sepals. Pods, quite long. The narrow, lance-shaped, opposite leaves grow smaller toward the end of the branch, on weak petioles. Stems...
-Common Mouse-Ear Chickweed. C. vulgatum
This species has larger, pedicelled flowers, clustered on spreading stems which are clammy and hairy, ascending to about a foot in height. Upper leaves are thin bracts. May to July. In dooryards and ...
-White Campion. Evening Lychnis. Lychnis alba
Family, Pink. Color, white, sometimes with a pink tinge. Calyx, tubular, rough, hairy, with 5 teeth. Petals on claws, with crowns at base, 2-cleft. Leaves, ovate to lance-shaped, sessile above, with m...
-Starry Campion. Silene stellata
Family, Pink. Calyx, bell - shaped, swollen, 5-pointed, often brownish or reddish, sticky. Petals, fringed, on claws. Stamens, 10. Styles, 3. Pod, 1 -celled. Leaves, in whorls of fours, smaller toward...
-Bladder Campion. S. latifolia
Calyx, 5-toothed, prettily veined, much swollen. Petals, 5, so deeply divided as to seem like 10. Stamens, 10. Styles, 3. Flowers, in loose panicles. Leaves, ovate to lance-shaped, opposite. A smooth...
-Night-Flowering Catchfly. S. noctiflora
This species opens its petals only by night. The calyx is somewhat swollen, 1 inch long. Leaves, long, narrow, tapering to a point. The pretty, fragrant flowers invite the night-moths by throwing ope...
-Water Nymph. Water Lily. Castalia odorata
Family, Water Lily. Sepals, 4. Petals numerous, the outer broad, concave, growing narrower toward the center, and passing into stamens. According to some authorities, this flower exhibits rather the t...
-Common White Water Crowfoot. Ranunculus aquatilis, var. capillaceous
Family, Crowfoot. Petals and sepals, 5. At the base of the petals a spot or indentation may be found. Stems about 1 foot long. Leaves, soft, finely cut, hair-like, with a dilated stem. They all float ...
-Stiff Water Crowfoot. R. circinatus
This has blossoms similar to the last, but differs in its leaves, which are sessile, rigid, divided, all growing under water, but not collapsing when taken out. They have broad, large stipules. About ...
-Tall Meadow Rue. Thalictrurn polygamum
Family, Crowfoot. Flowers in compound panicles. Petals, none. Sepals, white. The stamens and pistils are borne on different plants. The staminate flowers are the prettier, in compound panicles, loose ...
-Rue Anemone. Anemonella thalictroides
Family, Crowfoot. No petals. Sepals, 5 to 10, rather large, white, occasionally pinkish. Flowers, several, in an umbel. At the base of this umbel is an involucre of long-petioled, roundish, 3-lobed le...
-Thimbleweed. Anemone Riparia
Family, Crowfoot. Color, white. Petals, none. Sepals, large, looking like petals, softly silky underneath. Pistils and stamens, numerous. Fruit, a cylindrical head which suggests the common name of th...
-Wind Flower. Wood Anemone. A, quinquefolia
Color, white, the sepals sometimes striped or tinted with blue or rose outside. Petals, none. Sepals, 4 to 7, like petals. Stamens, many. Pistils, 15 to 20, forming a head of carpels, with hooked beak...
-Goldthread
Coptis trifolia. (Coptis, to cut, alluding to the divided leaves.) - Family, Crowfoot. Sepals, 5 to 7, falling early. Petals, same number, club-shaped, small, thick, fleshy, and hollow at apex. Stamen...
-Dwarf Larkspur. Delphinium tricorne
Family, Crowfoot. Color, white or blue. (See among Blue Flowers, p. 310.) ...
-Black Snakeroot. Black Cohosh. Bugbane
Cimicifuga racemosa - Family, Crowfoot. Sepals, 4 or 5, soon falling. Petals, small, on claws, 2-horned, like transformed stamens. Stamens, many, on slender, white filaments, giving the flower a feath...
-Red Baneberry
Actaea rubra - Family, Crowfoot. Color of blossom white; berries bright red. Sepals, 4 or 5, falling early. Petals, 4 to 10, small, broadened above, on slender claws. Stamens, numerous, with white fil...
-White Baneberry
A. alba is even more conspicuous, with white berries on curiously thickened red stalks. At the tip of the berry is a black spot. Its compound, sharply-toothed leaves are broad and handsome. The berrie...
-Golden Seal. Orange Root. Yellow Puccoon. Hydrastis canadensis
Family, Crowfoot. Color, greenish white. Petals, none. Sepals, 3, colored, soon falling. Stamens, numerous. Pistils, about 12, with flat, double stigmas. Fruit, a head of crimson, 2-seeded berries. Ro...
-May Apple. Mandrake. Podophyllum pettktum
Family, Barberry. Sepals, 6, falling early. Petals, 6 to 9, roundish. Stamens, twice as many as petals. Fruit, a large berry, with many seeds filling the cavity. The large, solitary flower droops from...
-Twinleaf. Rheumatism Root. Jeffersonia Diphylla
(named after Thomas Jefferson) Family, Barberry. Sepals, 4. Petals and stamens, 8. Pod, with many seeds, opening by a horizontal slit. Flower, one inch across, single, on a naked scape, 6 to 8 inches ...
-Umbrella Leaf. Diphylleia cymosa
Family, Barberry. Sepals, petals, and stamens, 6. Sepals falling early. Fruit, a few-seeded blue berry. Flowers in cymes, terminating the stem, which grows from a thick rootstock. Leaf, one very large...
-Bloodroot. Sanguinaria canadensis
Family, Poppy. Sepals, 2. Petals, 8 to 12. Stamens, many. Pistil, 1. Fruit, an oblong, dry pod. Leaf, 1, from a short rootstock, rounded, deeply lobed. April and May. This beautiful, snowy flower of ...
-White Poppy. Papaver somniferum
Family, Poppy. Color, white or bluish purple. Sepals, 2, thin, falling after the flower appears. Petals, 4. Numerous stamens. Style short, and stigma broad, overhanging the ovary. Leaves, alternate, d...
-Dutchman's Breeches
Dicentra Cucullaria (2-spurred). - Family, Fumitory. Color, white, tipped with pale yellow. Sepals, 2, small, scale-like. Petals, 4, slightly joined; the 2 outer forming 2 spurs, spreading apart, long...
-Squirrel Corn. D, canadensis
Found more in northerly woods. Underground shoots bear yellow, small tubers, resembling grains of corn. The flowers are white or greenish, tinged with pink, with short spurs, and a prominent crest on ...
-Whitlow Grass. Draba verna
Family, Mustard. Sepals and petals, 4 the latter deeply 2-cleft. Pistil, 1. Pods on long stalks, oval, pointed. Leaves all tufted at the root, oblong or lance-shaped. April and May. The small flowers...
-Wild Peppergrass. Lepidium Ipirginicum
Family, Mustard. Stamens, 2. Pod, roundish, notched above, divided by a partition into 2 1-seeded cells, which are flattened at right angles to the partition. Leaves, thin, tapering at the base, upper...
-Shepherd's Purse
Capsella Bursa-pastoris. - Family, Mustard. Leaves, mostly clustered at root, with a few arrow-shaped, scattered along the stem, all much and variously cut, sessile. Small, white flowers grow in long ...
-Mouse-Ear Cress. Sisymbrium Thaliknum
Family, Mustard. Leaves, oblong, entire or slightly toothed. A small plant, branched, rough hairy at base. The 4-sided pods are longer than the pedicels. Early spring. Imported from Europe, and found...
-Water Cress
Radicula Nasturtium-aquaticum. - Family, Mustard. Flowers, as in others of this Family. Pods, short. Leaves, pinnate. Aquatic or found in wet ditches or in marshes. Used for salad and for garnishing ...
-Spring Cress. Cardamine bulbbsa
Family, Mustard. Flowers, in fours, but 6 stamens, 2 being shorter than the others. Pod, long, tipped with the slender style, and large stigma, 2-valved, opening with a sudden movement, disclosing a s...
-Cuckoo Flower
C. pratensis will scarcely be found away from the wet meadows, and even there it is rare. It is a handsome plant, with white or pink blossoms on stems from a short rootstock. Leaves, divided into 7 to...
-Hairy Rock Cress. Arabis hirsuta
Family, Mustard. Color, white or greenish. Flowers similar to others of this Family. Pod, long, slender, upright, 2-valved by a thin partition. Stem, roughish, erect, simple (unbranched), 1 to 2 feet ...
-Sickle Pod
A. canadensis has sessile stem-leaves, acute at apex and base, the lower ones toothed. Pods, rough and hairy, flat, curved, on hairy stalks. ...
-Tower Mustard
A. glabra is the tallest species, 2 to 4 feet, with yellowish-white petals, oblong or lance-shaped stem-leaves, pods 3 inches long, very narrow. Around rocks. A. lyrata differs in having much cut and...
-Spider-Flower. Clebme spinosa
Family, Caper. Color, white or crimson. Calyx, 4-cleft. Corolla, of 4 petals on long claws. Stamens, 6, equal in length, with very long, thread-like filaments. Pistil, a very long stalk, at the end of...
-Round-leaved Sundew. Drosera Rotundifblia
Family, Sundew. Petals, sepals, stamens, 5, or sometimes 6. Styles, 3 to 5, so deeply divided as to seem twice the number. Leaves, clustered at the root, round or oblong, on long stems, glandular, hai...
-Stonecrop. Orpine. Sedum ternktum
(From sedeo, to sit, these plants often growing flat upon rocks and walls). Family, Orpine. Sepals and narrow petals, 4 or 5. Stamens, twice as many. Pistils, 5, forming in fruit a 5-celled capsule, a...
-Early Saxifrage. Saxifraga birginiensis
Family, Saxifrage. Calyx, 5-parted. Petals, 5. Stamens, 10. Pistil, 1. Styles, 2. Fruit, a purplish capsule. One of our delicate early flowers, growing in clefts of rocks. Leaves, all at the root, rou...
-False Miterwort. Foam Flower. Tiarella cordifolia
(Tiara, a turban, from shape of pod.) Family, Saxifrage. Calyx, 5-parted. Petals, 5, on claws, long, narrow. Stamens, 10, long, conspicuous, giving the raceme of flowers a feathery, soft appearance. S...
-Miterwort. Bishop's Cap. Mitella diphylla
Mitella diphylla (a cap, from the shape of the pod) Family, Saxifrage. Calyx, 5-cleft. Petals, 5, much cut into slender divisions. Stamens, 10. Syles, 2, short. Capsule, 2-beaked. Flowers, in slend...
-Grass Of Parnassus. Parnassia carolinikna
Family, Saxifrage. Sepals, 5, somewhat united. Petals, 5, white, large, veined with green or yellow. Five good stamens. At the base of each petal is a cluster of bodies which will puzzle many students...
-Goat's Beard. Aruncus Sylvester
Family, Rose. Sepals and petals, 5, the latter small, white. Stamens and pistils in different flowers which are sessile, in open panicles on long, slender, spike-like branches. Leaves, thrice-pinnate...
-Bowman's Root. Indian Physic. Gillenia trifoliata
Family, Rose. Color, pale pink or white. Calyx, a long, narrow tube with 5 erect teeth. Corolla, of 5 unequal, slender petals springing from within the calyx tube. Stamens, many. Pistils, 5, making 5 ...
-Wild Strawberry. Fragaria virginiana
Family, Rose. Calyx, 5-cleft with a narrow bract between each 2 divisions. Petals, 5, roundish. Leaves, from the root, on long, hairy petioles, with 3 serrate leaflets. Runners grow from the rhizome (...
-White Avens. Geum canadense
Family, Rose. Calyx, 5-divided, with bract-lets between the divisions. Petals, 5. Stamens, many. Achenes, numerous. The styles of the pistils jointed, the upper part hairy. The receptacle upon which t...
-Creeping Dalibarda. Dalibarda repens
Family, Rose. The flowers of Dalibarda are of 2 sorts. The more evident have white petals, and are generally sterile, on long peduncles. Of these the calyx is deeply 5 to 6-parted, 3 of the divisions ...
-Canadian Burnet. Sanguisorba canadensis
Family, Rose. Petals, none. Sepals, 4, whitish. Leaves, pinnate, of several oblong, deeply serrate leaflets, notched at base, rounded at apex. August and September. The color and beauty of the flower...
-White Clover. Trifolium repens
Family, Pulse. The common white clover is too well known to need much description. It has the papilionaceous corolla (see p. 8), a 5-cleft calyx, with bristly teeth, much shorter than the corolla. The...
-White Melilot. Melilotus alba
Family, Pulse. The standard of the white corolla is longer than the other petals. The flowers grow in elongated, spike-like racemes. Leaflets, narrow to oblong, finely serrate. A tall species, fragra...
-Common Wood Sorrel. Oxalis Acetosella
(sour, referring to the acid juice of the stem and leaves) Family, Geranium. Color, white, with crimson or purplish veinings. Parts of the open, spreading flower in fives. Stamens, 10. Petals often...
-Seneca Snakeroot. Mountain Flax. Polygala. Senega
Family, Milkwort. Color, white, sometimes tinged with green. Flowers in a close, single, elongated spike on a leafy stem from a knotty rootstock. Leaves, sessile, lance-shaped, somewhat broad in the m...
-Whorled Milkwort. P. verticitta.ta
This species may be known by its long, narrow leaves whorled on the stem. Color, a greenish white or purplish. Basal leaves wanting, but a few are scattered singly on the stem. Flowers in short spikes...
-Snow-on-the-Mountain. Euphorbia Marginata
Family, Spurge. The flowers of this plant (for description of Family, see p. 9) are collected in umbellike groups of, usually, threes, surrounded by involucres of conspicuous, white-margined leaves. S...
-Spotted Spurge. E. maculata
Since this plant has a reddish tinge in its leaves, stems, and in the glands of the flowers, it will be described nnder red flowers. (See p. 265.) ...
-Flowering Spurge. E. corollata
A tall species, 2 to 3 feet high, with leaves generally whorled around the upper part of the stem. The tipper leaves are margined with white, giving the plant a showy appearance. Flowers grouped in um...
-Common Mallow. Cheeses. Malva rotundifolia
Family, Mallow. Color, white, with pink or lavender veins, sometimes with a bluish tinge. Calyx of 5 sepals, under which are 3 narrow bracts. Petals, 5, twice the length of the calyx, notched. Stamens...
-Curled Mallow. M. crispa
In this species the leaves are roundish, wrinkled, and crisped. Flowers, whitish, small, sessile, crowded in the leaf-axils. Leaves on quite long petioles. An erect, smooth annual, flowering all summ...
-Musk Mallow. M. moschata
Color, white or a pale pink (see p. 265). For this genus the flowers are large, on short peduncles, crowded on the branches or clustered at the ends of the stems. Petals, much longer than the calyx lo...
-White Hibiscus. Hibiscus oculirbseus
Family, Mallow. Color, white, with a deep crimson center. Underneath the calyx are many pointed green bracts. Calyx, 5-cleft. Corolla, of 5 separate large petals. Stamens, collected on a column, which...
-Green Violet. Hybanthus concolor
Family, Violet. Color, greenish white. Petals, nearly equal in length, the lower one being larger than the others, swollen at base, notched at apex. Stamens united into a sheath which envelops the ova...
-Sweet White Violet. Viola pattens
Family, Violet. Sepals and petals, 5, the latter differing in size, the lowest spurred at the base. The side petals usually are hairy, and all are streaked with purplish lines. Leaves obtuse at apex, ...
-Lance-Leaved Violet. V. lanceolkta
Near by, perhaps, grows the lance-leaved violet, also white and sweet-scented. This species produces runners which root at the joints, and bear small, apetalous blossoms (cleis-togamous), which pollin...
-Primrose-Leaved Violet. V, primulifolia
A white species in which the petals or some of them are purple-veined. Leaves differ from the two last, being long-petioled, broader than V. lanceolata, narrower than V. blanda, and not heart - shaped...
-Pale Or Striped Violet. V. striata
Color, white or cream, with purple lines upon the petals. The stems are leafy, heart-shaped at base, on long petioles, the lower having longer petioles than blades, all acute at apex. Prominent stipul...
-Loosestrife. Lythrum lineare
Family, Loosestrife. The flowers of Lythrum are dimorphous, that is, have stamens and pistils of different lengths, so that self-pollination is prevented. This is a large and bushy plant, with slender...
-Willow Herb. Epilobium densum
Family, Evening Primrose. Color, usually pink, but occasionally white. (See Pink Flowers, p. 273.) ...
-Enchanter's Nightshade. Circaea luteiiana
Family, Evening Primrose. Color, white or cream. Low perennials, 1 to 2 feet high, with small flowers in terminal and side racemes, each flower composed of 2 petals, a 2-parted, hairy calyx, 2 stamens...
-Wild Sarsaparilla
Aralia nudicaulis - Family, Ginseng. The root of this plant, although not the officinal root which the soda-fountain clerk uses (officinal meaning that which has commercial value), is sometimes used t...
-Spikenard
A, racemosa has very long, large leaves (I have found them 2 or 3 feet across), decompound, with ovate, heart-shaped, pointed leaflets, somewhat downy and toothed. Flowers in drooping umbels or raceme...
-Ginseng. Panax quinquefblium
Family, Ginseng. Color of flowers white, of fruit red. Flowers, staminate and pistillate on different plants. Leaves, 3 in a whorl, on a low stem, palmately divided into 5 long-stalked leaflets. July ...
-Dwarf Ginseng, Or Ground-Nut
P. trifblium is often found growing near in the same woods. The ground-nut refers to its root, a small tuber, sweet and edible, sunk deep into the ground, only unearthed after careful, patient digging...
-Water Pennywort. Hydrocotyle umbellata
Family, Parsley. Flowers, small, urn-belled, pedicelled, white or greenish, from rootstocks creeping in the mud. The leaves are tiny imitations of lily-pads. After flowering, the top of the water wher...
-Sanicle. Black Snakeroot. Sanicula marylandica
Family, Parsley. Color, greenish white. Small flowers in irregular or compound umbels, a few staminate, without pistils. Fruit, roundish, composed of several prickly carpels. Leaves, palmately, 5 to 7...
-Sweet Cicely
Osmorhiza Claytbnu - Family, Parsley. Flowers in umbels, with a few involucral bracts underneath. Leaves, thrice-compound. Leaflets oval, toothed, softly hairy, tapering, 2 or 3 inches long. Plant gra...
-Poison Hemlock. Conium maculatum
Family, Parsley. Flowers, white, in umbels. Leaves, large, twice-divided. Leaflets pale green, lance-shaped, cut. Stem spotted and smooth. A tall branching herb whose leaves give forth an unpleasant o...
-Mock Bishop's-Weed. Ptilimnium capillaceum
Family, Parsley. Flowers in compound umbels. A plant smooth-stemmed and branching, usually low, 1 foot high, but at times several feet tall. Leaves, compound, finely cut into thread-like divisions. Fl...
-Water Hemlock Or Spotted Cowbane. Cicuta maculata
Family, Parsley. This may be known by its purple - streaked stem. It is a large, coarse plant, with white flowers in large umbels. It grows from 2 to 6 feet high. The lower leaves have long stems. The...
-Caraway. Carum Carvi
Family, Parsley. Flowers in compound, terminal umbels. Leaves, compound, some of the leaflets cut into thread-like divisions. May to July. Escaped from old-fashioned gardens, where it has long been a...
-Berula. Berula erecta
Family, Parsley. The umbels of flowers have rather large involucres of narrow bracts underneath. Leaves, pinnate, the 5 to 9 pairs of leaflets sharply or obtusely toothed or lobed, 3 inches long or le...
-Water Parsnip. Stum cicutaefblium
Family, Parsley. Flowers, as in all of this family, in umbels. Leaves, pinnate. Leaflets, 3 to 6 pairs, serrate, sharply pointed; often a terminal leaflet. A variety, S. Carsoiii, has submerged leaves...
-Scotch Lovage. Sea Parsley. Ligusticum scothicum
Family, Parsley. Flowers, in large, compound umbels, on pedicels about half an inch long. Leaves, fleshy, 3-divided, shining, the leaf-segments toothed, shining. Stems, mostly simple, 1 to 3 feet tall...
-Fool's Parsley. Aethusa Cynapium
Family, Parsley. No involucre, but in-volucels of long, narrow leaves under the umbellets of white flowers. Leaves, twice or thrice compound, the divisions cleft again and again. Taste, acrid and burn...
-Cow Parsnip. Heradeum lanatum
Family, Parsley. Color, white or sometimes purplish. Of the umbel, the outer flowers are larger than the others, with inversely heart-shaped petals. Both involucre and involucels of green bracts prese...
-Cowbane. Oxypolis rigidior
Family, Parsley. This species has tuber-bearing roots which are poisonous. Its umbels of white flowers appear in August. It is from 2 to 5 feet tall, with pinnate leaves, once cut. Leaflets, 3 to 9. A...
-Hemlock Parsley. Conioseftnum chinense
Family, Parsley. No involucre, but fine, long, thin bracts form an involucel under the umbellets. Leaves, 2 to 3-pinnately compound, thin, the leaflets cut to the midrib. Late blooming, from August t...
-Great Angelica. Angelica atropurpurea
Family, Parsley. Color, greenish white. Leaves, large, twice or thrice ternately divided. Leaflets very sharply serrate. Easily known by its stout, dark purple stem. 4 to 6 feet tall. June and July. ...
-Wild Carrot. Queen's Lace. Daucus Carbta
Family, Parsley. Color, white, except that the central flower of each umbel is defective and purplish. After flowering the umbel becomes concave or nest-shaped. Leaves, 2 to 3-pinnately compound. 1 to...
-One-Flowered Pyrola. Moneses uniflora
(name means single delight) Family, Heath. Color, white or pink (see p. 276). Sepals and petals, 5, the latter roundish, wide open, 1/2 inch across. Filaments, awl-shaped, with anthers 2-horned. St...
-Shin Leaf
Pyrola elliptica. (A pear from fancied resemblance of the foliage to that of a pear tree.) - Family, Heath. Color, whitish. Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla of 5 ovate petals. Stamens, 10, the anthers inver...
-Indian Pipe. Corpse Plant
Monotropa uniflbra. (Turned to one side.) - Family, Heath. Color, a leaden white. Leaves, none. Calyx, of 2 to 4, and corolla, of 4 or 5, bract - like scales. Stamens, 8 or 10, with anthers joined h...
-Trailing Arbutus. Ground Laurel. Mayflower
Epigaea repens. (Upon the earth.) - Family, Heath. Color, white or pink. Sepals, 5, pointed. Corolla, tubular, with spreading lobes, hairy inside, purest white to deepest pink. Flowers, in clusters ...
-Creeping Wintergreen. Checkerberry
Gaultheria procumbens - Family, Heath. Color, white. Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla, bell-shaped, swollen in the middle, somewhat contracted at the top, with 5 points. Stamens, 10, each with 2 round anther ...
-Creeping Snowberry. Moxie Plum. Capillaire
Chiogenes hispidata (name means snow offspring, in allusion to the white berries). - Family, Heath. Calyx, 4-parted; 2 large bractlets underneath. Corolla, deeply 4-divided. Stamens, 8. Flowers, sma...
-Pyxie. Flowering Moss
Pyxidanthera. barbulata (a small box, and anther, because the anthers open as if by a lid). - Family, Diapensia. Color, white, or sometimes a pale rose. Sepals and stamens, 5. Corolla, 5-lobed. Fl...
-Featherfoil. Water Violet. Hottonia. inflata
Family, Primrose. Color, white or whitish. Calyx, of 5 long, narrow divisions. Corolla, with short tube, spreading, with a 5-parted border. Stamens, 5. Capsule, 5-valved, with many seeds. Leaves, crow...
-Brook-Weed. Water Pimpernel. Simolus floribundus
Family, Primrose. (Ancient name of Celtic origin, said to refer to curative properties of this genus in diseases of cattle and swine.) Calyx, 5-cleft. Corolla, tubular, 5-divided, with 5 stamens sta...
-Chickweed Wintergreen. Star Flower. Trientalis americkna
Family, Primrose. Calyx and corolla mostly 7-parted, sometimes 6. Leaves, whorled on the stem, just below the flowers, thin, veiny, lance-shaped, sessile. A few scale-like leaves below. May to July. ...
-Pennywort. Obolaria Virginica
Family, Gentian. Color, white or purplish. Calyx of 2 spreading sepals. Corolla, bell-shaped, 4-cleft. Stamens, 4 inserted between the divisions of the corolla. Style, short with a 2-divided stigma. F...
-Floating Heart. Nymphoides tacunosun
Family, Gentian. Color, white. Calyx, of 5 long, narrow divisions. Corolla, with a short tube and spreading, 5-parted border, 5 small glands appearing at the fringed bases of the lobes. Pedicels long ...
-Whorled-Leaved Milkweed. Asclepias verticitta.ta
Family, Milkweed. Color, greenish white. Flower, already described (p. 10). Leaves, simple, thread-like, whorled, 3 to 6 together, turned-back margins, 2 or 3 inches long. This is the most ethereal a...
-Waterleaf
Hydrophyllum canadense-----Family, Waterleaf. Color, nearly white. Calyx, 5-cleft, minute teeth between the lobes. Corolla, tubular, 5-lobed. Flowers, short-pedicelled, in flat-topped clusters whose p...
-Spring Or Early Scorpion Grass. Myosotis virginica
Family, Borage. Color, white. This is the. only white species of forget-me-not. We think of the flower as blue, and in the blue section the genus will be more at length described. This species is very...
-Corn Gromwell. Pearl Plant. L. arvense
Color, nearly white. The leaves of this species are long, lance-shaped, sessile, or short-petioled. Flowers, in spikes May to August. Dry fields and waste places, Maine to Georgia and westward. ...
-False Gromwell. Onosmodium virginianum
Family, Borage. Color, a deep cream or yellowish white. Calyx, tubular, with 5 narrow divisions above. Corolla, tubular, with 5 long, narrow lobes, bristly on the outside. Stamens, 5, with somewhat ar...
-White Vervain. Verbena, urticaefolia
Family, Vervain. Color, white. Calyx, unevenly 5-toothed. Corolla, 5-toothed, the lobes spreading. Stamens, 4, in pairs, the 2 upper frequently imperfect. Fruit splitting into 4 nutlets. Leaves, oppos...
-Fog-Fruit. Lippia lanceolata
Family, Vervain. Color, bluish white. Calyx and corolla, 2-lipped, the upper corolla lip notched, the lower and larger 3-divided. Leaves, oblong to ovate, or lance-shaped, toothed above the middle. St...
-Horehound. Marrubhtm vulgare
Family, Mint. Color, white. In the Mint Family the 5-pointed corolla is 2-lipped, making the upper division of 2 united petals, the lower of 3. The calyx is also 2-lipped. The fruit consists of 4 smal...
-Catnip. Nepeta Cataria
Family, Mint. Color of corolla, white, dotted with purple. The plant is covered with a great deal of whitish down. Leaves, heart-shaped, coarsely toothed, petioled. Perennial, 2 to 3 feet high. Flower...
-Motherwort. Leonurus Marrubiastrum
Family, Mint. Corolla, shorter than the sharp calyx teeth. Divided as in other mints. Flowers in whorls, in the axils of leaves on rough stems, stout, and much branched, 2 to 5 feet high. Leaves, very...
-Wild Bergamot. Monarda fistulosa
Family, Mint. Color, white or purple (see Purple Flowers, p. 340). Calyx-tube, hairy within. Corolla, with a long tube (1 inch or more) and 2-lipped border, the upper lip erect, notched, the lower 3-l...
-Bugle Weed. Lycopus virginicus
(a wolf's foot, from some fancied likeness of the leaves) Family, Mint. Color, white. Corolla, nearly equally 4-cleft, bell-shaped. Calyx, with 4 acute, short teeth. 2 good stamens. Leaves, opposit...
-Water Horehound. L. sessilifolius
This species is much like the last, but maybe known by the corolla, which is twice as long as the calyx, and leaves rather broader and coarser, sometimes clasping the stem. Slender runners grow from t...
-Dittany. Cunila origanoides
Family, Mint. Color, white or purple (see p. 344). Calyx,'5-toothed, hairy within. Corolla, 2-lipped, the erect upper lip notched, the lower 3-divided. Stamens, with 2 anthers protruding, standing ap...
-Field Mint. Corn Mint
Mentha arvensis - Family, Mint. Color, variable, white, pink, or violet (see p. 289). The genus Mentha may be called the true mints. They are all sweet-scented with the mint odor. They are perennial h...
-Common Nightshade. Solatium nigrum
Family, Nightshade. Color, white. Corolla, wheel-shaped, 5-parted. Calyx, 5-parted. Flowers, clustered in umbels, on nodding peduncles, 3 to 10 growing from the side of the stem. Berries black, round,...
-Jimson Or Jamestown Weed. Thorn Apple. Datura. Stramonium
Family, Nightshade. Color, white. Calyx, 5-toothed, the upper part falling away in fruit. Corolla, 3 inches long, funnel-form, the border 5-toothed. Stamens, 5. Fruit, a prickly 2-celled capsule. Flow...
-Moth Mullein. Verbascum Blattaria
Family, Figwort. Color, yellow, or in one variety (albiflorum) white, with a purplish stain in the center (see p. 204). Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla, 5-lobed, open in maturity, its lobes reflexed. Stamens...
-White Mullein
V. Lychriitis is a rarer species, with white or yellow flowers in a tall panicle (see p. 204). Leaves, greenish above, woolly beneath, ovate, not clasping, pointed. The whole plant is covered with a ...
-Snapdragon. Antirrhinum Orontium
Family, Figwort. Color, purple or white (see p. 346). Calyx and corolla tubular, 5-parted, the corolla with a plaited border. Stamens, 4. Leaves, long and narrow. Flowers in axillary racemes. The cor...
-Balmony. Snakehead. Turtlehead. Chelbne glabra
Family, Figwort. Color, white, often with a pink or purplish tinge. Calyx, of 5 sepals. The mouth of the inflated, tubular corolla is a little open, the upper lip being swollen as if humpbacked. Looki...
-Mudwort. Limosella aquatica, var. tenuifolia
Family, Figwort. Color, white or a light crimson (see p. 291). Calyx and corolla bell-shaped, 5-parted, with 4 stamens inserted on the corolla. Leaves, like pine-needles, fleshy, very slight distincti...
-Hedge Hyssop. Grattola virginiana
Family, Figwort. Color, white and yellow (see p. 206). Two-lipped corolla, with a tube yellowish within, and lighter, nearly white, lobes. The lower lip 3-cleft, the upper 2. Calyx, separated into 5 n...
-Culver's-Root. Culver's Physic. Veronica virginica
Family, Figwort. Color, white or whitish. Calyx, 4 or 5-parted. Corolla, tubular, with wheel-shaped, short border, 4 or 5-cleft. Stamens, 2, one at each side of the upper lobes of the corolla, standin...
-Neckweed. Purslane Speedwell. V. peregrina
Color, whitish. Wheel - shaped corolla shorter than the calyx, open, spreading. Flowers, short - pedicelled or sessile in axils of the upper small leaves. Fruit, a nearly round capsule, notched at ape...
-Eyebright. Euphrasia Oakesii
(name means cheerfulness) Family, Figwort. Color, white, with a yellow center, the eye, and purplish veins (see Variegated Flowers, p. 374). Calyx, tubular, bell-shape, 4-cleft. Corolla, 2-lippe...
-Cleavers. Goose Grass. Galium Aparine
Family, Madder. Color, white. Calyx, tubular, without teeth. Corolla, 4 - lobed, wheel - shaped. Stamens, 4. Styles, 2. Leaves, commonly 6 or 8 in a whorl, linear or inversely lance-shaped, quite long...
-Northern Bedstraw. G. boreale
Flowers, in panicles, the stem growing erect, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves, in whorls of fours, linear, 3-nerved, smooth along the margins. May to August. Rocky woods or moist banks and shores. Marsh Be...
-Sweet-Scented Bedstraw. G. yriflorum
Color, greenish or greenish white (see p. 36). ...
-Small Bedstraw. G. trifidum
Corolla-lobes and stamens, 3 or more. Styles 2. Flowers, solitary or, when they terminate the branches, in threes. Variable. July to September. The fruit, as in all the galiums, is a pair of dry seed...
-Rough Bedstraw. G. asprellum
This species has a stronger stem than the last, with many hooked bristles by which it climbs over bushes. The leaves, whorled, 4 to 6 upon stem and branches, are oval or lance-shaped. They often termi...
-Button-Weed
Diodia. teres (name means a thoroughfare, from the habit of many species to appear by the wayside). - Family, Madder. Color, white. Flower parts in fours. An insignificant herb, generally rough or h...
-Partridge Berry
Mitchella. repens (name refers to Dr. John Mitchell, a botanist of the time of Linnaeus). - Family, Madder. Color, white, sometimes with a pink tinge. Calyx, 4-toothed. Corolla, tubular, 4-lobed. Stam...
-Bluets. Innocence. Houstbnia caerulea
Family, Madder. Color, a bluish white, with a pale-yellow center. Calyx, very short, 4-lobed, forming a tiny cup to hold the tubular corolla, with its 4 spreading lobes, barely 1/2 inch across. Stamen...
-Clustered Bluets. Oldenlandia uniflora
Family, Madder. Color, white. Corolla, wheel - shaped, with 4 lobes shorter than the calyx. Calyx, 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Style, often none, but 2 sessile stigmas. Parts of the flower sometimes in fives...
-Twin-Flower. Linnaea borealis (named from Linnaeus)
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, whitish, tinged with deep crimson or purple (see Pink Flowers, p. 292). ...
-Thoroughwort. Eupatoriam leucolepis
Family, Composite. Color, white. Flowers, in heads, about 5, making a grayish corymb, with bracts. Pappus, hair-like bristles standing in a single row. Leaves, opposite, sessile, rough, long, narrow, ...
-Hyssop-Leaved Thoroughwort. E. hyssopifolium
Color, dirty white. Leaves, narrow, long, crowded and bunched at intervals along the stem, almost whorled in appearance. August and September. A common, plebeian plant with the typical flowers in clo...
-Boneset. E. perfoliktum
Color, white. Leaves, opposite, clasping, often joined at base so as to make the stem appear to pass through them, serrate, much wrinkled. Summer. A well-known plant formerly much used as tea for med...
-Upland Boneset. E. sessilifolium
About 5 feet high. A smooth, soft plant, with soft, downy compound corymbs of flowers. Leaves, opposite, or 3 in a whorl, tapering from a rounded, broad base to a point; sessile, toothed, very veiny, ...
-White Snakeroot. E. urticaefolium
Color, white. Leaves, opposite, long-petioled, with sharp teeth, pointed, broad near the base, thin. Flowers, in compound corymbs. Late summer. A handsome plant, 2 to 3 feet high, spreading, branchin...
-Kuhnia. Kuhnia eupatoriotdes
Family, Composite. Color, cream white. Leaves, alternate, entire, or sometimes toothed, lance-shaped to very narrow and long. September. A plant with minute down, variable in height and outline of le...
-Silver-Rod. Solidago bicolor
Family, Composite. Color, cream white. This is the only white golden-rod, although a variety of Virgaurea is found near the White Mountains with rays so pale as to be almost white. The bicolor is usua...
-Aster
The asters - distinguished, often handsome, members of the Composite Family - seldom bloom before August. They are essentially a fall flower, mingling their bright purple or blue or white rays tastefu...
-White Heath Aster
A. ericoides bears tiny white flowers, becoming pinkish, with fine, almost hair-like rays, and yellow, compact disks. It might be a small daisy. Leaves, small, narrow, the lower broader and somewhat t...
-Dense-Flowered Aster. A, multiflorus
A bushy plant, with stiff, spreading branches, very leafy, 1 to 7 feet tall. Flowers, crowded, terminating the main and side branches. Leaves, small, bract-like above, sessile, thick, rigid, mostly po...
-Calico Aster. A. lateriftorus
Color, white or pale purple (see p. 477). Leaves, long, broad below, narrow above, toothed in the middle, pointed at both ends. The lower leaves with short petioles, the upper sessile. One of the sma...
-Michaelmas Daisy. A. Tradescanti
Color, white, sometimes tinged with pink. Leaves, lance-shaped upon the upper branches, sharply pointed above, sessile where joined to the stem. Those below are broader, but linear, about 3 to 6 inche...
-Panicled Aster
A. peniciulatus - Color, white, but sometimes pale violet. The smooth stem of this species reaches a height of 7 or 8 feet, and is therefore one of our tallest. Leaves, long, narrow, sharply but dista...
-Whorled Or Mountain Aster. A. acuminatus
Color, white or purplish. The stem of this aster is slender, single, branched, softly hairy, more or less zigzag and bent, 1 to 3 feet high. Flowers, with long, narrow rays, about 15 in number, the he...
-Daisy Fleabane. Sweet Scabious. Erigeron annuus
Family, Composite. Color, white, with a purplish tinge. These are flowers, sometimes weeds, much like the asters, but with finer, softer, more numerous rays. Annual, 1 to 4 feet high, with softly hair...
-Horse-Weed. Butter-Weed. E. canadensis
Color, white. Leaves, long and narrow, those from the root lobed. Stem, straight, slender, covered with bristly hairs. Heads of flowers in panicles, the rays having a cutoff appearance. July to Octobe...
-White-Topped Aster. Seriocarpus asterotdes
Family, Composite. Color, white, with a pale yellow center. Disk and ray flowers present. The flowers grow in flat-topped clusters on plants 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves, serrate or smooth, thin, sessile,...
-Plantain-Leaved Everlasting. Antennaria plantaginifolia
Family, Composite. Color, cream or dull white. Leaves, all silky and soft, those at root clustered and spreading, inversely ovate, rounded at apex, 3-nerved, petioled; those on the flower-stems linear...
-Pearly Everlasting. Anaphalis margaritacea
Family, Composite. Color, white. Stamens and pistils in different flowers. Flowers, all tubular in clusters at the summit of cottony stems, mixed with many leaves. The scales which surround the flower...
-Common Everlasting. Gnaphalium polycephalum
(name means wool) Family, Composite. Color, whitish. Staminate and pistillate flowers in the same heads all surrounded by dry, white scales, which are sometimes tinged with brown, the outer woolly....
-Clammy Everlasting. Winged Cudweed. G. decurrens
Color of flowers, white, with yellowish scales underneath. Leaves, linear, lance-shaped, slightly clasping, running down on the stem. 2 to 3 feet high, woolly, fragrant. July to September. Open clear...
-Low Or Marsh Cudweed. G. uliginosum
Color, white. Flowers, in roundish heads surrounded by many leaves, some of which are longer than the flowers. Involucre dry and papery. Leaves, without petioles, long, narrow, pointed. Whole plant wo...
-Purple Cudweed. G. purpureum
Color of flowers white, but the involucre of bracts underneath is purplish, more prominent than the disk flowers. Flowers grow in a terminal, often interrupted, more or less leafy spike. Stem, wand-li...
-Galinsoga. Galinsoga parviflora
Family, Composite. Color of ray flowers white, of disk yellow. Flowers, small, terminating the branches and in the axils. Leaves, thin, ovate, toothed, with petioles. June to November. A weed found p...
-Yarrow. Milfoil. Achillea, millefolium
(Named after Achilles, who is said to have discovered its healing qualities). Family, Composite. Color, white, sometimes with a pink tinge. Leaves, twice pinnately divided into sections which are 3 to...
-May-Weed. Dog Fennel. Anthemis Cotula
Family, Composite. Color, white rays and yellow disks. Both ray and disk flowers present. This is the maruta of older editions, a common, daisy-like plant found on sandy roads and places. It has an ev...
-White-Weed. Ox-Eye Daisy. White Daisy. Marguerite
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum-----Family, Composite. Color, white rays and yellow disks. Leaves, cut or toothed, those below with long petioles, spatulate; those above oblong, pinnatifid. June to August....
-Fireweed. Erechtites hieracifolia
Family, Composite. Color, greenish white. Leaves, lance-shaped or oblong, toothed, sessile, those above having eared bases. August and September. A coarse plant with grooved stem and leaves of variou...
-Great Indian Plantain. Wild Collard. Caealia. reniformis
Family, Composite. Color, white. Flowers, all tubular, with no marginal rays, collected in flat clusters. Involucre of about 5 bracts in a single row, making a cylindrical cup. Leaves, the lower large...
-Pale Indian Plantain. C. atriplicifolia
Color, white. Stem, stout, smooth, round, 3 to 6 feet high. Leaves, palmately veined and cut, sometimes 6 inches across, the lower ones with petioles, the upper sessile, smaller, triangular, square at...
-White Lettuce. Rattlesnake-Root. Prenanthes alba
Family, Composite. Color, white or cream. Pappus and involucral scales brown or purplish. Flowers, 5 to 18 in a head, hanging on short pedicels, corymbosely panicled at the ends of branches. Leaves, t...
-Wild Lettuce. P. altissima
Color, cream or yellowish white. Flowers, in loose, terminal, and axillary panicles, with leaves interspersed; 5 involucral scales surround the flower. Tall, 5 to 7 feet, heaves, with petioles, someti...
-Lion's-Foot. Gall-Of-The-Earth. P. serpentaria
Color, greenish white or cream, sometimes purplish (see p. 370). In this species, which is variable in color, the heads of flowers are crowded at the tips of long branches. Involucre is bell-shaped, o...
-Chapter V. Yellow, Pale Yellow. Orange Flowers. Golden Club. Orontium aquaticum
Family, Arum. Color, yellow. A scape 1 foot or so tall rises out of the water terminated by a narrow leafless spadix of rich yellow color, covered with small, perfect, yellow flowers. The lower flower...
-Yellow-Eyed Grass. Xyris flexubsa
Family, Yellow-eyed Grass. Color, yellow. Flowers, attended by a bract, crowded into a cone-like, small head. Sepals and petals, 3. Stamens, 3 fertile, 3 sterile alternating with the fertile. Style, 3...
-Yellow Group Flowers. Fringed Yellow-Eyed Grass
X, fimbriata is a larger and taller species, 2 feet high, with a more flattened, stouter stem, and a head of bracts over half an inch, sometimes an inch, long. In this the lateral sepals are fringed a...
-Carolina Yellow-Eyed Grass
X, caroliniana sends up scapes 1 to 2 feet tall, slender, twisted or straight. Leaves, linear, quite long. Head of flowers about 1/2 inch long. Found along the Atlantic States and in Pennsylvania. X...
-Water Star-Grass. Heteranthera dubia
Family, Pickerel-weed. Color, pale yellow. An aquatic herb, with flowers, 1 or 2 from a spathe which is partly covered by the sheathing base of a petiole. Perianth, a long, thread-like tube, parted ab...
-Bog Asphodel
Narthecium americanum - Family, Lily. Color, yellow. Leaves, linear, one arising out of another, like those of iris, very narrow, about 7-nerved; those above, quite small. June to September. From the...
-Bellwort. Uvularia. perfoliate
(Name from uvula, meaning palate, from the position of the flower under the leaves). Family, Lily. Color, pale or dull yellow. Stems, from 8 to 20 inches high, slender, springing from a perennial root...
-Large-Flowered Bellwort. U. grandifldra
Color, yellow. A larger species than the last, the bell-shaped flower being from one to one and a half inches long. Stem, forking, with 1 or 2 leaves below the fork. Leaves, narrower than the last, bu...
-Mountain Bellwort
Oakesia puberula.-----Family, Lily. This and the next species may be separated from the Uvularias by the leaves, which are sessile but not perfoliate. Flower, single, about 1 inch long, from a slender...
-Day Lily. Hemerocallis fuhua
Family, Lily. Color, deep yellow. Leaves, long, linear, tapering to a point. The flower scape, generally longer than the leaves, 3 to 6 feet high, bears several large flowers in a panicle. The 3 outer...
-Tiger Lily. Lilium tigrinum
A garden species, tall, 2 to 5 feet, stout-stemmed, leafy to the base, often found in the fence-corners and along roadsides, growing wild. The stem is nearly black or dark purple, bearing black bulble...
-Wild Orange-Red Lily. Wood Lily. L. philadelphicum
Family, Lily. Color, deep, reddish orange, with darker, brownish-red spots inside. Flowers, 1 to 3, more often single, erect, the 6 equal segments of the perianth narrowed into claws, spreading but no...
-Turk's-Cap Lily. L. superbum
Color, dark orange, spotted with red. Perianth of 6 segments, rolled back. Stamens, 6, with linear anthers lightly attached at their middle to slender filaments. Style, thick, bearing a 3-lobed stigma...
-Wild Yellow Lily. Canada Lily. Meadow Lily. L. canadense
Color, yellow, dotted with brown. Leaves, rough on margins and veins underneath, lance-shaped, or somewhat oblong, in whorls of 4 to 10 around the stem. Height, 3 to 5 feet. Flowers about 2 1/2 inches...
-Dog's-Tooth Violet. Yellow Adder's-Tongue. Erythrbnium americanum
Family, Lily. Color, light yellow. Perianth divisions 6, separate, narrow, longer than the 6 stamens, of a light yellow color, sometimes spotted at the base. Flowers, single, bell-shaped, on long pedu...
-Yellow Clintonia. Clintbnia. borealis
Family, Lily. Color, cream or greenish yellow. Leaves, 2, 3, or 4, sheathing the base of the flower-stem, oval or oblong, pointed, parallel-veined, hairy. A pretty plant, with leaves like lily of the ...
-Small Solomon's Seal. Polygonatum biflbrum
Family, Lily. Color, greenish yellow. Leaves, alternate, broad, ovate, narrow at base, acute at apex, nearly sessile, parallel - veined; 2 to 4 inches long, pale green, softly hairy along the veins be...
-Great Solomon's Seal. P. commutktum
Color, greenish yellow. A smooth plant, 1 to 8 feet high, the stem rather slender, bearing leaves and flowers above, naked below. Peduncles, 2 to 8-flowered, jointed below the flowers, all from a cree...
-Indian Cucumber-Root. Medeola virginiana
Family, Lily. Color, greenish yellow. Perianth of 3 sepals and 3 petals, alike, turned backward. Styles, 3, very peculiar - looking, stigmatic along the upper side, long, thread-like, purple, bent awa...
-Red-Root. Lacnanthes tinctoria
Family, Bloodwort. Color, dingy yellow. Perianth of 3 sepals and 3 petals. Stamens, 3, opposite the inner divisions of the perianth. Filaments and style long, thread-like, bending outward, the style e...
-Star Grass. Hypoxis hirsuta
Family, Amaryllis. Color, yellow. Perianth, 6-parted, greenish, rough, hairy on the outside, yellow within. Stamens, 6. Root, a small bulb. The bright, star-like blossoms grow, 1 to 3 or 4, on a scape...
-Blackberry Lily. Belamcanda chinensis
Family, Iris. Color, deep-orange yellow. Leaves, like those of iris, 8 to 10 inches long, folded. Above are thin, dry bracts. July to September. It was while walking on one of the roads in Suffern, N...
-Smaller Yellow Lady's Slipper
Cypripedium parviflbrwn - Family, Orchis. Color, bright yellow, with a tinge of purple or purplish stripes or spots upon the petals, which are often twisted. Perianth divisions longer than the lip, wh...
-Southern Twayblade
L. australis bears very small greenish-yellow flowers with purple stripes. The narrow lip is 1/2 inch long, slit nearly its entire length. Leaves, ovate, sessile, a pair attached just above the middle...
-Whorled Pogonia. Pogonia verticillata
Family, Orchis. Color of sepals a dark purple, of petals greenish yellow. Lip, 3-divided, crested, expanded above, not much larger than the other two petals. Sepals, 2 inches long, thread-like. Flower...
-Smaller Whorled Pogonia. P. affinis
Color, greenish yellow. Flowers, generally in pairs, on scapes, 5 or 6 inches high, which bear a whorl of 5 leaves at the summit. Above this whorl of leaves thick, somewhat hairy peduncles stand, the ...
-Yellow Fringed Orchis
Habenaria ciliaris-----Family, Orchis. Color, orange yellow. Sepals, round, longer than the long, narrow petals, the latter toothed at apex. Lip, heavily fringed from apex to beyond the middle, oblon...
-Purslane. Portulaca oleracea
Family, Purslane. Color, yellow. Calyx, 2-cleft, the sepals keeled. Corolla of 5 petals inserted on the calyx, opening only on sunny mornings, soon falling. Stamens, 7 to 12. Style, 1, but deeply 5 to...
-Yellow Pond Lily. Cow Lily. Nymphaea advena
Family, Water Lily. Color, yellow, sometimes with a purple tinge. Sepals, 6, greenish yellow. Petals, numerous, stouter than and passing into the stamens. The conspicuous yellow or light-red stigma is...
-Yellow Nelumbo. Sacred Bean. Water Chinquapin. Nelumbo lutea
Family, Water Lily. Color, yellow. Leaves growing well out of water, large, 18 to 20 inches across, roundish, sinking in the center, where the stalk joins the blade. Sepals and petals, like those of t...
-Seaside Crowfoot. Ranunculus Cymbalaria
Family, Crowfoot. Color, yellow. Petals, 5 to 8, surrounding a head of achenes. The flowers are borne upon low scapes, either solitary or several, 1 to 6 inches high. A nectar-bearing pit and scale ar...
-Yellow Water Crowfoot. R. delphinifolius
Color, bright yellow. Petals, 5 to 8, much larger than the 5 sepals, with a small scale at the base. Leaves, immersed in water or floating on the top, cut into thread-like divisions. The upper leaves ...
-Water Plantain Spearwort. R. laxicaulis
Color, deep yellow. Sepals, 5, very small. Petals, small, 5 to 7. They fall easily. Stamens, indefinite. Pistils, numerous, in a small, round head. Leaves, 4 to 5 inches long, narrow or oblong, distan...
-Low Spearwort. R. pustllus
Color, pale yellow. A small, weak - stemmed plant, growing from 6 to 20 inches high. Flowers, minute, with yellowish petals. Leaves, small, 1/2 inch long, roundish or heart-shaped, the upper ones incl...
-Cursed Crowfoot. Ditch Crowfoot. R. scelerhtus
Color, pale greenish yellow. Sepals, 5. Petals, 5, small, inconspicuous, not longer than the sepals. Leaves, thickish; those from the root roundish, 3-lobed, with petioles; those on the lower stem 3-d...
-Small-Flowered Crowfoot. R. aborfwus
(a little frog, referring to the aquatic habits of some species) Family, Crowfoot. Color, pale yellow. Leaves, from the root, of 2 kinds, all with long petioles. Those appearing first, roundish, ki...
-Hooked Crowfoot. R. recurvatas
Color, pale yellow. Sepals and petals, 5, pointed, the sepals reflexed, longer than the petals. Fruit, a cluster of achenes armed with a long, recurved hook, whence the common name. Stem, hairy, 1 to ...
-Early Crowfoot. R. fascicularis
Color, bright yellow. Sepals, 5. Petals, 5, 6, or 7, much larger than the sepals. The first root-leaves are roundish, 3-parted, toothed. Later ones have a central stalked lobe larger than the lateral ...
-Swamp Buttercup. R. septentrionklis
Color, yellow. Petals, larger than the sepals. Most of the stems ascend, but some lie upon the ground and produce runners. Leaves, 3-divided, the divisions irregularly cut, the leaflets stalked or ses...
-Creeping Buttercup. R. repens
This is much like the last in flowers and leaves. The latter are often variegated with white spots. It is probably an introduced species, but is quite common in wet meadows and low grounds, seemingly ...
-Bristly Crowfoot. R. pennsylvanicus
The flowers of this species are small, with the 5 sepals turned back. The head of achenes is long, cylindrical. Leaves, divided into threes, the divisions stalked and irregularly cut or toothed. Stem,...
-Bulbous Crowfoot Or Buttercup. R. bulbbsus
Color, a deep satiny yellow. Flowers, 1 inch across. The petals, 5, 6, or 7, are round and open widely. Sepals, turn back. Leaves, mostly from the root, 3-divided, on long petioles. The terminal lobe ...
-Tall Crowfoot Or Buttercup. R. acris
Sepals, not turned back. Petals, longer than the sepals, not so deep a yellow as the last. Flowers, large and showy. Leaves, from the root, 3-divided, the divisions 3-cleft, sessile, all deeply toothe...
-Marsh Marigold. Caltha. palustris
Family, Crowfoot. Color, yellow. Petals, none. Calyx, petal-like of 5 to 9 golden-yellow, broad, roundish sepals. Stamens, many. Pistils, 5 to 10, making many-seeded pods. Styles, mostly wanting. Stem...
-Spreading Globeflower. Trollius laxus
Family, Crowfoot. Color, pale greenish yellow. Sepals, 5 or 6, petal-like, of a pale greenish yellow, giving the color to the flower. Petals, small, numerous, shorter than the many stamens, indented n...
-Celandine Poppy. Stylophorum diphyllum
Family, Poppy. Color, deep yellow. Sepals, 2, rough and hairy, small. Petals, 4. Style, prominent. Pod, bristly. Leaves, deeply once or twice pinnately divided, the divisions irregularly cut or lobed,...
-Celandine. Chelidbnium majus
(The Swallow, so called because the flowers appear with the swallows.) Family, Poppy. Color, yellow. Sepals, 2, soon falling. Petals, 4. Stamens, many. Style, prominent. Pod, 2-valved, long, thin, o...
-Horn Poppy. Sea Poppy
Glaucium flavum - Family, Poppy. Color, yellow. Sepals, 2. Petals, 4. No style, but a 2-lobed stigma, the lobes hollowed out. Fruit, a rough pod, 6 to 10 inches long, made 2-celled by a false partitio...
-Golden Corydalis. Corydalis aurea
Family, Fumitory. Color, golden yellow. Sepals, 2, small, scale-like. The corolla is spurred at the base on the upper side, the spur being about half as long as the tube of the corolla. Stamens, in 2 ...
-White Mustard. Brassica alba
Family, Mustard. Color, yellow. Flowers, large, on somewhat stout pedicels in terminal racemes. Leaves, with petioles, lyrate, variously cut, the terminal lobe round and large. 2 to 5 feet high, stout...
-Black Mustard
B. nigra bears yellow flowers in slender racemes. Leaves, the lower ones lyrate, the terminal lobe being large and often divided. Pods, 1/2 inch long, filled with dark-colored, pungent seeds. Plant, 3...
-Hedge Mustard. Sisymbrium officinale
Family, Mustard. Color, pale yellow. Flowers, small, in close spikes, the lower forming pods, while the upper are still in bud. Leaves, deeply cut into narrow segments, the middle onethe largest, the ...
-Tumble Mustard. S. altissimum
Color, pale yellow. A tall species, 2 to 4 feet, with erect, rather stout stem. Flowers, small, few, in terminal racemes. Pods, very long, standing out from the stem, about the size of the peduncles, ...
-Wormseed Mustard. Treacle Mustard
Erysimum cheiranthotdes (Name means blister drawing.) - Family, Mustard. Color, yellow. Flowers, small, on slender, diverging stalks. Pods, short. Leaves, entire, lance-shaped, 1 to 4 inches long, t...
-Marsh Cress. Radicula palustris
Family, Mustard. Color, yellowish. Plant 1 to 4 feet high. Leaves, alternate, pinnately cleft or parted, the upper slashed or cut into very fine pieces, the lower divided or cleft, very pungent to the...
-Common Winter Cress. Yellow Rocket. Barbarea vulgaris
(named from St. Barbara, and called the Herb of St. Barbara) Family, Mustard. Color, yellow. Flowers, in terminal, long racemes, pods below, blossoms above. Pod, linear, round, or somewhat 4-sided. L...
-Ditch Stonecrop
Penthorum sedoides-----(See description in chapter on Green Flowers, p. 31.) ...
-Mossy Stonecrop. Sedum acre
Family, Orpine. Color, yellow. Sepals and petals, 4 or 5. Stamens, twice as many as petals. Pistils, 4 or 5. Leaves, thick, fleshy, small, overlapping on the branches, like scales. June and July. Mos...
-Yellow Mountain Saxifrage. Saxifraga aizotdes
Family, Saxifrage. Color, yellow, with often orange-colored spots. Sepals and petals, 5. Stamens, 10. Styles, 2. Flowers, in corymbs at the ends of the branches, with slender pedicels. Leaves, long, n...
-False Goat's Beard. Astilbe biternata
Family, Saxifrage. Color, yellowish or white. Calyx, small, 4 to 5-parted. Corolla, sometimes wanting, when present, of 4 to 5 petals. Flowers, pistillate and staminate in different flowers, in raceme...
-Cinquefoil. Five-Finger. Potentilla monspeliensis
Family, Rose. Color, yellow. Calyx, large, 5-cleft, with narrow bracts in the recesses. Petals, 5, small. The calyx-lobes project beyond the petals. Stamens, 15 to 20. Flowers, in a small, close, leaf...
-Tall Cinquefoil. P. arguta
Color, yellow, or sometimes white. Petals, large, about the size of a strawberry blossom. Leaves, pinnate, with 7 to 11 leaflets, oval in shape, downy beneath. A stout, high species with brown and hai...
-Silvery Cinquefoil. P. argentea
Color, yellow. The flowers grow in terminal, leafy cymes. Leaves, palmately divided, on long petioles, with small stipules, very white and velvety underneath, shiny, dark green above. Stem, also white...
-Common Cinquefoil. P. canadensis
This species runs upon the ground or stands erect. Stems are brown, wiry, roughish. Flowers, on long peduncles, single, from the leaf-axils. Runners are produced as from strawberry vines. The 3 leafle...
-Silver Weed. P. Anserina
Calyx and corolla, 5-divided. 5 bractlets, often cut, lie between the sepals. Leaves, all from the root, pinnate, with from 7 to 21 leaflets and smaller ones in between, dark green above, silky white ...
-Shrubby Cinquefoil. P. fruticosa
Color, bright yellow. Stem, erect, much branched, woody, leafy. Leaves, pinnate, with 5 to 7 leaflets, paler beneath, silky, the leaflets roundish, with turned-back margins. In some parts of Vermont ...
-Yellow Avens. Geum strictum
Family, Rose. Color, yellow. Calyx of 5 sepals, with bractlets in the sinuses. Petals, 5. Stamens, many. Leaves, from the root, pinnate, with 5 to 7 wedge-shaped leaflets; those on the stems 3 to 5-di...
-Agrimony. Agrimonia
Family, Rose. Color, yellow. The genus Agrimonia may be known by a terminal long spike of small yellow flowers whose calyx is tubular, 5-lobed, its throat and margin being covered with hooked bristles...
-Wild Senna
Cassia, marilandica-----Family, Pulse. Color, bright golden yellow, growing paler. Leaves, compound, of 8 to 10 pairs of oval leaflets. July and August. The papilionaceous type of corolla is lost here...
-Partridge Pea. C. Chamaecrista
Color, bright yellow. The spreading petals, not papilionaceous in character, are unequal in size. 2 or 3 have a purple spot at the base. Stamens, 10, 4 with yellow anthers, 6 with purple, all opening ...
-Wild Sensitive Plant. Cassia Nictitans
This species bears very small flowers, on short pedicels, similar in shape and size to the last. Leaflets, 10 to 20 pairs, oblong to linear, sensitive, with a gland at the base of the petiole. Shelle...
-False Or Wild Indigo
Baptisia tinctbria (name means to dye, on account of the use of some species to make a poor indigo). - Family, Pulse. Color, yellow. Calyx, 4 or 5-toothed. Corolla, papilionaceous. Stamens, 10. Po...
-Rattle-Box
Crotalaria sagittalis.-----Family, Pulse. Color, yellow. Corolla, papilionaceous, the standard large, broad, heart-shaped. Of the 10 united stamens, 5 have larger anthers than the others. The pistil p...
-Yellow Or Hop Clover
Trifolium agrariam----Family, Pulse. Color, yellow, the corolla becoming dry and brown with age. Leaves, 3-foliate, spreading, of a roundish or oval form. Stipules, long and narrow, joined to the leaf...
-Low Hop Clover. T. procumbens
Much like the last, with downy, spreading stems, 5 to 6 inches high. Leaflets, notched at the end, not equal distances apart. Stipules, roundish, short. Common in all the Eastern States in sandy, dry...
-Yellow Melilot. Sweet Clover
Melilotus officinalis - Family, Pulse. Color, yellow. Flowers, small, in spiked, drooping racemes. Leaves, of 3 toothed leaflets, blunt at apex, minutely serrate. A plant which, when dried, is fragra...
-Black Medick. Nonesuch
Medicago luputina - Family, Pulse. This is a yellow-flowered clover, with flowers in short spikes; and kidney-form, 1-seeded pods. Leaves, with petioles, 3-divided, the leaflets nearly round, often ti...
-Pencil Flower
Stylosanthes biflora (name means columned or penciled flower, from the stalk-like calyx tube). - Family, Pulse. Color, yellow. Calyx, with a slender tube, upon which the papilionaceous corolla with in...
-Yellow Flax. Linum striatum
Family, Flax. Color, yellow. Sepals, short, 5. Petals, stamens, and pistils, 5. A perfect and symmetrical flower, often taken as a pattern for class study. Stamens, united at base. Flowers, small, rat...
-Wild Or Slender Yellow Flax. L. virginianum
Blossoms like the last. They are small, starlike, scattered on the spreading branches in an irregular panicle. Leaves, entire, thin, oblong, or long and narrow, on the flowering branches reduced to br...
-Grooved Yellow Flax. L. sulcatum
The flowers of this species are rather large, about 1/2 inch across, on ascending branches that are grooved and strongly angled. Sepals, bristly margined, sharp - pointed, 3-nerved. Flowers, in irregu...
-Lady's Sorrel. Yellow Wood Sorrel. Oxalis corniculata (name means "sour")
Family, Geranium. Sepals, petals, styles, 5. Stamens, 10. Pods, long, erect, weak-stemmed, arranged in cymes or umbels, standing erect at the tip of the peduncle. Leaves, on stem and from the root, no...
-Orange Milkwort. Wild Bachelor's Button. Polygala lutea
Family, Milkwort. Color, bright orange yellow, which is not lost in drying. Button-like heads closely packed with small flowers terminate the stem and branches of this low plant, which grows from 6 to...
-Jewel-Weed. Balsam. Touch-Me-Not. Impatiens pallida
Family, Touch - me - not. Color, yellow, somewhat spotted with brown. Flower, irregular. Calyx, yellowish, colored like corolla, of 4 sepals. One of the sepals forms a broad sac ending in a curved spu...
-Spotted Touch-Me-Not. I. biflora
This species is deeper yellow, more spotted, with a longer and narrower sac and spur than the last. The two are often found growing together, in wet soil, along roadsides where springs run, or in wet ...
-Indian Mallow. Velvet Leaf. Abutilon Theophrasti
Family, Mallow. Color, yellow. Calyx, 5 - cleft. Corolla, 5 - divided, the petals open and spreading, nearly 1 inch across. Flowers, on stout peduncles, in the leaf-axils. Stem, 3 to 6 feet high. Stam...
-Sida. Sida spinosa
Family, Mallow. Color, yellow. Calyx, 5-cleft. Petals and styles, 5. Fruit, of 5 carpels united, each becoming 2-beaked at the top. Leaves, linear or lance-shaped, on petioles, toothed. A low, branch...
-St. Peter's-Wort. Ascyrum stans
Family, St. John's - wort. Color, yellow. Sepals, 4, the 2 outer much broader than the inner, leaf-like. Petals, 4, open, spreading. Stamens, many. Styles, 3 or 4. Fruit, a pod, 1 - celled, but splitt...
-St. Andrew's Cross. A. hypericoides
Petals, linear, not longer than the sepals, spreading, 2 on each side, approaching one another in the form of the letter X or the cross of St. Andrew. A lower plant than the last, with narrower and th...
-Common St. John's-Wort. Hypericum perforatum
Family, St. John's-wort. Color, yellow. Sepals, 5. Petals, 5. Stamens, very numerous, united in 3 or 5 groups. Styles, 3. Pod, 3-celled. Petals and anthers dotted with black. A much-branched, leafy s...
-Orange Grass. Pineweed. H. gentianoides
Color, deep yellow. Flowers, small, sessile on the wiry branches, but easily recognized as belonging to this genus by the red pods. Leaves, small, thin, linear, pressed against the stem, scale-like. 6...
-Frostweed
Hellianthemum canadense (name means sunflower, so called because the flowers open only in sunshine). - Family, Rockrose. Color, yellow. Sepals, 5, 2 of them long, thin, bract-like, hairy or whitish ...
-Hoary Frostweed. H. mkjus
Similar to the last, but more hoary in stem and leaves. Flowers, pale yellow, clustered in corymbs at the end of the stem. Secondary flowers very small, without petals, clustered in the leaf - axils, ...
-Round-Leaved Violet. Early Yellow Violet
Viola, rotundifolia-----Family, Violet. Color, yellow. Flowers, on scapes 2 to 4 inches high, ascending from rootstocks which are rough with the remains of former leaves. Petals, of a pale yellow, the...
-Downy Yellow Violet. V. pubescens
Color, yellow, the petals purplish-veined. This is one of the leafy violets, and the flowers stand, one or more, above a pair of leaves, not large, softly yellow. Stem, downy, rather rough, 5 to 18 in...
-Prickly Pear. Indian Fig. Opuntia vulgaris
Family, Cactus. Color, pale yellow. Sepals, indefinite. Petals, about 8, united with the sepals into a short tube, which is attached to the top of the 1-celled ovary. Flowers, about 2 inches broad. St...
-Seedbox. Rattlebox. Ludvigia alternifblia
Family, Evening Primrose. Color, yellow. Calyx - tube, short, with 4 lance - shaped or ovate, leaflike lobes. Petals, 4, in the upper axils, on short peduncles, rather large, dropping when the plant i...
-Common Evening Primrose. Oenothera biennis
Family, Evening Primrose. Color, bright yellow. Calyx-tube, 4-lobed at top, narrow, much prolonged beyond the ovary. Petals, 4. Stamens, 8. Fruit, a 4-valved capsule. Leaves, alternate, long, narrow o...
-Sundrops. 0. fraticosa
Flower, nearly as in the preceding. The calyx-lobes turn back. Pod, 4-angled, on a short, thick stalk. Leaves, alternate, oblong or lance-shaped, generally acute at apex, narrowed and sessile at base....
-Taenidia. Integerrima
Family, Parsley. Color, yellow. Flowers, 'in umbels on slender peduncles, the pods becoming long-stalked. Few or no involucral bracts underneath. Leaves, twice or thrice compound, rather large, the pe...
-Golden Meadow Parsnip. Thaspium aureum
Family, Parsley. Color, deep yellow. Flowers, in compound umbels, large and handsome. The fruit, maturing in August or September, is pedicelled, angled, with styles present. Leaves, those from the roo...
-Meadow Parsnip. T. barbinode
Color, pale yellow. Leaves, twice or thrice compound, alternate; those near the base less divided than those higher up on the stem. Leaflets, long, narrow, somewhat ovate, coarsely toothed. Tall, 2 to...
-Golden Alexanders. Zizia aurea
(named from a botanist, I. B. Ziz) Family, Parsley. Color, golden yellow. Flowers, rather large for this family, in compound umbels. Stem, erect, hollow, branched, 2 to 3 feet high. Lower leaves, lon...
-Wild Parsnip. Pastinaca sativa
Family, Parsley. Color, yellow. No involucre under the umbels of yellow flowers. Leaves, pinnately compound. Stem, stout, tall, smooth, grooved. This is the cultivated parsnip, now escaped from garde...
-Whorled Loosestrife. Crosswort
Lysimachia quadrifolia - Family, Primrose. Color, deep yellow, spotted or lined with red. Calyx, 5 or 6-parted. Corolla, wheel-shaped, deeply parted, axillary, on long, slender peduncles. Leaves, gene...
-Fringed Loosestrife. Steironema ciliatum
Family, Primrose. Color, yellow. Calyx and corolla united below, deeply 5-parted above, the divisions spreading. Flowers, on long, filiform peduncles, grouped with small leaves, axillary, opposite. Le...
-Butterfly-Weed. Pleurisy-Root. Asclepias tuberosa
Family, Milkweed. Color, yellow, a deep-orange shade. Flowers, in terminal umbels or scattered along the branches. Leaves, rough, hairy, sessile, or with short petioles, linear to ovate. Grayish pods ...
-Common Gromwell. Lithospermum officinale
Family, Borage. Color, yellowish or white. (See chapter on White Flowers, p. 119.) L. Gmeltni. - Color, yellow. Calyx and corolla, tubular, with spreading, divided border. Flowers, large, showy, all ...
-False Gromwell
Onosmbdium virginianum - Family, Borage. Color, greenish yellow. The 5 long, narrow lobes of the tubular corolla are bristly on the outside. Stamens, 5, with somewhat arrow-shaped, pointed anthers. Pi...
-Giant Hyssop. Agastache nepetotdes
Family, Mint. Color, pale greenish yellow. Calyx, bell-shaped, with 5 unequal teeth. Corolla, 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-divided, with the middle lobe wavy, toothed. Stamens, 4, in pairs...
-Horse Mint. Monarda punctata
Family, Mint. Color, yellow, spotted with purple. Calyx, tubular, downy, especially hairy in throat, with short teeth. Corolla, tubular, its limb 2-divided, the upper lip long, narrow, arching over th...
-Horse Balm. Stone-Root. Rich-Weed. Collinsbnia canadensis
Family, Mint. Color, lemon yellow. Calyx, 2-lipped, the upper lip 3-toothed, the lower 2-cleft. Corolla, 1 inch long, tubular, with 4 upper, almost equal lobes, and 1 lower, quite long and large, pend...
-Strawberry Tomato. Ground Cherry
Physalis pruinbsa - Family, Nightshade. Color, yellow. Calyx, 5-toothed, ribbed and angled, becoming much swollen and covering the fruit, which is a small, tomato-like, yellow berry, edible, somewhat ...
-Clammy Ground Cherry. P. heterophylla
This is the most common as well as variable of the genus. The plant is weak, and the branches spread, lying close to the ground or standing more erect. Corolla, greenish yellow, and berry yellow. Leav...
-Black Henbane. Hyoscyamus niger
Family, Nightshade. Color, dull brownish yellow, marked with purple veins. Calyx, bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Corolla, with a 5-lobed, plaited border, the tube funnel-form. Capsule, surrounded by the calyx,...
-Common Mullein. Verbascum Thapsus
Family, Figwort. Color, yellow. Corolla and calyx, 5-parted. Flowers, in terminal, thick spikes, much crowded. Leaves, thick, velvety, long, acute, alternate. A well-known, tall, excessively woolly p...
-Butter-And-Eggs. Ramstead. Toadflax. Linaria vulgaris
Family, Figwort. Color, yellow and orange. Corolla, 2-lipped with the throat closed by a projection of the lip called a palate. The lower lip has a long, slender spur. Flowers, in racemes, growing clo...
-Golden Hedge Hyssop. Gratiola aurea
Family, Figwort. Color, deep yellow. Calyx-divisions toothed, leaf-like. Corolla of the snapdragon type, the upper lip 2-cleft, the under 3-lobed. There are 2 perfect and 2 sterile stamens. 2 bracts u...
-Downy False Foxglove
G. virginiana. - Color of corolla, in tube yellowish, in limb white. (See White Flowers, p. 127.) Downy false foxglove (Gerardia flava) The foxgloves and the fern - How gracefully they grow, With...
-Gerardia. flava
Family, Figwort. Color, yellow. Leaves, the lower often deeply and irregularly cut; upper entire, oblong, or lance-like. A beautiful, bell-like flower, large, with a tubular, 5-clcft, short calyx, and...
-Smooth False Foxglove
G. virginica is taller, 3 to 6 feet, and lacks the pubescence of the preceding. The showy, large blossoms (2 inches long) mingle with graceful foliage, the lower leaves twice cut into fine divisions, ...
-Yellow Gerardia
G. pedicularia is a leafy, branching species, 2 or 3 feet high. The leaves are very much cut, with dissected and toothed lobes, the lower large, the upper quite small. The stems bearing the pretty yel...
-Cow Wheat. Melampyrum lineare
(name means black wheat, from the dark seed) Family, Figwort. Color, greenish white and yellow. Calyx and corolla, tubular, the calyx with bristly, rather long teeth, the corolla 2-lipped, the uppe...
-Lousewort. Pedicularis lanceolata
Family, Figwort. Color, yellow. Calyx, 2-lobed, the lobes with leafy margins. Corolla, 2-divided, the upper division helmet-shaped, called a galea, deeply arched, nearly meeting the straight, ascendin...
-Wood Betony
P. canadensis (see under Variegated Flowers, p. 374.) ...
-Yellow Rattle
Rhinanthus Crista-gatti. - Family, Figwort. Color, yellow. Calyx, 4-toothed, much swollen in fruit. Corolla, 2-lipped, a small, horizontal purple tooth each side of the apex of the upper lip. Lower li...
-Chaff-Seed. Schwalbea americana
Family, Figwort. Color, yellowish purple. (See chapter on Purple Flowers, p. 350.) ...
-Common Bladderwort. Utricularia vulgaris
Family, Bladderwort. Color, bright yellow. Leaves, under water, finely cut, bearing little bladders. Summer. The bladderworts are insectivorous, aquatic plants. The bladders scattered among the leave...
-Horned Bladderwort. U. cornuta
The yellow, fragrant flowers of this species differ from most of the others in that the lower lip of the corolla is the larger, helmet-like, the upper being long, narrow, erect. Spur, long, curved dow...
-Squaw-Root. Cancer-Root. Conopholis americkna
Family, Broom - rape. Color, pale, tawny yellow. Corolla, 2-lipped, tubular, enlarged at base. Upper lip concave, notched; lower, 3-parted, open. Calyx, 4 to 5-toothed, its tube split down on one side...
-Golden Aster. Chrysopsis falcata
Family, Composite. Color, golden yellow. Both disk and ray flowers present, the disk flowers pistillate, both deep yellow. Flowers, large, resembling asters, in loose corymbs at ends of branches. Leav...
-Maryland Golden Aster. C. mariana
Frequently found growing with the above, a smooth, silky plant, with broader, oblong or lance-shaped, acute And count as mean the common day. Meseems the world has not so much Superfluous beauty tha...
-Solidago. Squamosa
Family, Composite. A stout - stemmed species, 2 to 5 feet high. Leaves, toothed, veiny, large, with margined petioles. Heads of flowers large, clustered in leafy, compound, elongated spikes. August to...
-Sweet Golden-Rod. S. oddra
Stem, slender, sometimes reclining, 2 or 3 feet long. Leaves, bright green, entire, long, narrow, dotted. Panicle of flowers, small, 1-sided, broad, short, rather a dull yellow. When the leaves are cr...
-Gray Or Field Golden-Rod. S. nemoralis
A common species covering barren fields, and one of the least pretty. It is low, from 6 inches to 2 feet high. Stem, simple, rough, covered with a gray down which is also found on the leaves. Flowers,...
-Yellow Weed. S. canadensis
A common species, coarse, rather tall, limit 6 feet, with spreading, recurving, 1-sided racemes of flowers, making a large, showy panicle. Leaves, 3-ribbed, lance-shaped, rough-ish, toothed, sessile a...
-Early Golden-Rod. Plume Golden-Rod. S. juncea
This species may be seen from June to November. It may easily be known by the fringed petioles of the lowest, sharply toothed leaves. Upper leaves narrow, entire, sessile. Stem, 1 1/2 to 4 feet high, ...
-Bog Golden-Rod. S. uliginbsa
Stem, unbranched, smooth below the flower-panicle, 2 to 4 feet high. Leaves, lance-shaped or oblong, much pointed, finely toothed, rough on the margins, the lower 4 to 9 inches long, with winged petio...
-Beach Golden-Rod
S. sempewirens - Color, golden yellow. Flowers, large, closely bunched, in various shapes, broad or elongated, or dense and thick. Stem, tall, or low and spreading. Leaves, thick, fleshy, lance-shaped...
-Slender-Leaved Golden-Rod. S. tenuifolia
Much like the preceding, but smaller, with slenderer leaves and branches, from 1 to 1 1/2 feet high. Leaves, 1 to 3 inches long, I-nerved, often with very small ones clustered in the axils of the lar...
-Ox-Eye
Heliopsis helianthoides-----Family, Composite. Color, yellow. heaves, opposite, acute at apex, ovate to lance-shaped, with petioles, toothed. August. This yellow daisy is not to be confounded with th...
-Elecampane. Inula. Helenium
Family, Composite. Color, yellow, heaves, woolly underneath, large, undivided, alternate, serrate, the lower with petioles, the upper sessile and clasping. August. Stout, coarse plants, 4 to 5 feet h...
-Leafcup. Polymnia canadensis
Family, Composite. Color, pale yellow. heaves, large, thin, the uppermost 3 to 5-lobed, petioled; lower more deeply cut, pinnatifid. Heads small, in panicled, flat clusters. Generally both ray and dis...
-Spiny Cocklebur
Xanthium spinbsum - Family, Composite. Color, greenish yellow. Staminate and pistillate flowers in different heads, the former in small heads above, making short spikes, the latter axillary below. Cor...
-Hedgehog Burweed. X. echinatum
This is a plant of similar growth and habit, found in waste places near the coast. The bur is large, strongly 2-beaked at the top, covered with rigid, coarse hairs and bristles. The stem is often spot...
-Tetragonotheca. helianthotdes
Family, Composite. Color, pale yellow. Leaves, opposite, sessile, their bases sometimes meeting and joining around the stem, coarsely toothed. Flowers, in large heads, on peduncles terminating the sim...
-Purple Cone-Flower. Black-Eyed Susan. Rudbeckia hirta
Family, Composite. Color of rays yellow, with a chocolate-brown, cone-shaped disk. Whole plant rough, hairy. Leaves, mostly entire, the upper lance-shaped, sessile; the lower broader, with petioles. I...
-Cone-Flower. Thimble Weed. R. laciniata
Color of both rays and disk, yellow. Disk strongly columnar. Leaves, alternate, the lowest pinnate, the leaflets cut into 3 to 7 divisions; the upper irregularly 3 to 5-parted. This cone-flower of the...
-Gray-Headed Cone-Flower. Lepachys pinnata
Family, Composite. Color of rays, light yellow; of disk, gray. Single heads of flowers large, showy, with drooping rays 1 to 2 inches long. The columnar disk is very prominent, broad, and large. Leave...
-Narrow-Leaved Sunflower. Helianthus angustifolias
Family, Composite. Color of rays, bright yellow; disk, a purplish brown. Leaves, long, linear, entire, sessile, alternate on the stem above, opposite below, their edges rolled backward, noticeably whe...
-Adinomeris Alternifolia
(partly rayed ) Family, Composite. Color of rays and disk, yellow, the disk becoming brownish. Rays few, 5 or 6 or more; sometimes none. Leaves, alternate, or the lower opposite, hairy, oblong, or n...
-Bur Marigold. Beggar-Ticks
Bidens frondosa (2-toothed, referring to the 2 horns on the achenes). - Family, Composite. Color, greenish or pale yellow, taken mostly from the disk, for the rays are seldom found. The involucre is...
-Spanish Needles. B. bipinnata
Flowers, with 3 or 4 or sometimes no yellow rays. Of the involucre, the outer row of scales equals the rays in length. Achenes, nearly smooth themselves, are tipped with 3 or 4 awns with hooks bent do...
-Swamp Beggar-Ticks. B. connata
Color of disk, orange yellow. No rays or but few, small. Leaves, with margined petioles, lance-shaped, sharply, coarsely, and distantly serrate. Involucre, the outer bracts narrow, long, hairy; the in...
-Larger Bur Marigold. Brook Sunflower. B. laevis
Color, bright yellow. Leaves, undivided, without petioles, lance-shaped, toothed, opposite. August to October. This is the finest of the bur marigolds, being really a handsome thing. The ray flowers ...
-Tall Tickseed Sunflower. B. trichosperma
Color of large rays, golden yellow. Heads in corymbose panicles. Leaves, the lower petioled, deeply, pin-nately divided; upper, sessile, 3-lobed or divided. Outer and inner scales of the involucre abo...
-Water Marigold
B. Beckii - Color, yellow. This is an aquatic, with simple or somewhat branched stems, 2 to 8 feet long. Leaves, those under water many, cut into fine, hair-like segments; those above, out of water, a...
-Autumn Sneezeweed. Swamp Sunflower. Helenium autumnale
Family, Composite. Color, yellow in both rays and disk. Number of rays about 10. Flower, not large, but possessing attractiveness. The rays are deeply 3 to 5-notched, and droop downward. Leaves, tooth...
-Common Tansy. Tanacetum vulgkre
Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Flowers, all tubular and much compressed into flat-topped corymbs. Leaves, much cut into fine-toothed segments or leaflets, on winged petioles which are also cut-too...
-Wormwood
Artemisia Absinthium-----Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Heads of flowers roundish, in panicles. Leaves, twice or thrice-divided into narrow lobes, 2 to 5 inches long, long-petioled below, the uppe...
-Coltsfoot. Tussilago Firfara
Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Disk flowers, tubular, rays narrow, drooping. Leaves, of 2 sorts, the earlier, accompanying the flower, merely scales on the scapes. Later, these are followed by roun...
-Common Groundsel
Senecio vulgaris (senex, old man, from the resemblance of the white pappus to gray hair). - Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Leaves, narrow, pinnatifid, toothed, 2 to 6 inches long, the upper clasp...
-Golden Ragwort. S. aureus
Color, yellow. Leaves on stem, sessile, clasping, lyre-shaped, lance-shaped, and deeply cut. The root-leaves have long petioles, round or heart-shaped, conspicuously toothed. May and June. A common p...
-Yellow Thistle. Cirsium spinosissimum
Family, Composite. Color, yellow, sometimes purple. This is a very spiny and prickly species. Leaves, stem, and the involucre around the heads of flowers are all alike armed with vicious tiny spears w...
-Nipple-Wort. Lapsana communis
Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Leaves, ovate or lyre-shaped, toothed. Heads, 8 to 12-rlowered with 8 long bracts making a cylindrical cup. No pappus. A slender, branching plant, with small, loosely...
-Dwarf Dandelion
Krigia virginica - Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Leaves, mostly from the root, somewhat toothed, the earlier roundish, the later deeply cut and toothed. Flower-stalks at first naked, becoming, lat...
-Cynthia. K. amplexicaulis
Color, yellow. Leaves, entire, mostly from the root, on winged petioles, toothed, wavy-margined. Stem-leaves clasping, usually but one, above which the stem 1 tranches. 1 or 2 feet high. Flowers, deep...
-Goat's Beard. Tragopbgon pratensis
Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Leaves, clasping at base, tapering to a very long, sharp point, sometimes 10 inches long. Stem, 2 or 3 feet high. Peduncles slightly thickened, bearing a broad, flat ...
-Dandelion
Taraxacum officinale-----Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Leaves, clustered at the root, variously cut and coarsely toothed. April to September. This is one of the weeds that we love for its bright...
-Field Sow. Thistle Sonchus arvensis
Family, Composite. Color, yellow. Large heads of bright yellow flowers in flat panicles are borne at the end of leafy steins. Leaves, pinnatifid, sharply cut, with the segments turning backward. The n...
-Wild Lettuce. Horse-Weed. Lactuca canadensis
Family, Composite. Color, pale yellow. Leaves long, deeply cut, wavy, some of them pinnatifid, those above clasping the stem, lance-shaped, entire, those below quite long, 6 or 8 inches. A tall plant...
-Orange Hawkweed. Devil's Paint-brush. Grim the Collier. Hieracium aurantiacum
Family, Composite. Color, orange, so deep as to be called orange red. Sometimes the outer rays of the head of flowers are red, those within orange. Stem, leafless. Leaves, from the root, oblong or spa...
-Rattlesnake-Weed. Poor Robin's Plantain. H. venoswn
Color, yellow. Leaves, clustered at the root, marked above with purple, hairy veins, colored beneath a lighter purple, all entire, without petioles. Late May to September, A pretty, graceful, slender...
-Panicled Hawkweed
H. paniculatum - Color, yellow. This may be recognized by similar flower-heads to the last, on leafy stems, with leaves green, not marked with purple. Heads small, on very slender pedicels. Late July ...
-Canada Hawkweed
H. canadense produces larger flowers than either of the last, in corymbs, with leafy, hairy stems, 8 inches to 4 feet high. Leaves, toothed below the middle, acute, the upper rounded or heart-shaped a...
-Rough Hawkweed. H. scabrum
Color, yellow. Leaves, deep green above, paler below, rough-hairy on both sides, elliptical, obtuse. Plant stiff, 1 to 3 feet high. Covered with a whitish wool, and with dark glands on stem and branch...
-Hairy Hawkweed. H. Gronovii
Color, yellow. Leaves, hairy, entire or slightly toothed, oblong or broader at apex, clustered at base, scattered on stem; those below with short petioles, those above sessile, few, and small. Heads o...
-Chapter VI. Pink, Rose, Crimson, Magenta, Red Flowers
Many pink flowers become, in some localities where soil and shade are different, white or nearly white. Others, in the process of their natural growth, fade, becoming white or nearly white, so that th...
-Sessile-Leaved Twisted-Stalk. Streptopus roseus
Family, Lily. Color, a deep rose, almost purple. This plant springs from a short and thick rootstock with fibrous roots. Perianth, bell-shaped, with the outer segments often curved backward. Anthers, ...
-Wake Robin
Trillium erecfum - Family, Lily. Color, variable. It is called all shades of purple, crimson, pink, white, or greenish. Perhaps the more common color is deep pink. Sepals, 3, narrower than the 3 petal...
-Large-Flowered Wake Robin Or Trillium. T. grandiflorum
Color, white, the petals later turning a rich pink, sometimes marked with green. (See p. 48.) T. cernuum. - Color, white or pink. (See p. 50.) ...
-Stemless Lady's Slipper. Moccasin Flower. Cypripedium acaule
Family, Orchis. Color, pink, with darker lines, rarely white. The color lies in the large, saccate lip; the 3 narrow sepals and 2 small petals are a greenish purple or brown. They are inconspicuous be...
-Showy Orchis. Orchis spectabilis
Family, Orchis. Color, crimson and white. Leaves, 2, large, the largest 4 inches wide, 8 inches long, oblong or ovate, fleshy, shiny above, clammy, with smooth, wavy margins, arising from near the bas...
-Small Purple Fringed Orchis. Habenaria. psycodes
Family, Orchis. Color: although this is named a purple fringed orchis, I prefer to call it a deep pink, almost crimson, occasionally white. Sepals and petals small, the latter toothed, varying in size...
-Rose Pogonia. Snake's, Or Adder's Mouth. Pogonia ophioglossoides
Family, Orchis. Color, pale or deep crimson; rarely white. Sepals and petals nearly equal in size and shape. Lip, flat, drawn downward, much crested, yellow-fringed. Leaves, 1, rarely 2 or 3, long, ne...
-Nodding Pogonia. P. trianthophora
Color, pink or pale purple. Flowers, 1 to 7, on peduncles which spring from the small leaves, at first erect, then drooping. Lip, without spur, as in all of the pogonias, 3-lobed, raised on a claw, ro...
-Calopogon. Grass Pink. Calopogon pulchettus
Family, Orchis. Color, rose and a purplish pink. Leaf, 1, long, narrow, grass-like. Among our loveliest bog-orchids is the beautiful calopogon. A scape, bearing a single leaf, issuing from a sheathing...
-Arethusa. Arethusa. bulbosa
Family, Orchis. Color, rose pink. Leaf, single, 4 to 6 inches long, narrow, hidden at first, appearing after the flower. Lip, pendent, rounded and toothed at apex, fringed, spotted with purple, with 3...
-Pink And Red Group Flowers. Beautiful Calypso. Northern Calypso. Calypso bulbosa
Family, Orchis. Color of sepals and 2 petals, crimson or magenta. Lip variegated. (See Chapter of Variegated Flowers, p. 372.) ...
-Field Or Sheep Sorrel. Rumex Acetosella
Family, Buckwheat. Flowers, dioecious (pistils and stamens in different flowers). No corolla. Sepals, green at first, later with the loose achenes, the whole panicle of flowers, including upper stem a...
-Coast Knotgrass Or Seaside Knotweed. Polygonum maritimum
Family, Buckwheat. Color, white or pink. (See White Flowers, p. 58.) P. prolificum. - Color of sepals, green tipped with pink, giving a rosy hue to the flowers. Stem, rigid, much branched, prostrate ...
-Persicaria. P. pennsylvanicum
Color, pink. Flowers, in short, thick, obtuse, stiff panicles. Leaves, lance-shaped, very acute at apex, often 8 or 10 inches long, hairy along the midrib. Branches often dotted with little stalked gl...
-Prince's Feather. P. orientate
Color, bright rose. Leaves, with petioles, ovate, pointed or oblong, sheathing the stem. Better known in gardens, from which it has escaped and become wild in some places. It is tall, covered with so...
-Lady's Thumb. P. Persicaria
Color, pinkish. This species, which is a common weed in almost everybody's garden, may be known by the acute, lance-shaped leaves, which have a reddish-brown triangular or roundish spot near the middl...
-Mild Water Pepper. P. hydropiperoides
Color, pale pink or nearly white. Slender, erect spikes of small flowers, flesh color, terminate the branches. Leaves, narrow, lance-shaped, with soft hairs along the midrib underneath. Sheaths, narro...
-Buckwheat
Fagopyrum escutentum - Family, Buckwheat. Color, greenish, white or rose. This is the cultivated buckwheat famous in New England buckwheat cakes, whose seeds often take root in neighboring fields and ...
-Coast Jointweed. Potygonella articutata
Family, Buckwheat. Color, light rose, almost white. (See White Flowers, p. 58.) ...
-Red Goosefoot. Coast Blite. Chenopbdium rubrum
Family, Goosefoot. Color, red. Calyx, somewhat fleshy, 2 to 4-lobed. Stamens, generally 2. Stigmas, 2. Flowers, small, in leafy, compound, axillary and terminal spikes. The plant gets its color from t...
-Saltwort. Salsola Kali
Family, Goosefoot. Color, a dull or leaden pink imparted to the plant from the wings, which make a circular border along the back of the calyx after it has grown and inclosed the fruit. Flowers, sessi...
-Sand Spurrey. Spergularia'rubra
Family, Pink. Color, dark pink or red. Sepals and petals, 5. Stamens, variable, about 10. Styles, mostly 3. Leaves, flat, linear, thick. Stipules, prominent, sometimes cleft. A low, smooth plant, 2 t...
-Ragged Robin
L. Ftos-cuculi. - Color, red. Calyx, with 5 short teeth. Petals, 5, each divided into 4 long, narrow lobes. These linear lobes, erect, wavy, or curled, make the flower ragged. The color suggests the...
-Red Campion. L. dioica
Color, red, rarely white. This is a day species. Calyx, at first tubular, becomes swollen and round in fruit. Petals, 2-cleft. Leaves, below, with long petioles, broad at apex, but pointed, 2 to 3 inc...
-Corn Cockle
Agrostemma Githago-----Family, Pink. Color, deep crimson, spotted with black. Calyx of 5 long, slender, leaf-like divisions, longer than the corolla. Petals, 5, broad. Stamens, 10. Pistil, 1. Styles, ...
-Sleepy Catchfly. Silene antirrhma
Family, Pink. Color, rose. Calyx, 5-toothed, veined, becoming swollen with the expanding pod. Petals, 5, stalked or clawed, deeply notched, making them inversely heart-shaped, each with a scale-like g...
-Wild Pink. S. pennsylavanica
Color, rose-pink. Calyx, long, tubular, viscid, hairy, 5-toothed. Corolla of 5 notched or rounded petals standing on claws, open and spreading, with a crown at the center where the broad blade is join...
-Fire Pink. Catchfly. S. virginica
Color, deep crimson, nearly scarlet. Flowers, borne on slender peduncles, a few in a loose cyme. Stent, 1 to 2 feet high. Petals, 2-cleft, oblong. Calyx, bell-shaped, somewhat swollen in fruit, with t...
-Bouncing Bet. Soapwort. Saponaria officinalis
Family, Pink. Color, light rose, or sometimes white when in shaded localities. Calyx, 5-toothed. Petals, 10. Stamens, 10. Styles, 2. Leaves, lance-shaped, the lower ones broader, more oval than the ot...
-Deptford Pink. Dianthus Armeria
Family, Pink. Color, pink. Calyx, tubular, 5-pointed. Petals, 10, pink with white spots. Stamens, 10. Styles, 2. Leaves, long, narrow, hairy. Flowers, densely clustered, terminal, on stiff, erect stem...
-Spring Beauty. Claytonia virginica
Family, Purslane. Color, pink with deeper veinings, or occasionally white with pink veinings. Leaves, long, narrow, grass-like, thick, a pair opposite, on the stem. Sepals, 2. Petals, 5. Stamens, 5, j...
-Pale Corydalis. Corydalis sempervirens
Family, Fumitory. Color of petals, a delicate rose, tipped with yellow. Sepals, 2, small, like scales. Corolla of 4 petals, the upper extending into a short, rounded spur. Stamens, 6, in 2 sets of 3 e...
-Common Fumitory
Fumaria officinalis (name means smoke, from the smokelike smell of the roots when pulled out of the ground). - Family, Fumitory. Color, a light pink tipped with dark crimson. Of the 4 petals the out...
-Queen Of The Prairie. Filipendula rubra
Family, Rose. Color of petals, deep pink. Sepals and petals, generally 5, sometimes 4. Stamens, numerous. The fragrant flowers are borne, clustered, in a long, compound panicle, on a long peduncle. Le...
-Hoary Pea. Goat's Rue. Catgut Tephrosia Virginiana
Family, Pulse. Color, pale lemon or white, marked with deep pink or purple. More fully analyzed, of the papilionaceous corolla the standard is a greenish yellow, broad, turned back in the full-blossom...
-Coronilla. Coronilla varia
Family, Pulse. Color, deep rose. Flowers, papilionaceous, grouped in umbels from slender peduncles sprilining out of the leaf-axils. Pods, long, 3 to 7-jointed, 4-angled. Leaves, compound, 7 to 12 pai...
-Herb Robert. Cranesbill
Geranium Robertianum (generic name means a crane, from the long beak on the pod). - Family, Geranium. Color, deep crimson. Sepals and petals, 5. Stamens, 10. Sepals, tipped with a short awn, rough,...
-Wild Cranesbill. Wild Geranium. G. maculatum
Color, crimson or purplish pink. Sepals, 5. Petals, 5, on claws Stamens, 10, 5 longer than the others, with glands at their base. Fruit, of 5 carpels, each tipped with a long, hooked beak. When ripe t...
-Fringed Polygala. Flowering Wintergreen. Polygala pauciflbra
Family, Milkwort. Color, crimson. Sepals, 5, but 2 of them, the wings, are colored like petals. Petals, 3, the lowest, the keel, larger than the other 2, and beautifully fringed. Stamens, 6. Fruit, a ...
-Racemed Milkwort. P. polgyama
Color, deep crimson. Stamens, 8. Wings, longer than the keel. Crest of corolla somewhat cut. Flowers, showy, in a long, terminal raceme, on short pedicels. When old they curve backward. Leaves, small,...
-Field Milkwort. P. sanguinea
Color, deep purplish red. Calyx, of 3 small, green sepals and 2 large, colored wings. Corolla of 3 petals, the keel crested. Stamens, 6 or 8. Leaves, scattered on stem, simple, entire, long, narrow. F...
-Milk Purslane. Spotted Spurge. Euphorbia maculata
Family, Spurge. Color, red, imparted by the glands of the involucre. (See description of the Spurge Flower, p. 9.) Leaves, small, oblong, narrow, slightly and finely toothed near the apex, about 1/2 i...
-Marsh Mallow
Althaea officinalis (name means to cure, in allusion to supposed healing properties). - Family, Mallow. Color, pale rose Sepals, 5, united at base. Outside of these are 6 to 9 long, narrow, green br...
-High Mallow. Malva sylvestris
Family, Mallow. Color, reddish purple or deep crimson. Calyx, of 5 sepals with an underlying involucre of 3 bractlets. Corolla of 5 large, notched petals, three times the length of the calyx. Stamens ...
-Swamp Rose Mallow. Hibiscus Moscheutos
Family, Mallow. Color, rose, sometimes white. Calyx, 5-divided, surrounded by many narrow bracts. Rose mallow (Hibiscus Moscheutos) Corolla of 5 petals, measuring 6 inches across, bell-shaped, wit...
-Marsh St. John's-Wort. Hypericum virgmicatn
Family, St. John's-wort. Color, pink. Sepals and petals, 5. Styles, 3. Stamens, 9, every 3 stamens separated by yellow glands. Leaves, opposite, dotted, broad, blunt, not tapering at either end, almos...
-Pinweed. Lechea maritima
Family, Rockrose. Color, reddish. Sepals, 5, 2 shorter than the others. Petals, 3. Stamens, many. Pistil, with 3 stigmas. Flowers, dull, insignificant, in a Loose, leafy, broadly pyramidal panicle. Le...
-Spiked Loosestrife Lythrum Salicaria
Family, Loosestrife. Color, magenta. Calyx, a tube with 5 to 7 teeth, and small projections between. Corolla, of about 6 long, often twisted petals. Stamens, 12, 6 longer, 6 shorter. Flowers, large, i...
-Swamp Loosestrife. Water Willow. Willow Herb
Decodon verticillktus (name from the Greek, meaning ten-toothed, alluding to the calyx - teeth). - Family, Loosestrife. Color, magenta. Calyx, bell-shaped, 5 to 7-toothed, with other slender teeth b...
-Meadow Beauty. Deergrass. Rhexia virginica
Family, Melastoma. Color, deep rose or magenta. Calyx-tube long and narrow, 4 - divided, purplish, covered on the outside with glandular-tipped hairs. Petals, 4, with the 8 stamens joined to the rim o...
-Water Purslane. Ludvigia palustris
Family, Evening Primrose. Color of petals, when present, red or reddish. Leaves, small, opposite, petioled, oval or roundish with curving veins. This is at times an aquatic plant; or it is found in sw...
-Great Willow Herb. Fireweed. Epilbbium angustifblium
Family, Evening Primrose. Color, magenta. Calyx-tube, deeply 4-lobed. Petals, 4. Stamens, 8, maturing before the pistil. Pistil, 1, with a 4-lobed, spreading stigma. Pod, long, at length bursting and ...
-Long-Leaved Willow Herb
E. densum - Color, pink, or sometimes white (see p. 98). Calyx-tube, 5-lobed. Petals, 4, notched. Stamens, 8. Stigma, club-shaped. Leaves, narrow, 1 or 2 inches long, opposite or alternate, with small...
-Downy Or Soft Willow Herb. E. molle
Somewhat taller than the last, more downy, covered with whitish, incurved hairs. Leaves, slightly broader, short-petioled or sessile. Flowers, small, in the upper axils. The tufts of hairs belonging t...
-Purple-Leaved Willow Herb. E. colorktum
Color, pink, or rarely white. Flowers, numerous on the upper branches. Leaves, with toothed margins, petioled or sessile, lance-shaped, acute at apex, tapering at base. Stem and leaves purplish. Plant...
-Gaura. Gaura biennis
Family, Evening Primrose. Color, white at first, turning pink. Calyx-tube, much prolonged beyond the ovary, 4-lobed. Corolla of 4 petals, clawed. Stamens, 8, drooping, their long filaments with a scal...
-Prince's Pine. Pipsissewa
Chimaphila umbettata (name from two Greek words signifying to love winter. One of its popular names is wintergreen). - Family, Heath. Color, light pink with a purple tinge from the anthers. Sepals, ...
-Spotted Wintergreen. C, maculkta
Color, pink or almost white. This woodsy plant resembles the last except that its leaves are spotted or striped with white. Leaves, widely toothed, the lowest being smaller than the others. Flowers, 1...
-Pinesap. False Beech Drops. Monotropa Hypopitis
Family, Heath. Color, red or somewhat brownish. Flowers, several in 1-sided racemes, the terminal flower with its parts in fives, the others with 3 or 4 sepals and petals. At first nodding, the spike ...
-Trailing Arbutus. Epigaea repens
Family, Heath. Color, white or pink. (See White Flowers, p. no.) ...
-Cranberry. Vaccinium Oxycoccas
Family, Heath. Color, white, with pink tinge. Leaves, small, scale-like, thin, with turned-back margins. Calyx and corolla, 4-cleft. Stamens, 8. Berry, 4-celled. Flowers, nodding. Fruit, a small acid ...
-Flowering Moss. Pyxie. Pyxidanthera barbulata
Family, Diapensia. Color, white or pink. (See White Flowers, p. 114.) ...
-Common Pimpernel. Anagallis arvensis
Family, Primrose. Color, called scarlet; rarely white. Calyx and corolla, regularly 5-parted. Stamens, 5, their filaments purple-bearded. Pistil, 1. Flowers, small, wheel-shaped, on long peduncles, si...
-Sea Milkwort. Glaux marttima
Family, Primrose. Color, pink or white. Calyx, tubular, 5-cleft, bell-shaped, giving the color to the flower. Petals, none. Stamens, 5, connected with the base of the calyx, alternate with the lobes. ...
-Shooting Star. American Cowslip. Dodecatheon Meadia
Family, Primrose. Color, deep pink, rarely white. Calyx and corolla, 5-cleft, the divisions of the corolla being long and narrow. Stamens, generally 5, their anthers coming together and forming a cone...
-Sea Pink. Sabatia stellaris
Family, Gentian. Color, pink, occasionally white. Calyx, 5-parted, its lobes linear, awl-shaped, not as long as the corolla. Corolla, 5-parted, wheel-shaped. Stamens, 5. Leaves, opposite, entire, narr...
-Large Marsh Pink. S. dodecandra
Color, deep rose pink, rarely white. Corolla, tubular, the border 8 to 12-parted, calyx-lobes narrow, about half the length of the corolla. The blossoms are 2 inches across, of a soft, rosy pink color...
-Centaury. Centaurium Pulchettum
Family, Gentian. Color, crimson. Calyx, tubular, deeply 4 to 5-parted into slender lobes. Corolla, slenderly tubular, with a 4 to 5-parted border, the lobes not more than one-third the length of the t...
-Bitter Herb. Earth Gall. C. umbellatum
Flowers, cymose, much like the last in shape and size. Color, deep crimson with a purplish tinge, all nearly sessile. Leaves, linear at the top of the stem, broader below, and clustered in rosettes at...
-Spiked Centaury. C. spichtum
Color, pink, paler than the last, sometimes shading to white. Flowers, small, in spikes, on one side of the branch. Tube of corolla but little longer than that of the calyx. Stem, erect, much branched...
-Swamp Milkweed. Asclepias incarnata
Family, Milkweed. (For description of this Family, see p. 10.) Color, crimson. The color is found in the reflexed lobes of the corolla and the hoods, which stand up around the stamens and stigma. In...
-Red Milkweed. A. rubra
Color of corolla-lobes, purplish red; of hoods, orange red. Flowers, many, in umbels. Leaves, lance-shaped, taper-pointed at apex, round or indented at base, 3 to 8 inches long. Stem, smooth, 1 to 4 f...
-Common Milkweed. Silkweed. A. syriaca
Color, a dull greenish or purplish crimson, often paler. This is one of those colors bordering both on crimson and purple, difficult to describe. Leaves are unmistakable, being broad, oval, smooth alo...
-Four-Leaved Milkweed. A. quadrifolia
The stem is naked below except for a pair of small leaves, but bears, about the middle, leaves 2 to 4 inches long in 1 or 2 sets of fours; also, above, 1 or 2 pairs; all ovate or lance-shaped, thin, t...
-Pew-Flowered Milkweed. A. lanceolata
Color of corolla segments, bright red; of hoods, orange. Flowers, in umbels, 5 to 12 together. Leaves, long and narrow, willow-shape, gradually tapering to the apex, 4 to 10 inches long, on short peti...
-Wild Sweet William. Phlox maculata
Family, Polemonium. Color, crimson. Calyx, tubular, 5-ribbed and 5-cleft into long, narrow, ribbon-like segments. Corolla, a slender tube, with a wheel-shaped, 5-lobed, open, spreading border. Stamens...
-Moss Or Ground Pink. P. subulhta
Color, pink, sometimes white. The tubular corolla has a darker center. Leaves, very narrow, thin, fascicled, smaller ones clustered in the axils, irregularly arranged on the short branches which are 2...
-Creeping Phlox. P. stolonifera
Color of corolla-lobes, purplish red or crimson. Tube of corolla longer than in the preceding, and flowers larger, in simple cymes on hairy pedicels. Calyx - tube also hairy, with linear teeth, the tu...
-Downy Phlox. P. pilosa
Color, pink, with a purplish tinge, darker in the center. Calyx and corolla, tubular. Calyx-teeth awl-pointed, a little longer than the tube. Corolla-lobes inversely ovate, not divided. Stamens, joine...
-American Germander. Wood Sage. Teucrium canadense
Family, Mint. Color, pink, crimson, or sometimes cream color. Calyx and corolla, a-lipped. The corolla seems to have no upper lip. It has 4 upper, nearly equal, small lobes like little ears or horns, ...
-False Dragon Head. Physostegia virginiana
Family, Mint. Color, light pink, touched with crimson. Calyx, bell - shape, deeply 5-toothed. Corolla, tubular, with inflated throat, 2-lipped, the upper lip entire, the lower 3-parted, its middle lob...
-Red Hemp Nettle. Ironwort. Galeopsis Ladanum
Family, Mint. Color, pink or rose, sometimes spotted with yellow. Corolla, of the labiate type, the upper lip arched, the lower 3-cleft, the 2 lateral lobes small, oval, the middle one notched. Stem, ...
-Oswego Tea. Bee Balm. Monarda didyma
Family, Mint. Color, bright red. The bracts near the flowers are also a bright red, adding to the brilliant scarlet of the blossom. Calyx, narrowly tubular, with 5 bristly-pointed teeth, hairy in the ...
-Field Mint. Mentha arvensis
Family, Mint. Color, pink or white. (See White Flowers, p. 123.) ...
-Purple Gerardia. Gerardia purpurea
Family, Figwort. Color, rose purple or a purplish pink. (Most botanists call it purple, but to me it is more on the crimson tint.) Leaves, opposite, linear, pointed at apex, rough on ma gins. Late sum...
-Slender Gerardia. G. tenuifolia
Color, rose pink. Corolla, 1/2 inch long, as described in G. purpurea.. Leaves, very narrow, linear, acute, sessile, scattered on the stem. 1/2 to 2 feet long. August to October. Slender gerardia (...
-Mudwort. Limosella aquatica, var. tenuifblia
Family, Figwort. Color, white or pink. (See White Flowers, p. 125.) ...
-Scarlet Painted Cup. Indian Paint Brush
Castilleja coccinea - Family, Figwort. Color of inconspicuous flowers, scarcely seen, yellow; of the conspicuous floral lea . red. Leaves, the lower, deeply, irregularly cut into narrow divisions; upp...
-Lopseed. Phryma Leptostachya
Family, Lopseed. Color, deep rose. Leaves, 3 to 5 inches long, thin, ovate, pointed, coarsely toothed, the lower on long petioles. A plant 1 to 3 feet high, with 2-lipped calyx and corolla. There are ...
-Cardinal-Flower. Lobelia, cardinalis
Family, Lobelia. Color, deep, velvety red. One of our few flowers really scarlet. Flowers, in a raceme. The calyx is divided into 5 long, narrow points united below. The corolla, a long and narrow tub...
-Twin-Flower. Linnaea Borealis
(named from the great botanist Linnaeus) Family, Honeysuckle. Color, rose, or corolla whitish, with rose purple stripes, hairy inside. Leaves, opposite, roundish, sparingly crenate, on short petioles...
-Joe Pye Weed. Trumpet Weed. Eupatbrium purpureum
Family, Composite. Color, pale magenta pink, tending to whitish. The flower bracts are purplish. Corollas, tubular, 5-toothed. Pappus, a row of hair-like bristles. Flowers, in dense, compound, flat-to...
-Vanilla Plant. Trilisa odoratissima
Family, Composite. Color, deep crimson or purplish. Heads without rays, small, in flattish panicles. Leaves, large, entire, light green, those below oblong or spatulate, 4 to 10 inches long; the upper...
-Fleabane. Erigeron philadelphicus
Family, Composite. Color of the numerous, narrow rays crimson with a purplish tinge, while the center of the flower is yellow. Flowers, small, growing in corymbed clusters. Stem, coarse, hairy, leafy ...
-Salt Marsh Fleabane. Pluchea camphorata
Family, Composite. Color, pink. Flowers, all tubular, many in a head, a few in the center without pistils and with a 5-cleft corolla; the others pistillate, with a threadlike corolla. No rays. Leaves,...
-Coreopsis. Tickseed. Coreopsis rosea
Family, Composite. Color of rays, rose; of disk, yellow. Rays, 3-toothed. Heads, on short peduncles in corymbose clusters. Leaves, long, narrow, entire, opposite. Stems, leafy, from 1/2 to 2 feet high...
-Oyster Plant. Tragopogon porrifolius
Family, Composite. Color, dark crimson. Leaves, grass-like, clasping the stem. Heads, many-flowered, large, solitary. Peduncles, somewhat thickened below the heads of flowers. This plant may often be...
-Chapter VII. Blue And Purple Group Flowers
The distinction between blue and purple flowers is often very fine. Mr. F. Schuyler Matthews says that the blue flower is a creation of the imagination; in reality it does not exist, and the so-calle...
-Swamp Pink. Helonias bullata
Family, Lily. Color, purple, turning green with age. Perianth, of 6 segments. Stamens, 6, the filaments longer than the perianth. Anthers, blue. Capsule, 3-lobed. Flowers, in a dense raceme at the end...
-Spiderwort. Tradescantia uirginiana
Family, Spiderwort. Color, blue to purplish. Sepals and petals, 3 of each, the sepals much smaller than the petals. Flowers, several in an umbel terminating the rather thick stems, 1 to 2 inches acros...
-Mountain Spiderwort. T. montana
A slender-stemmed, simple-leaved species, with long, narrow leaves whose bases surround the stem with broad, loose sheaths. Flowers, similar to the preceding, smaller. June to August. A Southern spec...
-Day-Flower. Commetma virginica
Family, Spiderwort. Color, blue. Sepals and petals, 3 of each, unequal. Sepals inclined to be bluish. Stamens, 3 fertile, and 3 sterile, smaller than the fertile, with cross-shaped anthers. Style, 1. ...
-Asiatic Day-Flower. C. communis
Color, deep blue. Flower, much like the last, with 3 perfect stamens, 3 sterile, bearing curious, cross-shaped anthers. The good stamens project from the flower on slender, long filaments. Of the flow...
-Pickerel-Weed. Pondeteria cordata
Family, Pickerel - weed. Color, violet-blue. Perianth, tubular, 2-lipped, the upper lip composed of 3 ovate lobes, the middle one of which is the longest; the lower lip also 3-divided, spreading, droo...
-Grape Hyacinth. Muscari botryoides
Family, Lily. Color, deep indigo blue. Leaves, long and narrow, from the base, fleshy. The perianth of this modest spring flower is like a round, small bell or globe with 6 little teeth on its edge. F...
-Wake Robin. Trillium erectum
Family, Lily. Color, purple or crimson, rarely white. (See Pink Flowers, p. 244.) ...
-Fleur-De-Lis. Larger Blue Flag. Iris versicolor
Family, Iris. Color, blue with darker veinings and touches of yellow, white, and green. The large flower deserves study. The perianth is divided into 6 lobes, 3 outer and 3 inner, which are united int...
-Blue-Eyed Grass. Sisyrinchium angustifolium
Family, Iris. Color, violet - blue with yellow center. Perianth, of 6 divisions, each bristle-tipped, widely spreading, united in a tube below. Stamens, 3. Styles, 3. Capsule, 3-celled. Stems, 2-edged...
-Ram's Head Lady's Slipper. Cypripedium arietinum
Family, Orchis. Color, purplish or crimson veined with white. The 3 sepals, entirely free, are of a brownish pink or purple. They are long and narrow, and curve so as to suggest the horns on a ram's h...
-Blue And Purple Group Flowers. Large Purple Fringed Orchis. Habenaria fimbriata
Family, Orchis. Color, lilac or deep purple, rarely white. Upper sepals and petals toothed, united. The lip 3-parted, spreading like an open fan, much fringed, prolonged backward into a thread-like sp...
-Early Coral Root. Corallorhiza trifida
Family, Orchis. Color, dull brownish purple. Sepals and petals small. Lip, white, smaller than the petals, 3-lobed. Spur, a small protuberance. Flowers, 3 to 12, in a raceme 1 to 3 inches long. Scape,...
-Twaybiade. Listera cordata
Family, Orchis. Color, purplish. Leaves, 2, broad, opposite, sessile, roundish and heart-shaped, borne about the middle of the stem. Lip, much longer than the sepals and petals, deeply 2-cleft. A smal...
-Large Twayblade. Liparis liliifblia
Family, Orchis. Color, brownish purple in lip, sepals, and petals. The latter very narrow, thread - like. Sepals, slightly turned back. Lip, large for the flower, broad, nearly 1/2 inch long. Leaves,...
-Wild Ginger. Asarabacca. Asarum canadense
Family, Birthwort. Color, dull brown-purplish. Corolla, wanting. Calyx, bell-shaped, spreading, with 3 short, pointed lobes lying flat, open. Stamens, 10. Style, 6-lobed at summit, with 6 spreading st...
-Virginia Snakeroot. Aristolochia Serpentina
Family, Birthwort. Color, purplish or greenish. Calyx, tubular, bent like the letter S, smaller in the middle, the small limb at the top 3-lobed. Petals, none. Stamens, 6, with sessile anthers joining...
-Sea Purslane. Sesuvium martiimum
Family, Aizoaceae. Color, purple. Petals, none. Calyx, purplish inside, 5-lobed, with the numerous stamens inserted on it. Styles, 3 to 5. Pod, 3 to 5-celled, opening by a round lid at the top. Leaves...
-Moss Campion. Silene acaulis
Family, Pink. Color, purple. Calyx, 5-toothed. Petals, notched at apex or entire, purple, rarely white. Leaves, needle-shaped, crowded on the stem like those of a moss. Flowers, small, sessile, single...
-Water Shield. Brasenia Schreberi
Family, Water Lily. Color, purple. Sepals and petals, 3 or 4. Stamens, 12 or more. Pistils, numerous. Flowers, in leaf-axils, small, dull purple. Leaves, floating, 2 to 3 inches wide, alternate, round...
-Early Meadow Rue. Thalictrum dioicum
Family, Crowfoot. Color, greenish or purplish. (See Green Flowers, p. 30.) ...
-Purplish Meadow Rue. T. dasycarpum
Color, purplish. Flowers, dioecious, the stami-nate blossoms with sepals and stamens of a purplish color, the filaments hair-like, soon drooping. No petals. Flowers, in compound panicles on purple ste...
-Liverleaf Hepatica. Hepatica triloba
(liver, from shape of leaf) Family, Crowfoot. Color, pale blue or violet, sometimes nearly white or with a delicate trace of pink. Petals, none. Sepals, petal-like, colored, 6 to 12; directly benea...
-Purple Clematis. Clematis ochroleuca
Family, Crowfoot. Color, purple. Corolla, wanting. Calyx, of four leathery sepals, joined at their base, purple on the outside, yellow within. Flowers, large, on long peduncles, solitary, terminating ...
-Tall Larkspur. Delphinium exaltatum
Family, Crowfoot. Color, deep, purplish blue. Sepals, 5, one with a long spur at its base. Petals, 4, in pairs, the upper pair projecting long spurs into the spur of the sepal, the lower pair raised ...
-Dwarf Larkspur. D. tricorne
Color, bright blue, occasionally white. Flowers, few, in a loose raceme. Stem, simple, erect, from a cluster of tuberous roots. 1 to 3 feet high. April and May. West Pennsylvania, southward. ...
-Wild Monkshood. Aconitum uncinktum
Family, Crowfoot. Color, blue. Sepals, 5, irregular; the upper shaped like a helmet or hood. Petals, 2, small, standing on long claws, hidden under the hood of the sepal. Pistils, 3 to 5. Leaves, wit...
-Sea Rocket. Cakile edendula
Family, Mustard. Color, purplish. Sepals and petals, 4, open and spreading. Stamens, 6. Pod, short, thick, 2-jointed, each half containing 1 seed; the lower joint round; upper, when ripe, 4-angled, be...
-Toothwort. Dentaria lacinikta
Family, Mustard. Color, white or pale purple. (See White Flowers, p. 80.) ...
-Slender Toothwort. D. heterophylla
Color of petals and sepals, purple. Flowers, terminating a slender scape, 10 to 14 inches high, rather widely scattered, followed by pods 1 inch long, linear, tipped with the style. Leaves, of two sor...
-Pitcher-Plant. Side-Saddle Flower. Huntsman's Cup. Sarracenia purpurea
Family, Pitcher - plant. Color, deep, dull purple, with a prominent, greenish yellow style. Sepals, 5, colored, with 3 bractlets underneath. Petals, 5, arched, broad above, narrow below, fiddle-shape....
-Thread-Leaved Sundew. Drosera filiformis
Family, Sundew. Color, magenta purple. Parts of the flower in fives or sixes. Styles, divided, so as to seem like 6 to 10, but they are in reality 3 to 5. Flowers, on one side of a naked scape, 1/2 in...
-Garden Orpine. Live-For-Ever. Sedun parpureum
Family, Orpine. Color, purple. This fleshy plant with thick stems about 2 feet high, and stout, oval leaves, has escaped from gardens and attached itself to congenial rocky soil in some places. August...
-Marsh Five-Finger. Purple Cinquefoil. Potentilla palustris
Family, Rose. Color, dark purple. Calyx, open, 1 inch broad, 5-cleft, purple inside; bractlets between the divisions. Corolla, of 5 purple petals, shorter than the calyx. Stamens, numerous. Fruit, of ...
-Water Avens. Purple Avens
Geum rivale (name means good taste, referring to the pleasant taste of the roots of several species). - Family, Rose. Color, purple. Calyx, 5-divided, of a brownish purple color. Petals, 5, large, n...
-Wild Lupine. Lupinus perennis
Family, Pulse. Color, purplish blue. Calyx, deeply 2-divided. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, showy, in long racemes. Sterns, 2 feet high, including the pods, hairy. Leaves, compound, palmately divi...
-Rabbit-Foot Or Stone Clover. Trifolium arvense
Family, Pulse. Color, at first purplish, then a soft gray. Flowers, in compact, roundish heads, silky and downy. Stipules present. With persistent, strong roots, it may become a troublesome weed in la...
-Alfalfa. Lucerne. Medicago satvva
Family, Pulse. Color, purple. Flowers, in racemes. Pods, spirally twisted. Cultivated for fodder, and often becomes wild. ...
-Tick Trefoil. Desmodium nudiflorum
Family, Pulse. Color, purple. Leaves, 3-foliate, with roundish or ovate leaflets, pale beneath. Corolla, papilionaceous. July and August. The desmodiums, of which there are many species, are distingu...
-Massachusetts To Florida. Dry Woods
D. grandiflorum bears blossoms and leaves on the same stem. Leaves crowd the top of the stem, none below, and the raceme of flowers rises above them. Leaflets, 4 to 5 inches long, broad, pointed. Ric...
-Bush Clover. Lespedeza. procumbens
Family, Pulse. Color, purple. Leaves, of 3 leaflets, with awl-shaped stipules. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, often of 2 kinds; the larger, growing in panicles or clusters, are not so fertile as th...
-Spring Vetch. Tare. Vicia satvva
Family, Pulse. Color, light purple. Calyx, 5-cleft. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, large, one or a pair in the upper leaf-axils, showy. Leaves, pinnate, of 5 to 7 pairs, the leaflets narrow, tipped...
-Beach Pea. Lathyrus maritimus
Family, Pulse. Color, purple. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, nearly an inch long, in panicles. Leaves, of 6 to 10 leaflets, with halberd-shaped stipules, nearly as large as the leaflets. Stems, sto...
-Marsh Pea. Marsh Vetchling. L. palustris
Color, light purplish blue. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, about 1/2 inch long, delicate and pretty. 4 or 5 together. Leaves, compound, with 2 to 4 pairs of long and narrow leaflets, all with long ...
-Milk Pea. Galactia regularis
Family, Pulse. Color, purple. Calyx, 4-divided. Corolla, papilionaceous. Pod, flat, hairy, with several seeds. There are also ripened a few subterranean, fleshy pods. Flowers, in large, handsome racem...
-Common Flax. Linum usitatissimum
Family, Flax. Color, purplish blue. All parts of the flower in fives, regularly alternate with one another. Flowers, in terminal corymbs, large, delicate. Leaves, alternate, linear, sessile, entire, w...
-Violet Wood Sorrel. Oxalis violacea
Family, Wood Sorrel. Color of petals, violet. Sepals, 5, soon withering. Stamens, 10, the alternate ones short. Pistil, 1, with 5 styles. Flowers, several, in umbels, on scapes ) inch to 2 inches high...
-Wild Cranesbill. Wild Geranium. Geranium maculatum
Family, Geranium. Color, crimson or purplish. (See Pink Flowers, p. 262.) Wild Geranium (Geranium Maculatum) a. Stamens; b. Pistil; p. Petals; s. Sepals; d. Pedicel; c. Peduncle Long-Stalked Crane...
-Milkwort. Polygala Nuttallii
Family, Milkwort. Color, purple. This is a low-growing species, 4 to 7 inches high, with slender, upright stem branching above. Leaves, small, linear, numerous, all on stem. Flowers, on very short ped...
-Marsh Milkwort. P. crucikta
Color, greenish or dull purple. Sepals, 5, 3 green, 2 colored like the petals. These form the wings, larger than the others. Flowers, in clover-like heads or spikes, on low stems, 4 to 15 inches high....
-Bird-Foot Violet
Viola. pedata. (the common and specific names are taken from the resemblance of the leaves to a bird's claws). - Family, Violet. Color, the 2 upper petals dark purple, the 3 others pale to violet blue...
-Arrow-Leaved Violet
V. sagittata., deep blue or purplish, with entire, arrow-shaped, petioled leaves, sometimes toothed and variously cut near the base, is one of our common species. The spur is short and thick; petals, ...
-English Violet. Sweet Violet. V. odorata
Color, blue, sometimes white or pale blue. Flowers, fragrant. Leaves, clustered, broadly heart-shaped, on petioles. This is the English violet, so much cultivated and sold on our city streets. It oft...
-Pansy. Heart's-Ease. V. tricolor
Color, purple and yellow. Leaves, cut or entire. This pretty little violet is a reminder of our grandmothers' gardens. It is the origin of the pansy of infinite variety of size and color, than which,...
-Long-Spurred Violet. V. rostrkta
Color, lilac, with a deeper colored spot near the center. Its spur is longer than the petals. This is a violet with leafy stems, the leaves being roundish to heart-shaped, toothed, the upper ones poin...
-Dog Violet. V. conspersa
Color, pale blue, sometimes white. Leaves, upper, heart-shaped, pointed; lower, kidney-shaped, crenate, ovate to lance-shaped, with cut, fringed stipules. Flowers, many, on long peduncles, axillary. R...
-Swamp Loosestrife. Water Willow. Decodon verticillktus
Family, Loosestrife. Color, sometimes called purple, but more correctly magenta. (See Pink Flowers, p. 269.) ...
-Loosestrife. Lythrum hyssopifolia
Family, Loosestrife. Color, pale purple. Calyx, tubular, with 5 to 7 teeth; other teeth, called processes, alternate with them. Petals, 5 to 7. Stamens, equal in number to or twice as many as petals...
-Clammy Cuphea. Cuphea petiolata
Family, Loosestrife. Color, magenta purple. Calyx, an elongated tube swollen or slightly spurred near the base, divided into 6 teeth above, with other smaller teeth between them. Petals, 6, of unequal...
-Water Milfoil. Myriophyllutn scabratum
Family, Water Milfoil. Color, purplish. An aquatic, with the flowers coming to the surface of the water. Flowers, of 2 sorts, the staminate with a short calyx-tube and 4 stamens; pistillate, 2 to 4 pe...
-Low Water Milfoil. M. humile
Color, purplish. Few or no leaves on the flowering stems. Those under water pinnately parted into narrow, threadlike divisions. Stems, slender, 1 foot long, with small, sessile, spiked flowers. Ponds...
-Sea Lavender. Marsh Rosemary. Limonium carolintknam
Family, Leadwort. Color, lavender. Parts of the flowers in fives. Ovary, 1-celled, containing a single seed. Petals, with long claws. Flowers, small, growing on one side of naked branches, in panicles...
-Fringed Gentian. Gentikna. crintta
Family, Gentian. Color, blue. Calyx, 4-cleft. Corolla, 2 inches long, a tube with 4 spreading lobes finely fringed around their edges. Stamens, 4, with glands between the filaments at their bases. Sty...
-Closed Or Bottle Gentian. G. Andrevosii
Color, blue, sometimes plaited with white, when old turning a reddish purple. Calyx, tubular, with linear, recurved lobes. Corolla, tubular with closed or nearly closed lobes, with intervening broad a...
-Stiff Gentian. Ague Weed. G. quinquefolia
Color, pale blue. Calyx, tubular, with 5 narrowly linear lobes. Corolla, a long, narrow tube divided into 5 bristle-pointed, triangular broad lobes. Flowers, about 5, at the summit of the stem or bran...
-Periwinkle. Blue Myrtle
Vinca. minor - Family, Dogbane. Color, blue. Parts of the flower in fives. Calyx and corolla, tubular; limb of the corolla, salver-form. Stamens, joined to the corolla. Smooth, prostrate plants, repre...
-Purple Milkweed. Asclepias purpurascens
Family, Milkweed. (See description of flower, p. 10). Color of corolla, deep purple. Leaves, opposite, broad, ovate or oblong, tapering to a sharp point, the upper ones velvety, the lower hard and smo...
-Blue Phlox. Phlox divaricata
Family, Polemonium. Color, pale lilac or bluish. Calyx, tubular, with linear teeth longer than the tube. Corolla, with spreading border, the divisions notched, a little longer than the tube. Flowers, ...
-Greek Valerian. Polemonium reptans
Family, Polemonium. Color, blue. Parts of the flower in fives. Calyx and corolla, bell-shaped, the latter with short tube and open border. Flowers, few, in corymbs, about 1/2 inch long, nodding on wea...
-Beggar's Lice. Stickseed. Lapputa. virginiana
Family, Borage. Color, pale blue, near-ly white. Calyx, tubular, deeply 5-cleft. Corolla, salver-form. Fruit, 4 nutlets, each becoming a sort of bur, covered with prickles, by which means the seeds ar...
-Scorpion Grass. True Forget-Me-Not. Myosbtis scorpiotdes
Family, Borage. Color, light blue with yellow eye. Calyx, tubular. Corolla, salver-form, the lobes open and spreading. Leaves, oblong or lance - shape, entire, sessile, on slender, weak stems, which a...
-Virginian Cowslip. Bluebells. Lungwort
Mertensia virginica.----Family, Borage. Color, light blue. Calyx, short, deeply 5-parted. Corolla, trumpet-shaped, about 1 inch long. Stamens, 5. Flowers, in loose panicles or clusters, the lower ones...
-Viper's Bugloss. Blue-Weed. Blue Devil. Echium vulgare
Family, Borage. Color, blue at first, becoming red. Buds, pink. Corolla, 5-lobed, spreading, with red stamens protruding. Flowers, compactly panicled on the upper side of a curved branch. Leaves, coar...
-Blue Vervain. Verbena, hastata
Family, Vervain. Color, violet blue. Calyx, 5-toothed, one tooth being shorter than the others. Corolla, tubular, with spreading border, 5-cleft. Flowers, in spikes, sessile, small, narrow, on erect, ...
-False Pennyroyal. Isanthus brachiatus
Family, Mint. Color, pale blue. Calyx, bell-shaped with 5 equal lobes. Corolla, small, about 1/4 inch long, with nearly equal, blunt, spreading lobes. Stamens, 4. Flowers, 1 to 3, on peduncles, in th...
-Blue Curls. Bastard Pennyroyal. Trichostema dichotomam
Family, Mint. Color, blue. Calyx, 2-cleft, the 3 upper teeth longer than the 2 lower. Corolla, tubular, 2-lipped, the lobes all linear. Stamens, with long, curved filaments which project far out of th...
-Mad-Dog Skullcap
Scutellaria lateriflora - Family, Mint. Color, blue. Calyx, bell-shaped, divided, the upper lip with a hood, a protuberance which makes the plant easily recognizable. Later this falls away, but the lo...
-Marsh Skullcap. S. galericulata
Color, blue. Flowers, larger than the last, with much the same habit of growth. Corolla, with long, slender tube and a large lower lip. Leaves, with short petioles or none, lance-shape, serrate. June ...
-Hyssop Skullcap. S. integrifolia
Color, blue. Calyx, bell-shape, 2-lipped, the upper lip with the hood-like swelling which marks this genus. Corolla, rather large, 2-lipped, the lips distinct, but nearly equal in length. Stems, whiti...
-Small Skullcap. S, parvula
Color, violet. A small species, 3 to 12 inches high, with slender stem, somewhat branched, a tiny blue violet flower appearing in the axils of the upper leaves. Perennials from slender, tuberous roots...
-Moist Or Sandy Soil, Vermont To Tennessee And Texas. S. nervosa
Color, bluish purple. Leaves, thin, serrate, those below petioled, heart - shape, or roundish at base; upper, ovate to lance - shape, entire, all with prominent veins underneath. Flowers, single in th...
-Giant Hyssop
Agastache scrophulariaefblia. -- Family, Mint. Color, purple. Calyx, bell-shape, 5-toothed. Corolla, 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, erect, the lower 3-lobed, spreading. Flowers, gathered in a close,...
-Ground Ivy. Gill-Over-The-Ground. Nepeta hederacea
Family, Mint. Color, blue. Calyx, 5-toothed, small. Corolla, 2-lipped, the upper lip small, 2-cleft; the lower, broad, 3-cleft. Leaves, crenate, round or kidney-shape, petioled. Flowers, in clusters, ...
-Self-Heal. Heal-All. Carpenter-Weed. Prunella vulgaris
Family, Mint. Color, violet or purplish blue. Calyx and corolla, tubular, 2-lipped. Filaments split above, the lower tooth bearing the anther. Flowers, in clusters of 3, sessile, all in a compact, ter...
-Common Hemp Nettle. Galeopsis Tetrahit
Family, Mint. Color, purple. Calyx, with 5 equal teeth. Corolla, with upper lip arched, curved, not lobed; lower, 3-cleft, the middle inversely heart-shape. Throat, with 2 teeth in the folds. Flowers,...
-Dead Nettle. Lamium amplexicaule
Family, Mint. Color, purplish. Calyx and corolla, tubular. Corolla, small, 2-lipped, the lips quite open, upper rounded and concave, lower flat, hanging, with its small side-lobes purple-spotted. Flow...
-Motherwort. Leonurus Cardiaca
Family, Mint. Color, pale purple. Corolla, 2-lipped, the upper lip bearded; lower in 3 divisions, spreading. Flowers, in close whorls in the axils of the upper leaves. Leaves, those below palmately cu...
-Hedge Nettle. Stachys hyssopifolia
Family, Mint. Color, light purple. Calyx, 5-toothed, bell-shape, rather hairy. Corolla, with a narrow, long tube and spreading border. Flowers, in clusters of 4 to 6 growing in the upper leaf-axils. S...
-Woundwort. S. palustris
Color, purplish, tending to pale red, the lip of the corolla spotted. Flowers, in rather crowded whorls, 6 to 10 in a whorl, in the upper axils, forming close, interrupted spikes. Stem, leafy, erect, ...
-Lyre-Leaved Sage. Salvia tyrata
Family, Mint. Color, bluish purple. Calyx, 2-lipped, the upper lip 3-toothed, sometimes entire. Corolla, gaping, deeply cut into 2 lips, the upper straight, slightly notched or entire, the lower 3-lob...
-American Pennyroyal. Hedebma pulegioldes
Family, Mint. Color, blue. Calyx and corolla, 2-lipped. The upper lip of corolla is notched; lower, 3-cleft. Stamens, 2. Low, erect stems, with a few flowers in whorls in the leaf-axils near the tops ...
-Blephilia. Blephilia ciliaia
Family, Mint. Color, lavender or pale blue. Leaves, green above, whitish and downy beneath, nearly sessile, ovate, narrowing at the base. Hairy, colored bracts under the calyx. Calyx, tubular, 2-lippe...
-Wood Mint. B. hirsuta
Color, pale purple with darker spots. Flowers, with tubular, 2-lipped calyx and corolla, in whorls around the stem and forming round, terminal heads, heaves, with long petioles, ovate, rounded or hear...
-Summer Savory. Satureja hortensis
Family, Mint. This is the mint familiar to housekeepers, used for flavorings, which has escaped from our gardens and become wild in some places. Flowers, purple, clustered in a spike, without bracts, ...
-Basil. S. vulgaris
Color, pink lavender. A very hairy species, with erect, slender stem, 1 to 2 feet high. Flowers, like the preceding, in dense, axillary and roundish, terminal clusters. Leaves, with short petioles, ov...
-Wild Marjoram. Origanum vutgare
Family, Mint. Color, purplish. Leaves, petioled, roundish, entire, sprinkled underneath with resinous dots. Calyx, 5-toothed. Corolla, 2-lipped, 4-lobed, the upper lip broad and slightly notched. Stam...
-Mountain Mint. Basil. Pycnanthemum virginiknum
Family, Mint. Color, whitish or light purple, dotted with darker purple. Leaves, long, narrow, nearly sessile, clustered thickly in the axils; those nearest the flowers whitish, with a soft down. July...
-Creeping Thyme. Thymus Serpyllum
Family, Mint. Color, purplish. Leaves, very small, ovate, with fringing hairs at the base. Flowers, in whorls of 6, without bracts, but with a pair of floral leaves forming a long, slender spike. A mu...
-Spearmint. Mentha spicata
Family, Mint. Color, pale blue. Leaves, oblong, serrate, wrinkled, short-petioled or sessile. Flower-bracts linear, rather large, under the separate clusters of flowers, which form interrupted termina...
-Peppermint
M. piperita - Color, purple. Calyx, streaked with purple, hairy. Leaves, petioled, dark green, oblong to lance-shaped, purple-veined. Flowers, in whorls of dense continuous or interrupted spikes, term...
-Water Mint. M. aquatica
A somewhat hairy species with purplish flowers clustered in the axils or terminal. August to October. Wet places, somewhat rare. M. arvensis. - Color, white, pink or violet. (See White Flowers, p. 1...
-Horse Nettle. Solarium carolinense
Family, Nightshade. Color, violet or rarely white. Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla, wheel-shaped, 5-parted. Fruit, a 2-celled berry. Stout, erect perennials, with many stiff, yellowish prickles upon the roug...
-Snapdragon. Antirrhinum majus
Family, Figwort. Color, white, blue, or purple, sometimes variegated with crimson. Calyx, 5-parted, the lobes short. Corolla, tubular, the tube swollen in front, 2-lipped, the upper lip divided into 2...
-Blue Toadflax. Linaria canadensis
Family, Figwort. Color, light blue. Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla, 2-lipped, with a small, thread-like spur growing from the lower lip. Upper leaves, bract-like; lower, linear, entire; root-leaves somewhat...
-Figwort. Scrophularia Marilandica
(A reputed remedy for scrofula) Family, Figwort. Color, a brownish purple or chocolate. Leaves, opposite, deeply serrate, ovate or oblong, rounded or heart-shaped at base, pointed at apex. Calyx, deep...
-Water Hyssop. Bacopa Monniera
Family, Figwort. Color, blue. Leaves, clasping the stem, egg-shape, opposite, entire, giving forth a pleasant fragrance when crushed. Calyx, 5-parted, the upper sepal heart-shape. Corolla, 2-lipped, t...
-Beard-Tongue. Penstemon hirsutus
(name means fifth stamen) Family, Figwort. Color, lilac or whitish. Corolla, tubular, 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-divided, the lower 3. There are 4 fertile stamens; the fifth, sterile, with a profuse...
-Monkey Flower. Mimulus ringens
(diminutive of mimus, a buffoon, from the grinning corolla) Family, Figwort. Color, lilac. Calyx, with 5 angles and teeth. Corolla, tubular, 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-divided; of the sn...
-False Pimpernel. Itysanthes dubia
Family, Figwort. Color, light purple. Flower, 2-lipped or labiate, the upper lip cut into 2 divisions, the lower into 3. Flowers in racemes, terminal, or from the leaf-axils, on long, slender pedice...
-Water Speedwell
Veronica Anagallis - aquatica.-----Family, Figwort. Color, pale blue striped with purple. Calyx, 4-parted. Corolla, 4-parted, spreading, wheel-shaped. Stamens, 2. The delicate flowers grow in spikes f...
-American Brooklime
V. americana-----Color, blue. This differs from the last in having leaves with short petioles, oblong, sharply serrate. Flowers, in peduncled racemes borne in nearly all the axils. April to September....
-Marsh Speedwell. V. scutellaia
Color, pale blue. Leaves, long, narrow, sessile, acute. Flowers, on slender pedicels, in racemes, single or in pairs, the panicles often bent in a zigzag fashion. 6 to 12 inches high. May to August. ...
-Thyme-Leaved Speedwell. V. serpyllifolia
Color, whitish or light blue, with dark blue lines. Flowers, in loose racemes, with pedicels. Leaves, the lower petioled, roundish, passing gradually into narrow bracts near the flowers. Small, often ...
-Chaff-Seed
Schwalbea americkna - Family, Figwort. Color, dull, yellowish purple. Calyx, tubular, 5-toothed, with a pair of bracts at its base. Corolla, 2-lipped, the upper lip entire, the lower 3-lobed, 2-plaite...
-Purple Bladderwort
Utricularia purpurea - Family, Figwort. Color, violet purple. Flower, of the Figwort type, 2-lipped, the lower lip 3-lobed. Of these the two side lobes are swollen and sac-like. Flowers, 1 to 4 on a l...
-Beech-Drops. Cancer-Root. Epifagus virginiana
Family, Broom - rape. Color of both flowers and stem, a purplish or brownish tint hard to describe. No green in the plant shows it to be a parasite. This one is parasitic on beech tree roots. No leave...
-Hairy Bedstraw. Galium pilbsum
Family, Madder. Color, purplish. Calyx, tubular. Corolla, with a short tube and spreading border of 4 divisions. Stamens, 4. Flowers, in cymes, the peduncles twice or thrice-forked. Leaves, in whorls ...
-Bluets. Innocence. Hoastbnia caerulea
Family, Madder. Color, bluish white. (See White Flowers, p. 129.) ...
-Feverwort. Horse Gentian. Wild Coffee. Triosteum perfoliatum
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, brownish purple. Fruit, orange - red. Calyx - lobes, 5, long, narrow. Corolla, tubular, with 5 unequal lobes. Stamens, 5, joined to the corolla - tube. Leaves, opposite, do...
-Venus's Looking-Glass
Speculkria perforata - Family, Bluebell. Color, blue or violet. Calyx, 3 to 5-lobed. Corolla, tubular, with 5-lobed border, wheel-shaped. Flowers, single, or in twos and threes in the upper leaf-axils...
-Harebell. Bluebell
Campanula, rotundifolia-----Family, Bluebell. Color, blue, or sometimes with a purplish tint. Calyx, 5-cleft. Corolla, bell-shaped, 5-lobed, nearly an inch long. Stamens, 5. Stigmas, 3. Fruit, a capsu...
-Bellflower. C. ranunculoides
Color, purple. Leaves, bract-like above, the lower with long petioles, heart-shape. Flowers, nodding, in racemes or single in the axils of the upper bracts, pedicelled. July and August. A rather stif...
-Marsh Bellflower. C. aparinoides
Color, pale blue or white. Corolla, twice the length of the calyx, but small, less than 1/2 inch long. Stamens 5. Leaves, long, narrow, small, rough along the edges and midrib. June to August. The li...
-Great Lobelia. Lobelia syphilitica
Family, Lobelia. Color, light blue. Calyx-tube, short, 5-cleft. Corolla, bell - shape, longer than the calyx-tube, but split down on the upper side, slightly 2-lipped; upper lip 2, lower 3-lobed, 1 in...
-Indian Tobacco. L. inflaia
Color, purplish blue. Flower much like the last, but smaller, Calyx, roundish, with long, awl-shaped divisions remaining attached to the ovary, making a much inflated capsule in fruit. Flowers, in loo...
-Spiked Lobelia. L. spicata
Color, light blue. Flowers, small, in long, thin spikes. Stem, leafy, unbranched, 1 to 4 feet high, slender. Leaves at the root, broad, obovate or tapering to short petioles; those above reduced to sm...
-Water Lobelia. L. Dortmanna
Color, purplish blue. Leaves, fleshy, all clustered at the root, submerged, hollow, obtuse, with a partition through the middle. Roots, white, fibrous. Flowers, in a loose, terminal raceme, few, with ...
-Ironweed. Vernonia noveboracensis
Family, Composite. Color, a rich purple. Corollas, all tubular. Flowers, in dense, thistle-like heads, growing in irregular cymes. Involucre, composed of purplish scales. 4 to 8 feet high. Leaves, lon...
-Blazing Star. Button Snakeroot. Liatris spicata
Family, Composite. Color, rose purple. C ollas, tubular, no rays. Heads of flowers, large, crowded on the upper part of the very leafy stems. Leaves, linear, rigid, upright, the lower 3 to 5-nerved. A...
-Large Button Snakeroot
L. scaribsa - Color, purple. This differs from the last but little, being of a variable type. Leaves, stiff, narrow, the lowest slightly broader, petioled, the upper growing smaller until bract-like. ...
-Purple And Blue Asters
These can be distinguished from each other mainly by their leaves, stems, and places of growth. They appear in late summer and bloom into September or October. ...
-Showy Aster
Aster spedabilis-----Family, Composite. Color, bright purple. Disk, small, bright yellow. Leaves, the lower, serrate, broad in the middle, pointed; the upper, oblong to lance-shape, generally entire;...
-Low, Rough Aster. A. radula
Color, pale violet. Leaves, rough above, smooth beneath, oblong to lance-shape, sessile, acute, serrate, distinctly pinnately veined, 2 to 3 inches long. Stent, simple or branched near the summit, ver...
-New England Aster
A. novae-angliae. - Color, violet purple, often pale, Leaves, 2 to 5 inches long, thin, entire, clasping the stem with heart-shaped bases. Stem, hairy, stout, much branched above, thickly leaved, 2 to...
-Late Purple Aster. A. patens
Color, deep blue purple. Leaves, rough - hairy, oblong-lanceolate or ovate, with deeply heart-shaped bases, clasping and almost surrounding the stem, pointed, entire, small, the longest 1 to 3 inches;...
-Wavy-Leaf Aster. A. undulktus
Color of the 8 to 15 rays surrounding each head of flowers, a pale blue. Leaves, wavy, somewhat toothed, the lowest 2 to 5 inches long, on margined petioles with heart-shaped bases; those higher up, p...
-Heart-Leaved Aster. Common Blue Wood Aster
A. cordifblius - Color, pale blue; the disk sometimes reddish or purplish. Leaves, thin, petioled, strongly heart-shaped at base, 2 to 5 inches long, sparsely hairy on the surface and along the veins,...
-Smooth Aster. A. laevis
Color, blue violet. Leaves, oblong, tapering, rough-margined, those below on winged petioles, those above sessile, with heart-shaped bases, strongly clasping the stem; those on the flowering branches ...
-Bushy Aster. A. dumosus
Color of rays, pale purple or blue. Leaves, long, narrow, entire, acute, with rough margins; the upper, small, crowded, sessile, often turned back. Heads, small, panicled, often a single one at the en...
-Rush Aster
A. junceus - Color, pale violet, sometimes reddish or white. Leaves, linear, very narrow, and 3 to 6 inches long, entire or a few teeth on the lower, rough along margins, sessile, often heart-shaped a...
-New York Aster
A. novi-belgii. - Color, bright to pale violet blue. Leaves, lance-shaped, acute, entire, or some finely and distinctly toothed, firm, narrowed at base, the upper sessile and clasping, the lower petio...
-Salt Marsh Aster. A. tenuifblius
Color, pale purple, nearly white, heaves, narrowly linear, somewhat fleshy, entire, pointed, sessile, almost clasping the stem, the lowest 2 to 6 inches long. Stem, forked above, zigzag when old and d...
-Bog Aster. A. nemoralis
Color, light violet purple, often with a tinge of pink. Rays, long, and flower from 1 to 1 1/2 inches broad, the heads solitary or a few in flat clusters. Leaves, small, lance-shape, generally toothed...
-Purple-Stem Aster. A. puntceus
Color of long rays, lilac blue to paler, almost white. Heads, 1 to 1 1/2 inches broad, showy, with short pedicels, numerous, in panicles or corymbs. Leaves, broad in the middle, lance-shape, pointed, ...
-Slender Or Tuber Aster. A. gracilis
Color of the 9 to 15 rays, violet. Stem, slender, low, 1 to 1 1/2 feet high, slightly rough, branched above, bearing numerous heads of flowers. Leaves, small, roughish, those below oval, pointed, with...
-Crooked-Stem Aster. A. prenanthoides
Color, violet. Rays, 20 to 30, narrow, drooping, the heads about 1 inch broad, with small disk. Leaves, smooth underneath, rough above, ovate to lance-shape, broad and toothed in the middle, narrowed ...
-Fleabane. Robin's Plantain. Erigeron pukhellus
Family, Composite. Color, light purple. Heads of flowers, with 1 or 2 rows of long narrow rays, all of which are pistillate, on slender peduncles. Leaves, those on stem sessile, scattered, pointed, ro...
-Burdock. Clotbur. Arctium Lappa
Family, Composite. Color, purplish crimson. Leaves, on furrowed petioles, thin, broadly ovate, whitish beneath, somewhat heart - shape at base, pointed at apex, the lower sometimes 18 inches long. Hea...
-Musk Thistle. Carduus nutans
Family, Composite. Color, purple. Much like Cirsium, but with leaves running down the stem, and with the winged stem spiny. Large heads, solitary, of the richly colored flowers which when old droop. L...
-Common Or Bull Thistle. Plumed Thistle. Cirsium lanceolatum
Family, Composite. Color, purple or crimson. Leaves, deeply cut, prickly, woolly, alternate, sessile and running down on the stem. Flowers, in a round, close head, large, surrounded by a prickly invol...
-Canada Thistle. C. arvense
Color, rose purple. A perennial from a creeping rootstock which spreads the faster from being cut. Leaves, Lai shape or oblong, much cut, prickly along the margins, sessile, but not running down on th...
-Pasture Or Bull Thistle. C. pumilam
Color, purple. Heads of flowers, very large, 2 to 3 inches broad, with leafy bracts below them. Leaves, green both sides, cut into acute, prickly, pointed lobes, the upper sessile, clasping; the lower...
-Tall Or Roadside Thistle. C. altissimum
Color, light purple. Leaves, whitish underneath, rough-hairy above, oblong or lance-shape, bristly toothed, margined, not so deeply cut as some of the species. Heads of flowers, 2 inches across, singl...
-Swamp Thistle. C. muticum
Color, dark purple. Leaves, very deeply cut and the divisions very prickly. Flower-heads, large, on leafless peduncles, with a few bracts near the base, terminal. Stem, tall, 3 to 8 feet high, angled,...
-Cotton Or Scotch Thistle. Onopordum Acanthium
Family, Composite. Color, purple. Heads, large, 1 to 2 inches broad, terminal, with a peculiarly-prickly and spiny involucre, the outer bracts of which are longer than the inner. Leaves, very prickly,...
-Spanish Buttons. Star Thistle. Knapweed. Centaurea nigra
Family, Composite. Color, rose purple. Flowers, all tubular, with a roundish involucre whose bracts are tipped with a brown fringe, or some of them merely lacerated. Leaves, not pinnately cut, the low...
-Brown Or Rayed Knapweed. C. Jacea
Color, rose purple. Heads of flowers, large and showy. Bracts of the involucre brown, their edges fringed or torn. Leaves, lance - shape, entire, seldom lobed, slightly toothed, not spiny. June to Sep...
-Bluebottle. Bachelor's Button. Corn-Flower. C. Cyanus
Color, blue or purplish. A slender - stemmed species with single flowers terminating the branches. Marginal flowers of the head without stamens and pistils, the limb of the tubular corolla 5-cleft, ap...
-Succory. Chicory. Blue Sailors. Cichorium Infybus
Family, Composite. Color, bright blue, sometimes purple or pink. Leaves, those on stem oblong or linear. partly clasping, small; those from root lying on the ground, broader at apex, narrowed into lon...
-Blue Lettuce. Lactuca villosa
Family, Composite. Color, blue. Leaves, various; those from the root arrow - shape or lobed at base; those on stem contracted into a winged petiole, all lance-shape or ovate, dentate with sharp teeth,...
-Chapter VIII. Variegated Flowers Flowers. Indian Turnip. Dragon Arum. Arisaema triphyllum
Family, Arum. Color of spathe and sheaths, green, or sometimes dark purple or green variegated with purple stripes or whitish stripes or spots. (See Green Flowers, p. 20.) ...
-Larger Blue Flag
Iris versicolor-----Family, Iris. Colors, violet blue, variegated with green, white and yellow. (See Blue Flowers, p. 300.) ...
-Slender Blue Flag. I. prismatica
Color, violet blue, streaked with yellow. The slender blue flag resembles the larger species in its flower and leaves. (See Larger Blue Flag, p. 300.) The whole plant is more delicate. Flowers, on sle...
-Calypso. Calypso bulbosa
Family, Orchis. Colors, pink, yellow, and purple. Sepals and 2 of the petals, nearly alike, long and narrow, erect, open, of a crimson shade, striped with purple. Lip, swollen, whitish, spotted with b...
-Putty-Root. Adam-And-Eve. Aplectrum hyemale
Family, Orchis. Colors, greenish, yellowish brown, white, and crimson. Sepals, narrow, greenish yellow, with a purple tinge. Petals, yellowish, purplish above, like the sepals in form, arching over th...
-Wild Columbine. Aquilegia canadensis
Family, Crowfoot. Colors, red and yellow. (See Pink Flowers, p. 258.) Sepals, 5, ovate, colored like the petals. Petals, 5, red lined with yellow; in shape they are long, hollow spurs, ending in a lit...
-Heart's-Ease. Pansy. Viola tricolor
Family, Violet. Colors, yellow, purple, and white. (See p. 322.) ...
-Canada Violet. V. canadensis
Colors, yellow or nearly white, with purple tints and stripes. The spurred petal is yellow, with purple veins; lateral petals bearded. Flowers, on leafy stems, 3 to 14 inches high. Leaves, ovate, hear...
-Pink-Root. Worm-Grass. Indian Pink. Spigelia marilandica
Family, Logania. Colors, red and yellow. Corolla, tubular, long, funnel-shaped, deeply 5-parted at the border. Calyx, 5-toothed. Stamens, 5, joined to the tube of the corolla. Pistil, protruding. Flow...
-Lousewort. Wood Betony. Pediculkris canadensis
Family, Figwort. Colors, yellow and red or purplish. Leaves, the larger from the root, on long, hairy-petioles, deeply cut; the upper near the flowers, less incised, much smaller, short-petioled. Brac...
-White Milkweed. Asclepias variegata
Family, Milkweed. Colors of corolla, white, with purple spots near the center; of hoods, purplish or reddish. Flowers, in 1 to 4 close umbels on peduncles, terminating the stem, or rarely in the upper...
-Brown Group. Cat-Tail Flag. Typha latifolia
Family, Cat-tail. Color, brown. Leaves, all near the base of the stem, long, narrow, sheathing. Summer. The picturesque brown of the cat-tails begins to show itself in August. The long, round stem fr...
-Narrow-Leaved Cat-Tail. T. angustifolia
Color, light brown. In this species the staminate and pistillate flowers are usually separated by a space of 2 or 3 inches. Leaves, quite long and narrow. Not so common as the preceding, and mostly f...
-Chapter IX. Vines And Shrubs
Our native vines and shrubs may be easily identified from the following descriptions. Some perennial herbs are included in the list, plants without woody stems, which therefore die down every year, bu...
-Green, Greenish, Or Greenish White Vines And Shrubs. Green Brier. Cat Brier. Horse Brier. Smilax rotundifolia
Family, Smilax. Color, greenish. Flowers, of 2 sorts, the staminate bell-shaped, with a 6-divided perianth and 6 stamens; pistillate, with 1 to 3 stigmas and a 3-celled ovary. Fruit, a round, black, 1...
-Carrion-Flower
S. herbacea has rounded or ovate leaves, obtuse or slightly heart -shape at base, very acute at apex, 7 to 9-nerved, 2 to 5 inches long. The stem has no prickles. Flowers, in umbels, many together, an...
-Bristly Green Brier
S. bona-nox is a very prickly species, the leaves being spiny on their margins and underneath on the veins. Leaves, often narrowed in the middle, distended at base, pointed at apex, smooth and shiny. ...
-Prairie Willow. Salix humilis
Family, Willow. Color, greenish, with a reddish tinge. Flowers, in catkins, appearing much earlier than the leaves. The pistillate, about 1 inch long, without perianth, but attended by 1 bract; stamin...
-Shining Willow. Glossy Willow. S. lucida
Flowers, in catkins, leafy-bracted. The staminate are feathery, with 5 stamens in each flower; pistillate, denser. harder, longer, 2 to 3 inches long, often remaining far into the spring. Twigs smooth...
-Dwarf Gray Willow. Sage Willow. S. tristis
Catkins, sessile, few-flowered, small, 1/2 inch long, appearing before the leaves. Staminate flowers consist of 2 stamens with smooth filaments; pistillate, of 2 sessile stigmas raised above the ovary...
-Bog Willow. Pussy Willow. Glaucous Willow. S. discolor
Leaves, broader than the preceding, finely serrate near the middle, entire near the apex and base, bright green above, smooth and whitish below, with petioles and conspicuous stipules, at least on the...
-Silky Willow. S. sericea
Leaves, long-petioled, finely toothed, narrow, 3 to 4 inches long, very soft and silky, especially when young. Catkins, sessile, with a few leafy bracts at their base, about 1 inch long, turning black...
-Bayberry. Waxberry
Myrica. carolinensis-----Family, Sweet Gale. Color of catkins, green. Leaves, oblong or lance - shape, narrow at base, somewhat toothed along the middle, thin, green on both sides, dotted with resinou...
-Sweet Fern. M. asplenifolia
Fertile flowers, in ball-like catkins, the fruit being a little hard, green nut surrounded by 8 long, awl-shaped, persistent green scales. In the sterile catkins the scales are pointed above, heart or...
-Hazelnut. Filbert. Corylus americana
Family, Birch. Color of catkins, greenish. Leaves, oval or ovate, rounded or heart - shape at base, long-pointed at apex, evenly and finely toothed, smooth above, softly hairy beneath, thin, short-pet...
-Beaked Hazelnut. C. rostrata
Leaves, broader than the last, pointed, somewhat heart - shape at base, their serrulate margins regularly incised, hairy on the veins beneath, petioles and twigs not glandular and bristly. The involuc...
-Low Or Swamp Birch. Betula. pumila
Family, Birch. Many flowers in bracted catkins of 2 sorts, without corolla. Pistillate catkins peduncled, about 1 inch long, with 2 or 3 flowers in the axils of 3-lobed bractlets. Staminate flowers, 3...
-Dwarf Birch. Glandular Or Scrub Birch. B. glanduldsa
Leaves, roundish, less than an inch long, crenately toothed, petioled, pale green and with small glands beneath, bright green above. Staminate catkins, single, 1/2 inch long; pistillate, longer, cylin...
-Smooth Alder. Alnus rugbsa
Family, Birch. Color 0/ catkins, green. They appear earlier than the leaves, clustered, the sterile elongated, drooping; the fertile short and thick. These are formed one summer, remain uncovered thro...
-Green Or Mountain Alder. A. crispa
Catkins appearing with the leaves, the pistillate from scaly buds, slender-peduncled, short, clustered; staminate, slender, without scaly covering, 1 to 2 inches long, from buds which were formed the ...
-Speckled Or Hoary Alder. A. incana
Catkins, appearing before the leaves, the pistillate about 1/2 inch long, nearly as broad; staminate, 3 inches long, drooping, both accompanied with 5-toothed bracts. Leaves, oval or ovate, usually po...
-Scrub Chestnut Oak. Chinquapin Oak. Quercus prindides
Family, Beech. Color, greenish or greenish yellow. Flowers, the staminate in long, drooping catkins composed of many stamens surrounded by a 6-lobed perianth; pistillate, single, sessile, borne on las...
-Bear Or Black Scrub Oak. Q, ilicifblia
Flowers, much like the last. Leaves, obovate, 2 to 5 inches long, lobed, sharply pointed, broadly triangular, the lobes tipped with a bristle. Thickish and gray underneath Acorns considerably taller t...
-Common Hop
Humulus Lupulus (a little wolf. because it grows among and twines around willows and chokes them as a wolf does a flock of sheep). - Family, Nettle. Color, green. Flowers, of two kinds the staminate...
-Climbing False Buckwheat. Polygonum scdndens
Family, Buckwheat. Color, yellowish green. Leaves, heart or halberd - shape, pointed, 1 to 6 inches long, with petioles and conspicuous sheaths. Calyx, 5-cleft, the 3 outer divisions reflexed in fruit...
-Crested False Buckwheat
P. cristatum is a more slender, twining species, 12 to 20 inches long. Leaves, triangular, with rather sharp basal angles and pointed apex, long-petioled. Flowers, generally in leafless racemes on joi...
-Prickly Gooseberry. Dogberry
Ribes Cynosbati-----Family, Saxifrage. Color, green. Calyx, tubular, clinging to ovary, with 4 or 5 lobes above. Petals, 5, springing from the throat of the calyx, so small as scarcely to be noticeabl...
-Smooth Gooseberry. Hawthorn Gooseberry. R. oxya.ca.ntho\des
Color, greenish yellow, sometimes with a purplish tinge. Flowers, 1 to 3, with short pedicels, on long peduncles. Fruit, a small, purple, edible berry, Leaves, thin, deeply cleft, heart-shape, serrate...
-Swamp Black Currant. Swamp Gooseberry. R. lacustre
Color, green. Petals, 5, small, flat, spreading. Fruit, a small, black, bristly berry not agreeable to the taste. Flowers, 4 to 9, small, in racemes, on bracted pedicels. Leaves, thin, downy along vei...
-Wild Black Currant. R. floridum
Color, whitish or greenish or yellowish white. Flowers, large, showy, abundant, in racemes with long pedicels. Leaves, sharply 3 to 5- lobed, dotted, somewhat heart-shape, doubly serrate. Fruit, near...
-Fetid Or Skunk Currant. R. prostratum
Flotvers, in racemes. Branches and stem, low, prostrate, without prickles or thorns. Leaves, 5 to 7-divided, deeply toothed. Long, slender petioles. Pedicels and fruit, bristly and glandular. When bru...
-Red Currant. R. vulgare
This is the red currant of our gardens, which by cultivation has become improved. It needs little description. Flowers, greenish. Fruit, red, acid, in long, hanging racemes. Leaves, 3 to 5dobed, serra...
-Poison Ivy. Poison Oak. Mercury-Vine. Rhus Toxicodendron
Family, Cashew. Color, greenish or yellowish white. Leaves, of 3 variously shaped leaflets on a common long petiole. The terminal leaflet is stalked; lateral leaflets are generally sessile. They are b...
-Poison Dogwood. Poison Sumach
R. Vernix is the most poisonous plant of our country, and it possesses, moreover, the fatal gift of beauty, often alluring unsuspecting persons in the autumn to fill their arms with its brilliantly co...
-Stag-Horn Sumach
R. typhina. is a tall shrub, sometimes becoming a tree. The ends of the irregular branches, covered with a soft, velvety down, give the name stag-horn. Flowers, greenish yellow, with a central orange-...
-Smooth Sumach
R. glabra is our most common species, lining the roadsides and covering barren fields, the foliage turning a rich, dark crimson color in fall. This shrub rarely reaches a height of 10 feet. Its pinnat...
-Dwarf Or Mountain Sumach
R. copalltna is a low shrub, from 3 to 5 feet high. This is the most beautiful of the genus, owing to the bright, glossy, dark green of the leaflets, on broadly winged petioles. Pyramidal bunches of g...
-Staff Tree. Shrubby Or Climbing Bittersweet. Waxwork. Celastrus scandens
Family, Staff Tree. Color, greenish. Pistillate and staminate flowers, often on different plants. Coroll 5 expanding petals, slightly fringed, inserted under a cup-shaped disk which lines the calyx-tu...
-Buckthorn. Rhamnus atnifolia
Family, Buckthorn. Color, greenish. Calyx-tube, urn-like, crowned with 5 lobes, 5 short stamens standing between the lobes. No petals. Flowers, small, single or 2 or 3 together in the leaf-axils, stam...
-Common Buckthorn. R. caihartica
Parts of the flower in fours. Leaves, smooth, ovate, petioled, finely serrate. Small branches, rigid, like spines. May and June. A thorny bush often cultivated for hedges. Grows from 6 to 20 feet hig...
-Virginia Creeper. Woodbine. Psedera quinquefolia
Family, Vine. Color, green. Calyx, with 5 short teeth. Petals, 4 or 5, thick, widely open. Flowers, clustered in rather large panicles. Leaves, compound, with, generally, 5 leaflets attached to the ap...
-Ampelopsis. Cissus Ampelopsis
Family, Vine. Color, greenish. Sepals and petals, 4 or 5. Flowers, small, in a loose, slender panicle. bruit, a berry the size of a pea, not edible, blue or greenish, 1 to seeded. Leaves, heart-shape ...
-Northern Fox Grape. Vitis labrusca
Family, Vine. Color, greenish. Leaves, simple, large, rounded or deeply lobed, distantly toothed, covered underneath with rusty wool. Opposite every leaf is a forked tendril, by means of which the pla...
-Summer Grape. Pigeon Grape. V. aestivalis
Leaves, deeply and obtusely 3 to 5-lobed, softly downy with rusty wool when young, broadly toothed, on short petioles. Fruit, a pleasantly flavored, small berry, ripe in September. Flowers in May and ...
-Frost Grape. V, cordifolia
Leaves, deeply heart-shape at base, shiny, entire or sometimes 3-lobed, sharply and deeply toothed, 3 to 4 inches across, with long petioles. Tendrils, forked, not regularly placed. Trunk grows to a l...
-River-Bank Or Sweet-Scented Grape. V, vulpina
Leaves, 3 to 7-lobed, the lobes sharp-pointed, teeth irregular, large and small, with toothed and persistent stipules. Panicle of flowers and fruit more compact than the last. Berries, blue, covered w...
-Muscadine. Southern Fox Grape. Bullace. V. rotundifblia
Leaves, shiny on both sides, rather small, not lobed, roundish in outline, widely and deeply toothed, 2 to 3 inches across. Bark, not loose and torn. Tendrils, not forked. Panicles of flowers, small, ...
-Vines And Shrubs With White Blossoms. Virgin's Bower. Clematis virginiana
Family, Crowfoot. Color, white. Leaves, opposite, divided, generally, into 3 leaflets, each deeply serrate, more or less heart-shape at base, smooth, dark green. Petals, none. Sepals, 4, small, lookin...
-Moonseed. Menispermum canadense
Family, Moonseed. Color, white. Stamens and pistils, borne on different flowers of the same plant. Sepals, 4 to 8, with 12 to 14 stamens of the same length. Anthers, 4-celled. Pistils, 2 to 4, raised ...
-Mock Orange. Syringa. Philadelphus inodorus
Family, Saxifrage. Color, white. Calyx, tubular, top-shape, the limb 4 to 5-parted. Petals, 4 or 5, roundish or ovate, large, not scented. Stamens, numerous. Styles, 3 to 5, more or less united. Flowe...
-Large-Flowered Syringa
P. grandiflbrus-----A taller shrub than the last, with larger flowers. 6 to 10 feet high. Leaves, broad, oval or ovate, acute, distantly toothed. Flowers, 1 to 3 terminating the stem or axillary among...
-Wild Hydrangea. Hydrangea arborescens
Family, Saxifraje Color, white. Leaves, ovate, acute, petioled, smooth, toothed. Flowers, like the common garden hydrangea, in compound cymes, those along the margin containing showy, petal-like sepa...
-Ninebark. Physocarpus opulifolius
Family, Rose. Color, white, pink, or purplish. Sepals and petals, 5. Stamens, many. Flowers small, in abundant, roundish, umbel-like clusters, each on a slender pedicel, the umbel peduncled. Pods foll...
-Meadow-Sweet. Quaker Lady. Spiraea salicifolia
Family, Rose. Color, white, with a tinge of light pink. Calyx, 5-cleft. Petals, 5. Stamens, many. Pods, 5, opening along one seam. Leaves, alternate, on short petioles, oval or inversely ovate, pinnat...
-Chokeberry. Pyrus Arbutifolia
Family, Rose, Color, white, or tinted with rose purple. Calyx, tubular, with 5 divisions, softly woolly, as are also the pedicels. Petals, 5, concave. Stamens, many, with white filaments and purple an...
-June Berry. Service Berry. Shad Bush. Amelanchier canadensis
Family, Rose. Color, white. Leaves ovate, pointed, rounded or notched at base, finely toothed, 2 or 3 inches long, on petioles, pale green underneath. Stipules, long and narrow,and with the bud-scales...
-Dwarf Thorn. Pear Thorn
Crataegus tomentosa - Family, Rose. Color, white. Calyx, a tube with 5 points the length of the petals. Petals and styles, 5. Stamens, many. Fruit, a yellowish, pear-shape pome, inclosing 5 hard seeds...
-Bramble. Wild Red Raspberry. Rubus idaeus, var. acuteattssimus
Family, Rose. Color, white. Leaves, 3 to 5-pinnately divided, on bristly petioles, the side leaflets sessile, downy underneath. Calyx, sticky, bristly. Petals, 5, soon falling. Flowers, in terminal or...
-Black Raspberry. Thimbleberry. Black Cap. R. occidentals
Color, white. Sepals, longer than the petals. Flowers, in compact corymbs, terminal. Leaves, pinnately divided into 3 leaflets, the latter ovate, doubly serrate, the side leaflets sessile or short-sta...
-Mountain Blackberry. High Bush Blackberry. R. allegheniensis
Color, white. Leaves, of 3 to 5 leaflets; when 5, radiating from a common center. Leaflets pointed, toothed, ovate, stalked, the terminal ones more or less heart-shape, hairy underneath. Sepals and pe...
-Dewberry. R. villosus
Stems, somewhat woody, becoming low and trailing, armed with slender prickles. Fruiting branches ascend, bearing large flowers in leafy racemes, then black, juicy berries, composed of a few small drup...
-Sand Blackberry. R. cuneifblius
A species about 3 feet high, with white flowers, 2 to 4 together, nearly 1 inch broad. Leaves, 3-foliate, roughish above, whitish downy beneath. Leaflets, nearly sessile, inversely ovate, toothed, 1 t...
-Low Bush Blackberry. R. trivialis
Stems, reclining, with short, hooked prickles. Petioles and peduncles also prickly. Leaves, 3-divided, leathery, evergreen, petioled, rounded at base, acute at apex, serrate. Petals, large, the flower...
-Running Swamp Blackberry. P. hispidus
Leaves of 3 leaflets, coarsely toothed, rather thick and smooth, somewhat shiny and evergreen. Sepals and petals, 5. May. A small-flowered species, with weak, prickly, trailing stems, sending up flow...
-Beach Plum. Primus maritima
Family, Rose. Color, white. Leaves, alternate, with stipules, oval, small, petioled, with finely cut edges, softly downy beneath. Calyx of 5 sepals, united below. Petals, 5. Stamens, many. Pistil, 1. ...
-Wild Yellow Or Red Plum. P. americhna
A tall shrub or medium-sized tree, 10 to 30 feet high. It bears orange or reddish plums, edible, but with a tough and acid skin. Leaves, ovate or quite narrow, pointed, smooth, veiny, sharply and doub...
-Chickasaw Plum
P. angustifblia-----8 to 20 feet high, with few if any thorns. Leaves, long, narrow, finely toothed, smooth. Fruit, small, reddish, thin-skinned, ripe May to July. A Southern species, from Delaware ...
-Sloe. Blackthorn
P. instititia - A shrub, much branched, thorny, 2 to 15 feet high. Leaves inversely ovate, rounded or narrowed at base, acute or obtuse at apex, serrate, softly downy beneath. Fruit, small, black, rou...
-Wild Black Cherry. Rum Cherry. P. serotina
A tall shrub or large tree. Leaves, smooth, shining, serrate, the teeth curving inward, bearing in summer long racemes of small, black berries, bitter but pleasant in flavor. The racemes of rather fra...
-Dwarf Or Sand Cherry. P. pumila
A trailing shrub, 1 to 6 feet long. A few flowers grow clustered along the sides of the branches, with long peduncles. Fruit, dark red, almost black when ripe. Leaves, narrow, lanceolate, sparsely ser...
-Shrubby Trefoil. Hop Tree. Ptelea trifoliata
Family, Rue. Color, greenish white. Lean 3-foliate. Leaflets, ovate, pointed, downy, at least when young. Calyx, petals, and stamens, 3 to 5. Style, 1, bearing 2 stigmas. Fruit, a round-winged, 2-cell...
-Black Alder. Winterberry. Fever Bush. Hex verticillata
Family, Holly. Color, white. Leaves, alter-nate, oval, inversely ovate or lance - shape, 2 to 3 inches long, serrate, pointed, on short petioles, rather thick, dark green above, downy along the veins ...
-Smooth Winterberry
I.. laevigata - A fine shrub of the Holly Family, with flowers in the axils, the sterile on peduncles 1 inch long, the fertile nearly sessile. Fruit is a conspicuous, orange red berry. Leaves, alterna...
-Inkberry. I.. glabra
An elegant shrub with delicate foliage, often cultivated. Leaves, thick, evergreen, dark green above, pale, dotted beneath, lance - shape or oblong, pointed at apex, tapering at base, slightly toothed...
-Cassena. Yaupon. I. vomitoria
Leaves, small, finely crenate, oval, evergreen, pale green beneath. Staminate flowers with short peduncles, pistillate sessile. Berries, small, round, red. May. The leaves make a tea for people livin...
-Dahoon Holly. I. Cassine
Sometimes a low tree, reaching 25 feet in height. Leaves, evergreen, with revolute margins, entire, 2 to 4 inches long. Fruit, like the last. May and June. A Southern species, found in swamps from Vi...
-Large-Leaved Holly. I. monticola
Sometimes a tree. Generally a tall shrub found in the Catskills and in mountain woods along the Alleghanies. Leaves, 2 to 6 inches long, thin, serrate, petioled, ovate, tapering to a point at apex, ob...
-Mountain Holly
Nemopanthus mucronata-----Family, Holly. Color, whitish. Leaves, oblong or broadly oval, tapering at base, acute at apex. smooth, pale green, with a few small teeth or entire, on short, slender petio...
-American Bladder Nut
Staphylea. trifolia.-----Family, Bladder Nut. Color, white. Leaves, opposite, pinnate or 3-foliate, with long, narrow stipules; the two side leaflets sessile, the middle one with petiole, finch-serra...
-New Jersey Tea. Red-Root. Ceanothus americanus
Family, Buckthorn. Color, white. heaves, alternate, 3-ribbed, on short petioles, about 2 inches long, toothed, the teeth tipped with a brown, glandular point; oblong or egg - shape, smooth, except alo...
-Loblolly Bay. Tan Bay
Gordonia Lasianthus - Family, Tea or Camellia. Color, white. Leaves, leathery, lance-shape to oblong, finely toothed, smooth, shiny, feather-veined, without stipules. Sepals and petals, 5, the latter ...
-Passion Flower. Passiflora incarnata
Family, Passion Flower. Color, white and purplish. A woody vine climbing by tendrils opposite the leaves. Leaves, alternate, deeply 3-lobed, roundish in outline, smooth, 3 to 5 inches broad, with poi...
-Bunchberry. Dwarf Cornel. Cornus canadensis
Family, Dogwood. Color, greenish white, sometimes purple-tipped. Leaves, nearly sessile, 4 or 6 in a whorl, lying close under the flower, ovate, pointed, with curved, parallel veins. Below on the stem...
-Round-Leaved Cornel Or Dogwood. C. circinata
Color, white. Leaves, opposite, round or oval, distinctly pointed, veins curving and parallel, downy beneath, petioled, 2 to 6 inches long. Calyx, minutely 4-toothed. Petals, 4. Stamens, 4, with slen...
-Silky Cornel. Kinnikinnick. C. Ambmum
A shrub 3 to 10 feet high, with flowers and fruit much like the last, Leaves, narrower, ovate or elliptical, pointed, silky-downy, pale green underneath. Brandies, purplish. Whole shrub downy or often...
-Red-Osier Dogwood. C. stolonifera
This shrub, 3 to 15 feet high, may be known by its bright red branches, especially when young. Leaves, rounded at base, ovate, short-pointed, whitish underneath, rough on both sides. Flowers, few, in ...
-Stiff Cornel. C. stricta
A Southern species, 8 to 15 feet high, with gray branches, -flowers in loose cymes, with blue anthers and blue fruit. April and May. In swamps, Virginia to Florida, westward to Missouri. Silky Cor...
-Angelica Tree. Hercules' Club. Aralia spinbsa
Family, Ginseng. Color, white. Leaves, alternate, compound, the leaflets ovate, serrate, acute at apex, short-petioled, pale underneath. Stem, stout, and with the branches and petioles bearing spines....
-White Alder. Sweet Pepper Bush. Alder-Leaved Clethra. Clethra alnifblia
Family, Heath. Color, white. Leaves, toothed from below the middle to the apex, entire toward the base, alternate, sharp-pointed, ovate or wedge-shape. Calyx, of 5 sepals united into a cup, which clos...
-Labrador Tea. Ledum groenlandicum
Family, Heath. Color, white. Leaves, evergreen, oblong or elliptical, alternate, entire, margins revolute, with reddish wool underneath, on short petioles. Calyx, 5-toothed. Corolla, of 5 distinct obl...
-Fetter Bush
Leucbthoe racemosa - Family, Heath. Color, white. Leaves, lance-shape to oblong, acute, short-petioled, minutely toothed. Calyx, of 5 nearly separate sepals, attended by white, scaly bracts underneath...
-Mountain Laurel. Spoonwood. Calico-Bush
Kalmia latifblia (named from Peter Kalm, a pupil of Linnaeus and a distinguished botanist). - Family, Heath. Color, white or rose-color. Leaves, thick, evergreen, alternate, oblong, pointed, on short ...
-Clammy Azalea. White Swamp Honeysuckle. Rhododendron viscosum
Family, Heath. Color, white. Leaves, alternate, oblong, smooth, except the margins and midrib, which are bristly. Calyx, small, 5-parted. Corolla, tubular, with 5 spreading lobes, shorter than the cla...
-Great Laurel. American Rose-Bay
R. maximum has leaves thick and leathery, with still, turned-back margins, evergreen, oblong or broadly elliptical, glossy green (when old, rusty brown), 4 to 8 inches long, on hollow, flattened petio...
-Water Andromeda. Bog Rosemary. Andromeda. glaucophylla
Family, Heath. Color, white, sometimes tinted with light pink. Leaves, linear or lance-shape, on short petioles, with revolute margins, thick, glossy, evergreen, pointed, white underneath. Calyx, of 5...
-Stagger-Bush. Lybnia, mariana
Family, Heath. Color, white. Leaves, thin, oval or oblong, smooth above, black-dotted underneath, entire, 2 to 3 inches long, revolute along the margins. Bell-shape flowers like those of Andromeda han...
-Leather Leaf. Dwarf Cassandra. Chamaedaphne calyculkta
Family, Heath. Color, white. Leaves, evergreen, leathery, resinous - dotted, and when young covered with scurfy scales, small, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, oblong, some of them lance-shape, with a few mi...
-Bearberry. Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi
(name from the Greek, meaning a bear and a bunch of grapes. Why grouped in a name is unexplained). Family, Heath. Color, white, or sometimes tinged with pink. Leaves, alternate, thick, evergreen, bro...
-Alpine Bearberry. A. alpina
This is a tufted, dwarf species, with black, edible fruit. Found in New England and farther north upon Alpine summits. ...
-Deerberry. Squaw Huckleberry. Vaccmium stamineum
Family, Heath. Color, greenish white, or with a purplish tinge. Leaves, oval or ovate, pointed at apex, round or slightly obtuse at base, smooth, with short petioles, pale green underneath, 1 to 4 inc...
-Farkleberry. V. arbdreum
A Southern species, becoming a small tree, from 6 to 30 feet high, with oval or ovate, entire, pointed, glossy lea evergreen in the far South. Corolla, bell-shape, white, the style but not the stamens...
-Blueberry. V, virga.tum
Color, white or light pink. (See under Pink-Shrubs, p. 444.) Low Sweet Blueberry. Early Sweet Blueberry V. pennsyl-vanicum. -Color, white or pinkish. Leaves, lance-shape or oblong, with fine, small t...
-Sour-Top Or Velvet-Leaf Blueberry. Canada Blueberry. V. canadense
A species in which the berries ripen later than the last, July and August. Leaves, elliptical or lance-shape, downy on both sides. Flowers, few, in clusters or racemes on the naked branches, small, on...
-Late Low Blueberry. V, vacillans
A shrub 10 to 36 inches high, with berries ripening late, July and August. Flowers and leaves much like the preceding species. Berries with a bloom. Flowers, small, thickly clustered, bell-shape. Ofte...
-Swamp Blueberry. Tall Blueberry. High Bush Blueberry. V. corymbosum
Color, white or with a pink tint. The finest of the genus. Leaves, large, dark green, paler beneath, oval, pointed, entire. Flowers and fruit, on short peduncles in close clusters, borne on short bran...
-Storax. Styrax grandifbtia
Family, Storax. Color, white. Leaves large, 2 to 6 inches long, smooth, dark green above, pale, softly downy underneath, inversely ovate or oval, dentate, with a woolly petiole. Corolla, generally 5-p...
-Old Man's Beard. Fringe Tree. Chionanthus virginica
Family, Olive. Color, white. Leaves entire, oval, acute, petioled, somewhat thick. Calyx, 4-parted, small. Petals, 4, united at base, long, narrow, thread-like. Flowers, panicled, drooping, the long, ...
-Privet
Ligustrum vulgare - Family, Olive - is the common privet used largely for hedges. It is easily grown, endures considerable cold; with its profuse branching and small, bright green leaves, makes one of...
-Indian Hemp. Apocynum cannabium
Family, Dogbane. Color, greenish white. Leaves, oblong, those near the ends of branches almost lance - shape, with short petioles or none, pale green, slightly downy beneath, tipped with a sharp point...
-Wild Potato Vine. Man-Of-The-Earth. Ivomoea pandurata
Family, Convolvulus. Color, white with purple stripes and sometimes purple center. Leaves, roundish, heart - shape at base, pointed, with long petioles, entire, the later ones sometimes 3-lobed. Corol...
-Field Bindweed. Convolvulus arvensis
Family, Convolvulus. Color, white or with a pink tinge. Leaves, small, 1 to 2 inches long, arrow-shape at base, the basal lobes pointed, diverging, on slender petioles shorter than the peduncles. Coro...
-Hedge Bindweed. C. septum
Color, white or light pink. Flower, larger than the last, about 2 inches across. It may further be distinguished by two large, leafy bracts under the calyx, Flowers single on long, slender peduncles w...
-Buttonbusb. Riverbush
Cephalanthus occiderdalis-----Family, Madder. Color, white. Leaves, opposite or in threes, with short stipules between, oval or broadly lance - shape, 3 to 5 inches long, on channeled petioles, entir...
-Tartarian Honeysuckle. Lonicera tariarica
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, white or light pink. Calyx, tubular, with 5 short teeth. Corolla, funnel-form, with the border deeply 5-lobed, three of the lobes rather larger than the other two. Bracts u...
-Snowberry. Symphoricdrpos racemdsus
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, whitish. Calyx, swollen at base, with 5 short teeth. Corolla, hell-shape, the limb with 5 spreading lobes bearded inside. Stames 4 or 5, joined to the corolla. Fruit, a sno...
-Hobble-Bush. Witch Hobble. Moosewood. Viburnum alnifblium
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, white. Calyx, 5-toothed. Corolla, 5-lobed. Stamens, 5. Stigmas, 3. Flowers, like those of the garden hydrangea, arranged in flat cymes, those around the border neutral, wit...
-Cranberry Tree. High Bush Cranberry. Pimbina. V. Opulus, var. americhnum
Color, white. Flowers, in cymes like the last, those along the margin with broad, flat coro11a-lobes, neutral, the cymes 3 to 4 inches across. Fruit, round or oval, bright red drupes, edible, Out, lik...
-Dockmackie. Arrow-Wood. V. acerifolium
Color, white. In this species the flowers are all perfect, none being neutral and larger than the others. They make a cluster, or cyme, with long peduncles, each flower pedi-celled, the cyme 1 1/2 to ...
-Withe-Rod. Wild Raisin. Appalachian Tea. V. cassinoides
Color, white. Flowers, many, making large, compound, terminal cymes, peduncled, slightly fragrant. Leaves, thick, oval or oblong, mostly entire, 4 to 9 inches long, narrowing at base into a short peti...
-Downy Arrow-Wood
V. pubescens-----Color, white. Flowers, all perfect, in cymes, with peduncles. Fruit, almost black. Leaves, ovate, rather broad, coarsely dentate, pinnately veined, the veins ending in the teeth, very...
-Arrow-Wood. V. dentatum
Color, white. Flowers, all perfect, in flat cymes, peduncled, 2 to 3 inches broad. Leaves, pale green, broadly ovate, coarsely and sharply toothed, with prominent, straight veins, somewhat heart-shape...
-Black Haw. Stag-Bush. Sloe. V. prunifolium
A shrub or small tree, with flowers in compound, sessile cymes, 2 to 4 inches broad. Leaves, small, oval, petioled, finely serrate, lower surface smooth. Fruit, a black, oval drupe, sweet, and edible....
-Elder. Elderberry. Sambucus canadensis
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, white Calyx, tubular, with very small teeth. Corolla, urn-shape, with 5 spreading lobes at the top. Stamens, 5, joined to the base the corolla. Stigmas, 3. Flowers, in larg...
-Red-Berried Elder. 5. racemosa
Taller than the last, with warty bark. Flowers, in panicled clusters, small, turning brown when dried. 1 pinnate. 5 to 7 leaflets, ovate to lance-shape, finely serrate, petioled, opposite, pointed, th...
-One-Seeded Bur Cucumber. Sicyos angulatus
Family, Gourd. Color, whitish. Flowers, of two kinds, the pistillate in roundish, peduncled heads; Staminate, in corymbs or clusters from the same leaf-axils . .11 very long peduncles. Petals, 5, larg...
-Wild Balsam-Apple
Echinocystis lobata. (name means hedgehog and bladder, from the swollen, prickly fruit). - Family, Gourd. Color, greenish white. Staminate and pistillate flowers, separate, springing from the same...
-Marsh Elder. Highwater Shrub. Fva. oraria
Family, Composite. Color, greenish white. Pistillate and staminate flowers in the same head, the pistillate along the margin. Heads terminating the branches, forming long, leafy panicles, the narrow, ...
-Groundsel Tree. Baccharis halimifdlia
Family, Composite. Color, whitish sometimes with a yellow or purple tint. Leaves, wedge-shape, tapering at the base to short petioles, acute at apex, coarsely toothed; those on the main stem and Large...
-Vines And Shrubs With Yellow Or Yellowish Blossoms. Wild Yam-Root. Dioscorea villosa
Family, Yam. Color, pale greenish yellow. Flowers, of two kinds, the staminate with 3 or 6 stamens and 6parted perianth; pistillate, with a 3-celled ovary which becomes in fruit, a 3-valved, 3-winged ...
-American Mistletoe. Phoradendron flavescens
Family, Mistletoe. Color of stems, yellowish; of berries, white. Leaves, opposite, leathery, thick, 1-ribbed, entire, oval or oblong, blunt, with short petioles, 1 to 2 inches long. Staminate flowers,...
-Dwarf Mistletoe. Arceuthobium pusillum
Family, Mistletoe. Color, flowers so small as scarcely to display color. The plant is less than 1 inch long, consisting of roundish, somewhat branched, fleshy, smooth, yellowish-brown or greenish stem...
-Common Barberry. Berberis vulgaris
Family, Barberry. Color, yellow. Leaves, alternate, bristly toothed, inversely ovate, in tufts, springing from the axils of branched spines. From the center of the rosette of leaves drooping racemes o...
-Fever Bush. Spice Bush. Benjamin Bush. Wild Allspice. Benzoin aestivale
Family, Laurel. Color, greenish yellow. Leaves, alternate, 2 to 5 inches long, broad above the middle, pointed at apex, tapering to the base, short-petioled, entire, the midrib often dividing the leaf...
-Witch-Hazel. Hamamelis virginiana
Family, Witch-hazel. Color, yellow. Leaves, alternate, straight-veined, simple, oval or ovate, wavy-margined, downy beneath. Calyx, 4-cleft, with bractlets underneath. Petals, 4, long, narrow, strap-s...
-Dyer's Greenweed. Woad-Waxen. Whin. Genista tinctoria
Family, Pulse. Color, yellow. Corolla, of the papilionaceous type, with a long keel. Of the stamens, 5 alternate are shorter than the others. Calyx, 2-lipped. Pod, flat, containing several seeds. Flow...
-Scotch Broom. Cytisus scopkrius
Family, Pulse. Color, yellow. Flowers, papilionaceous, large, single or in pairs, in the axils, on long pedicels, making loose, leafy racemes. Style, long, projecting, incurved. Leaves, 3-foliate, sma...
-Shrubby St. John's-Wort. Hypericum prolificum
Family, St. John's-wort. Color, yellow. Leaves, narrow, oblong or lance-shape, 1 to 2 inches long, dotted, obtuse at apex, numerous, making the shrub leafy from base to top. Sepals, 5. Petals, 5. Stam...
-Poverty Grass. False Or Beach Heather. Hudsonia. tomentbsa
Family, Rockrose. Color, yellow. Petals, 5, falling after a day's time, much larger than the calyx. Leaves, bristly, awl-shaped, small, overlapping one another, closely packed on the stem. Flowers, ve...
-Yellow Passion Flower. Passiflora lutea
Family, Passion Flower. Color, greenish yellow. Leaves, 3-lobed, the lobes entire; alternate, with petiole and stipules. Sepals, 5, united at base, colored, with a fringed crown at the throat. Petals,...
-Leatherwood. Moosewood. Wicopy. Dirca palustris
Family, Mezereum. Color, light yellow. Leaves, alternate, oval or inversely ovate, nearly smooth. No corolla, but a colored, tubular, funnel - shape, 4-toothed calyx. 4 long and 4 short stamens, inser...
-Swamp Privet. Adetia acuminata
Family, Olive. Color, greenish yellow. Leaves, lance - shape to ovate, opposite or sometimes fascicled, on slender petioles 1 to 4 inches long. Flowers, small, appearing before the leaves, the pistill...
-Yellow Jessamine Or Jasmine. Gelseminum sempervirens
Family, Logania. Color, bright, golden yellow. Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla, tubular, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, the border deeply 5-parted into broad lobes. Stamens, 5, with arrow - shape anthers. Style, 1....
-Dodder. Love Vine. Cuscuta Gronovii
Family, Convolvulus. Color, yellowish or whitish. Leaves, none. Our commonest parasite, and very troublesome in clover and alfalfa fields, or wherever it obtains a hold. The seed - a coiled thread, a...
-Trumpet Creeper. Trumpet-Flower. Tecoma radicans
Family, Bignonia. Color, orange and red. Leaves, pinnate, the leaflets numbering 9 to 11, one odd, terminal, in shape ovate, acute at apex, toothed. Corolla, trumpet-shape, large, 5-lobed. Calyx, 5-t...
-Cross-Vine. Bignonia capreolata
Family, Bignonia. Color, orange outside, lemon within. Calyx, like a small cup with scarcely any teeth. Corolla, bell - shape, somewhat 2-lipped, not deeply 5 - lobed. Stamens, 4, often with a rudimen...
-Bush Honeysuckle. Diervilla Lonicera
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, pale yellow at first, becoming deeper. Leaves, opposite, short-petioled, oval or elliptical, finely toothed, tapering at apex, round at base,. slightly fringed along the ma...
-Mountain Fly Honeysuckle. Lonicera caerulea
Family, Honeysuckle. Color, pale greenish yellow. The specific name comes from the blue berry. Leaves, oval or inversely ovate, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, blunt at apex, rounded at base, slightly fringed...
-American Fly Honeysuckle. L. canadensis
Color, pale greenish yellow. Leaves, thin, downy beneath when young, on somewhat hairy, short petioles, opposite, oblong or ovate, fringed around the margins. Calyx, with very short teeth. Corolla, fu...
-Swamp Fly Honeysuckle. L. oblongifblia
Color, yellow, sometimes purplish within. Corolla, deeply 2-lipped. Flowers, in pairs, at the top of a long peduncle, from the upper axils. Minute bracts under the pair of flowers. Berries, quite sepa...
-Hairy Honeysuckle. Rough Woodbine
L. hirsuta (this and the two following species are woody, climbing vines). - Color, orange yellow. Calyx-tube with 5 small teeth. Corolla, clammy from minute glands on the outside; a tube more than 1/...
-Trumpet Honeysuckle
L. sempervirens is often cultivated. It is found wild from Connecticut southward. Flowers, scentless, with tubular corolla 2 inches long, red out side, yellow within, in spiked whorls. Berries, deep o...
-Vines And Shrubs With Pink Or Red Blossoms. Hardhack. Steeple Bush. Spiraea, tomentosa
Family, Rose. Color, pink, rarely white. Calyx, 4 to 5-lobed. Corolla, of 4 or 5 petals inserted upon the top of the calyx-lobe. Stamens, many. Flowers, clustered in a dense terminal panicle composed ...
-Purple Flowering Raspberry. Rubus odoratus
Family, Rose. Color, dee]) pink. Leaves alternate, 3 to 5-lobed, the middle lobe longer than the others all finely toothed, acute. Calyx, 5-parted, its lobes tipped with a long, fine point; very clamm...
-Swamp Rose. Rosa carolina
Family, Rose. Color, pink. Leaves, of 5 to 9 leaflets, very finely toothed, at apex, dull green above, paler beneath, with narrow stipules. Calyx, an urn-shape tube, narrowed at the top, within which,...
-Pasture Rose. R. humilis
A low, bushy species, with small but vicious thorns standing straight out from the stem. Leaflets, 5 to 7, thin, coarsely serrate, with narrow stipules. Flowers, single, large, 2 to 3 inches across. C...
-Dog Rose. R. canina
A species naturalized from Europe, whose stem, but not branches, is furnished with stout, recurved thorns. It reaches a height of 10 feet, and is often straggling in its growth. Flowers, single or 2 o...
-Climbing Or Prairie Rose. Michigan Rose. R, setigera
One climbing species should be noticed, escaped from cultivation in New England and found wild in our prairies. It climbs by means of its hooked prickles. Leaflets, generally 3, sometimes 5, serrate b...
-Bristly Locust. Rose Acacia. Robinia hispida
Family, Pulse. Color, deep rose. Flowers, large, with papilionaceous corolla, in drooping axillary racemes, showy in this species, not fragrant. Leaves, pinnate, with one odd leaflet. A shrub from 3 ...
-Common Locust. False Acacia
R. Pseudo-Acacia is a tree familiar to inhabitants of Long Island and other places around New York, and a favorite on account of the sweet fragrance emitted by its delicate racemes of blossoms in earl...
-Purple Azalea. Pinxter Flower. Swamp Pink. Rhododendron Nudiflorum
Family, Heath. Has bright pink flowers appearing very early in April, before the leaves of the shrub are fairly out. This is similar to the white azalea, without the sticky calyx-tube, and less fragr...
-Rhodora. R. canadense
Flowers appear earlier than the leaves. Corolla. of a purplish pink or rose color. Tube, short,hardly any the lobe 2-lipped. May and June. A low shrub, not more than 3 feet high, found in swamps and ...
-Sheep Laurel. Lambkill. Wicky. Kalmia angustifolia
Family, Heath. This is a low shrub, 1 foot or more high, with narrow, evergreen leaves in whorls of threes. Flowers, from the axils, in corymbs of a deep crimson color, the dark anthers which nestle i...
-Pale Laurel
K. polifolia, with its mostly opposite, narrow, long leaves, whitish underneath and turned back on the margins, and its few terminal rosy flowers on long, red stalks, is to my mind prettier than Thore...
-Black Whortleberry Or Huckleberry. High Bush Huckleberry. Gaytusskcia baccata
Family, Heath. Color, pink or red. Leaves, entire, alternate, ovate, with short petioles or none, profusely dotted underneath with resinous, yellow spots, 1 to 2 inches long. Calyx, resinous-dotted, 5...
-Blue Tangle. Dangleberry
G, frondosa. is a species with large, pale green, blunt-pointed leaves and flowers hanging or dangling from long, slender peduncles in irregular clusters. Fruit, round, large, bluish black berries wit...
-Dwarf Huckleberry
G. dumbsa. is a branching bush 1 to 5 feet high, with creeping base and hairy, glandular stems. Flowers, 5 in a cluster, in June. Corolla, large, waxy white, sometimes tinged with pink. Anthers, brown...
-Blueberry. Vaccinium virgatum
Family, Heath. Color, pink or reddish. Flowers, open bell-shape, in clusters on naked branches. Berries, large, covered with blue bloom, 10-celled, flattened. The younger, reddish berries and maturer ...
-Low Pale Blueberry. V. vacillans
Calyx, reddish, and corolla yellow tinged with red. A smooth species with greenish yellow branchlets. Berries, blue, with a bloom, ripening late. Dry fields and woods from New England to Michigan and...
-Spreading Dogbane. Apocynum and rosaemifolium
Family, Dogbane. Color, pale or deep pink. Leaves, opposite, oval, pointed, often with red petioles and veins. Calyx, 5-parted. Corolla, 5-lobed, bell-shape, with triangular bodies below the throat, o...
-Cypress Vine. Ipomoea Quamoclit
Family, Convolvulus. Color, red. Leaves, pinnately dissected into thread-like, parallel lobes. Corolla, long, tubular, with a 5-parted, spreading border, one or two together, on long peduncles. June t...
-Common Morning Glory
7. purpurea, in its varying shades of white, blue, or crimson, is sometimes reduced to a wild state, having escaped cultivation. Twining and leafy. ...
-Wild Morning Glory. I. hederacea
Color, white, pale blue, or pink. Leaves, heart-shape, 3 - lobed, petioled. Flowers, 1 to 3 on long peduncles. Calyx, very hairy. July to October. Like the well-known morning glory of our gardens, th...
-Italian Or American Honeysuckle Or Woodbine. Lonicera Caprifolium
Family, Honeysuckle. Color of trumpet - shape corolla, purplish or crimson outside, whitish within. The border is strongly 2-lipped, the upper lip consisting of 4 divisions, the lower of 1, narrow, tu...
-Climbing Hempweed. Mikknia scandens
Family, Composite. Color, pink. Leaves, opposite, heart - shape, or triangular, pointed, toothed near the base, on long petioles. Heads, containing 4 flowers, all grouped in corymbose clusters. Under ...
-Vines And Shrubs With Blue Or Purple Blossoms. Pipe Vine. Dutchman's Pipe. Aristolochia macrophylla
Family, Birthwort. Color of tube, greenish yellow; of limb, brownish purple. Calyx, tubular, bent and curved like a Dutch pipe, 1 1/2 inches long swollen below, narrowed above, with a short, somewhat ...
-Woolly Pipe Vine. A, tomentdsa
Leaves, very veiny and woolly, on stout, downy petioles. Flowers, similar to the last, but larger, with a yellowish tube and purplish limb, 3-lobed, axillary, on downy peduncles. May and June. A Sout...
-Whorled Clematis. Purple Virgin's Bower. Clematis verticillaris
Family, Crowfoot. Color, blue purple. Petals, small or none. Sepals, large, thin, with prominent veins, widely spreading, giving the purplish color to the flower. Outer filaments often flat, like smal...
-Leather Flower. C. Viorna
No petals, but purple sepals, 1 inch long, thick, leathery, making a bell-shape flower with recurved tips. Leaves, pinnate, consisting of 3 to 7 leaflets. The upper leaves may be entire. Styles, brown...
-Marsh Clematis. C. crispa
Flowers, purple, bell-shape, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, the tips of the sepals deeply curved backward. No petals. Fruit, silky. Leaves, pinnate, mostly 3-divided, the leaflets often 3-parted. May to Aug...
-Shrub Yellow-Root. Zanthorhlza apiifolia
Family, Crowfoot. Color, dull purple. Petals, smaller than the sepals, which are petal-like and give the color to the flower. Stamens, 5 or 10. Pistils, 5 to 15. Flowers, small, on short pedicels, 2 o...
-Sweet-Scented Shrub. Strawberry Shrub. Carolina. Allspice Calycanthus floridus
Family, Calycanthus. Color, brown or purplish. Petals and sepals many, joined to the top of the calyx-tube, narrow, thick. Stamens, many, some of them without anthers. Pistils, springing from within t...
-Climbing Fumitory. Mountain Fringe. Adlumia fungosa
Family, Fumitory. Color, white or purplish, sometimes pinkish. Sepals, 2, scale-like. Petals, 4, in ular, in 2 pairs, double-spurred, the inside pair narrower than the other, all united and becoming s...
-Blue Vetch. Vicia Cracca
Family, Pulse. Color, blue, becoming purplish, occasionally white. Calyx, short, with unequal teeth. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, 2 inch long in densely flowered racemes, not drooping, 1-sided, a...
-Hairy Vetch Or Tare. V. hirsuta
Color, pale purplish blue. Flowers, 3 to 6 together, on peduncles, arising from the axils, the raceme a little shorter than the leaves. Pod, hairy. Leaves, of 12 to 14 leaflets, terminated by 2 or 3 d...
-Wild Bean. Bean Vine. Kidney Bean. Phaseolus polystachyus
Family, Pulse. Color, purple. Calyx, 5-toothed, the 2 upper divisions somewhat united. Corolla, papilionaceous, with a spirally coiled keel including the stamens and style. Pod, long, curved, 4 to 5-s...
-Trailing Wild Bean. Strophostyles helvola
Family, Pulse. Color, greenish white varying to purplish. Flowers, 3 to 5 in a head at the end of a peduncle which lengthens as the season advances. Leaves, pin-nately 3-divided, on petioles shorter t...
-Pink Wild Bean. S. umbellata
Color, pink, with a purplish tinge, fading to yellowish. Much like the last, with slenderer stems, 1 to 5 feet long, downy with soft hairs. Leaves, divided into 3 leaflets, on short petioles with minu...
-Butterfly Pea. Clitoria mariana
Family, Pulse. Color, pale blue. Corolla, very large, handsome, 2 inches long. Flowers, 1 to 3 on short peduncles, axillary. Leaves, of 3 separate leaflets, each on short stalks, narrow, tipped with a...
-Hog Peanut. Amphicarpa monoica
Family, Pulse. Color, purplish. Corolla, papilionaceous. Flowers, numerous, in nodding racemes. Pod, 1 inch long. Leaves, of 3 thin, delicate, ovate, sharply pointed leaflets. Low plants with twining ...
-Broom Crowberry. Corema Conradii
Family, Crowberry. Color, purple and brown, from the stamens. Leaves, long, needle - like, densely clustered, especially at the ends of the branches. Flowers staminate and pistillate, in terminal head...
-Burning Bush. Wahoo. Evonymus Atropurpureus
Family, Staff Tree. Color dark purple. Calyx, of 4 or 5 divisions, produced under a short, flat disk. From the edge of the disk arise 4 or 5 petals, roundish, spreading, and as many short stamens. At ...
-Strawberry Bush. E. americanus
Color, greenish purple. Leaves, opposite, sessile, thick, glossy green, 2 to 3 inches long, slightly hairy the veins underneath. Parts of the (lower in fives. The seeds surrounded by red pulp (an aril...
-Running Strawberry Bush. E. obovatus
Color, greenish purple. A trailing shrub, with branches rooting. Leaves, with short petioles, opposite, thin, obtuse, inversely ovate, finely toothed. Peduncles, shorter than the leaves, bearing 1 to ...
-Bittersweet. Solatium dulcamara
Family, Nightshade. Color, bluish purple. Leaves, on petioles, the upper ones deeply parted near the base into opposite, ear-like leaflets; the lower ones heart-shape, acutely pointed at apex. Calyx a...
-Habitats Of Plants. Chapter X. River Banks - Brooks - Running Streams - Shores Of Tidewater Kays
To an observant person nothing is more evident than the change of plant life, often abrupt, with change of soil. For miles all the dusty road the same daisies and asters repeat themselves. Then an un...
-Chapter XI. Swamps, Pine Barren Swamps, Bogs, And Marshes
Hope and the future for me are not in lawns and cultivated fields, not in towns and cities, but in the impervious and quaking swamps. When, formerly, I have analyzed my partiality for some farm which...
-Chapter XII. At The Seaside. Near The Coast
Salt air and sandy soil attract their own flowers. Among them are plants with stiff, unyielding foliage, of a stern and defying sort, which venture so close to the ocean that they are watered with its...
-Chapter XIII. Aquatics
There is something especially fascinating about plants that grow in the water. They are generally odd and striking. They are perhaps just out of reach, and if you cannot hire a barefooted boy, you mus...
-Chapter XIV. Wet Meadows, And Thickets. Low, Rich Grounds
Bordering the marshes and streams are the wet meadows, which glow with rich and varied plant life. Tall grasses and rushes wave among the yellow lilies, grass of Parnassus, and meadow-rue. Nestling de...
-Chapter XV. Dry Fields And Pastures. Waste Places. Roadsides
From the dry fields and pastures to the roadsides is an easy journey for the seeds of dry soil plants. Wherever man makes a highway for himself, there his humble followers of the vegetable kingdom com...
-Chapter XVI. Sandy, Sterile Soil
This chapter is supplementary to the last. A few plants, not strictly roadside or field plants, those found, perhaps, on hillsides whose good soil has been washed away, along the edges of open woods o...
-Chapter XVII. Weeds. Escaped From Cultivation
Certain plants follow, with persistency, the plow and hoe. They prefer soft, cultivated ground to the rocks, woods, and fields. Much of the farmer's problem is how to keep out the unprofitable plants....
-Chapter XVIII. Open, Dry, Rocky Woods And Hillsides
Come ye into the summer woods; There entereth no annoy; All greenly wave the chestnut leaves, And the earth is full of joy. I cannot tell you half the sights Of beauty you may see, The bursts of go...
-Open, Dry, Rocky Woods And Hillsides. Continued
Not confined to woods, but taking kindly to any kind of soil. Northern Fox Grape (Vitis labrusca). Page 391. In thickets with dry or damp soil. Summer Grape. Pigeon Grape (V. aestivalis). Page 392. Al...
-Chapter XIX. Deep. Cool, Shaded, Damp Woods
Though plants are often referred to primitive woods as their locality, it cannot be true to very many. Only those which require but little light and can bear the drip of trees penetrate the woods, an...
-Chapter XX. Parasitic Plants
American Mistletoe (Plioradendron flavescens). Page 425. On deciduous trees. Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum). Page 426. On pines and larches. Indian Pipe. Corpse Plant (Monotropa uniflora). Pa...
-Chapter XXI. The Flower Calendar. March, April
In the latitude of New York but few native wild flowers are hardy enough to endure the severe climate of early spring. March is the month of preparation in the vegetable world. The plants still seem a...
-The Flower Calendar for April, May
In April the flower season has fairly begun. We may look now for the following blossoms, many of which continue until May, or even later: Two species of Bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata and U. grandiflo...
-The Flower Calendar for May, June, Or Later
In May not only are many of the spring flowers still in bloom, but the summer groups are hurrying on. The list is therefore long. Beginning in May, many flowers continue until July or August. He who o...
-The Flower Calendar for June, July, And August
Beginning with June, the summer flowers replace those of early spring, many of them continuing in bloom through July, August, and even September. As a rule, perhaps, we may say that they are more hard...
-The Flower Calendar for July To August, And Later
Some orchids, wild ruses, heaths, wild peas and beans, St. John's-worts, and mints come into bloom first in July. The array of fall flowers begins toward the last of this month, all plants, as a rule,...
-The Flower Calendar for August, September, And Later
A few late orchids, herbs, and shrubs come first into bloom in August, most of them continuing through the fall. The composites are now in their glory, and golden-rods, asters, thistles, eupatoriums, ...
-The Flower Calendar for September, October, And November
September is the month in which to study fruits. Many flowers of spring and summer now display conspicuous red, blue, or black berries, in bunches or singly, which mingle harmoniously with the autumn ...









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